Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 363

Search results for: Optimum conditions

363 Optimum Operating Conditions for Direct Oxidation of H2S in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Fahimeh Golestani, Mohammad Kazemeini, Moslem Fattahi, Ali Amjadian

Abstract:

In this research a mathematical model for direct oxidization of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur in a fluidized bed reactor with external circulation was developed. As the catalyst is deactivated in the fluidized bed, it might be placed in a reduction tank in order to remove sulfur through heating above its dew point. The reactor model demonstrated via MATLAB software. It was shown that variations of H2S conversion as well as; products formed were reasonable in comparison with corresponding results of a fixed bed reactor. Through analyzing results of this model, it became possible to propose the main optimized operating conditions for the process considered. These conditions included; the temperature range of 100-130ºC and utilizing the catalyst as much as possible providing the highest bed density respect to dimensions of bed, economical aspects that the bed ever remained in fluidized mode. A high active and stable catalyst under the optimum conditions exhibited 100% conversion in a fluidized bed reactor.

Keywords: Direct oxidization, Fluidized bed, H2S, Mathematical modeling, Optimum conditions.

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362 Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

Authors: D.K. Rao, M.G.M. Khan, K.G. Reddy

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries(OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy isskewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB isformulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details of the proposed method. The proposed technique is useful to obtain OSB and OSS for a Pareto type skewed population, which minimizes the variance of the estimate of population mean.

Keywords: Stratified sampling, Optimum strata boundaries, Optimum sample size, Pareto distribution, Mathematical programming problem, Dynamic programming technique.

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361 Optimum Control Strategy of Three-Phase Shunt Active Filter System

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu, Vlad Suru

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to identify an optimum control strategy of three-phase shunt active filters to minimize the total harmonic distortion factor of the supply current. A classical PIPI cascade control solution of the output current of the active filterand the voltage across the DC capacitor based on Modulus–Optimum criterion is taken into consideration. The control system operation has been simulated using Matlab-Simulink environment and the results agree with the theoretical expectation. It is shown that there is an optimum value of the DC-bus voltage which minimizes the supply current harmonic distortion factor. It corresponds to the equality of the apparent power at the output of the active filter and the apparent power across the capacitor. Finally, predicted results are verified experimentally on a MaxSine active power filter.

Keywords: Active filtering, Controller tuning, Modulus Optimum criterion, Optimum control.

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360 Statistical Optimization of Adsorption of a Harmful Dye from Aqueous Solution

Authors: M. Arun, A. Kannan

Abstract:

Textile industries cater to varied customer preferences and contribute substantially to the economy. However, these textile industries also produce a considerable amount of effluents. Prominent among these are the azo dyes which impart considerable color and toxicity even at low concentrations. Azo dyes are also used as coloring agents in food and pharmaceutical industry. Despite their applications, azo dyes are also notorious pollutants and carcinogens. Popular techniques like photo-degradation, biodegradation and the use of oxidizing agents are not applicable for all kinds of dyes, as most of them are stable to these techniques. Chemical coagulation produces a large amount of toxic sludge which is undesirable and is also ineffective towards a number of dyes. Most of the azo dyes are stable to UV-visible light irradiation and may even resist aerobic degradation. Adsorption has been the most preferred technique owing to its less cost, high capacity and process efficiency and the possibility of regenerating and recycling the adsorbent. Adsorption is also most preferred because it may produce high quality of the treated effluent and it is able to remove different kinds of dyes. However, the adsorption process is influenced by many variables whose inter-dependence makes it difficult to identify optimum conditions. The variables include stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage. Further, the internal diffusional resistance inside the adsorbent particle leads to slow uptake of the solute within the adsorbent. Hence, it is necessary to identify optimum conditions that lead to high capacity and uptake rate of these pollutants. In this work, commercially available activated carbon was chosen as the adsorbent owing to its high surface area. A typical azo dye found in textile effluent waters, viz. the monoazo Acid Orange 10 dye (CAS: 1936-15-8) has been chosen as the representative pollutant. Adsorption studies were mainly focused at obtaining equilibrium and kinetic data for the batch adsorption process at different process conditions. Studies were conducted at different stirring speed, temperature, adsorbent dosage and initial dye concentration settings. The Full Factorial Design was the chosen statistical design framework for carrying out the experiments and identifying the important factors and their interactions. The optimum conditions identified from the experimental model were validated with actual experiments at the recommended settings. The equilibrium and kinetic data obtained were fitted to different models and the model parameters were estimated. This gives more details about the nature of adsorption taking place. Critical data required to design batch adsorption systems for removal of Acid Orange 10 dye and identification of factors that critically influence the separation efficiency are the key outcomes from this research.

Keywords: Acid Orange 10, Activated carbon, Optimum conditions, Statistical design.

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359 Studies on Determination of the Optimum Distance Between the Tmotes for Optimum Data Transfer in a Network with WLL Capability

Authors: N C Santhosh Kumar, N K Kishore

Abstract:

Using mini modules of Tmotes, it is possible to automate a small personal area network. This idea can be extended to large networks too by implementing multi-hop routing. Linking the various Tmotes using Programming languages like Nesc, Java and having transmitter and receiver sections, a network can be monitored. It is foreseen that, depending on the application, a long range at a low data transfer rate or average throughput may be an acceptable trade-off. To reduce the overall costs involved, an optimum number of Tmotes to be used under various conditions (Indoor/Outdoor) is to be deduced. By analyzing the data rates or throughputs at various locations of Tmotes, it is possible to deduce an optimal number of Tmotes for a specific network. This paper deals with the determination of optimum distances to reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the entire sensor network with Wireless Local Loop (WLL) capability.

Keywords: Average throughput, data rate, multi-hop routing, optimum data transfer, throughput, Tmotes, wireless local loop.

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358 Characterization of Ajebo Kaolinite Clay for Production of Natural Pozzolan

Authors: Gbenga M. Ayininuola, Olasunkanmi A. Adekitan

Abstract:

Calcined kaolinite clay (CKC) is a pozzolanic material that is current drawing research attention. This work investigates the conditions for the best performance of a CKC from a kaolinite clay source in Ajebo, Abeokuta (southwest Nigeria) known for its commercial availability. Samples from this source were subjected to X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). XRD shows that kaolinite is the main mineral in the clay source. This mineral is responsible for the pozzolanic behavior of CKC. DSC indicates that the transformation from the clay to CKC occurred between 550 and 750 oC. Using this temperature range, clay samples were milled and different CKC samples were produced in an electric muffle furnace using temperatures of 550, 600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 oC respectively for 1 hour each. This was also repeated for 2 hours. The degree of de-hydroxylation (dtg) and strength activity index (SAI) were also determined for each of the CKC samples. The dtg and SAI tests were repeated two more times for each sample and averages were taken. Results showed that peak dtg occurred at 750 oC for 1 hour calcining combination (94.27%) whereas marginal differences were recorded at some lower temperatures (90.97% for 650 oC for 2 hours; 91.05% for 700 oC for 1 hour and 92.77% for 700 oC for 2 hours). Optimum SAI was reported at 700 oC for 1 hour (99.05%). Rating SAI as a better parameter than dtg, 700 oC for 1 hour combination was adopted as the best calcining condition. The paper recommends the adoption of this clay source for pozzolan production by adopting the calcining conditions established in this work.

Keywords: Calcined kaolinite clay, calcination, optimum-calcining conditions, pozzolanity.

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357 Optimum Conditions for Effective Decomposition of Toluene as VOC Gas by Pilot-Scale Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer

Authors: S. Iijima, K. Nakayama, D. Kuchar, M. Kubota, H. Matsuda

Abstract:

Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) is one of the best solutions for removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from industrial processes. In the RTO, VOC in a raw gas are usually decomposed at 950-1300 K and the combustion heat of VOC is recovered by regenerative heat exchangers charged with ceramic honeycombs. The optimization of the treatment of VOC leads to the reduction of fuel addition to VOC decomposition, the minimization of CO2 emission and operating cost as well. In the present work, the thermal efficiency of the RTO was investigated experimentally in a pilot-scale RTO unit using toluene as a typical representative of VOC. As a result, it was recognized that the radiative heat transfer was dominant in the preheating process of a raw gas when the gas flow rate was relatively low. Further, it was found that a minimum heat exchanger volume to achieve self combustion of toluene without additional heating of the RTO by fuel combustion was dependent on both the flow rate of a raw gas and the concentration of toluene. The thermal efficiency calculated from fuel consumption and the decomposed toluene ratio, was found to have a maximum value of 0.95 at a raw gas mass flow rate of 1810 kg·h-1 and honeycombs height of 1.5m.

Keywords: Regenerative Heat Exchange, Self Combustion, Toluene, Volatile Organic Compounds.

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356 A Software for Calculation of Optimum Conditions for Cotton Bobbin Drying in a Hot-Air Bobbin Dryer

Authors: Hilmi Kuscu, Ahmet Cihan, Kamil Kahveci, Ugur Akyol

Abstract:

In this study, a software has been developed to predict the optimum conditions for drying of cotton based yarn bobbins in a hot air dryer. For this purpose, firstly, a suitable drying model has been specified using experimental drying behavior for different values of drying parameters. Drying parameters in the experiments were drying temperature, drying pressure, and volumetric flow rate of drying air. After obtaining a suitable drying model, additional curve fittings have been performed to obtain equations for drying time and energy consumption taking into account the effects of drying parameters. Then, a software has been developed using Visual Basic programming language to predict the optimum drying conditions for drying time and energy consumption.

Keywords: Drying, bobbin, cotton, PLC control, Visual Basic.

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355 The Optimum Operating Conditions for the Synthesis of Zeolite from Waste Incineration Fly Ash by Alkali Fusion and Hydrothermal Methods

Authors: Yi-Jie Lin, Jyh-Cherng Chen

Abstract:

The fly ash of waste incineration processes is usually hazardous and the disposal or reuse of waste incineration fly ash is difficult. In this study, the waste incineration fly ash was converted to useful zeolites by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method. The influence of different operating conditions (the ratio of Si/Al, the ratio of hydrolysis liquid to solid, and hydrothermal time) was investigated to seek the optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in the leachate of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were all lower than the regulatory limits except lead. The optimum operating conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal synthesis method were Si/Al=40, NaOH/ash=1.5, alkali fusion at 400 oC for 40 min, hydrolysis with Liquid to Solid ratio (L/S)= 200 at 105 oC for 24 h, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105 oC for 24 h. The specific surface area of fly ash could be significantly increased from 8.59 m2/g to 651.51 m2/g (synthesized zeolite). The influence of different operating conditions on the synthesis of zeolite from waste incineration fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al ratio > hydrothermal time > hydrolysis L/S ratio. The synthesized zeolites can be reused as good adsorbents to control the air or wastewater pollutants. The purpose of fly ash detoxification, reduction and waste recycling/reuse is achieved successfully.

Keywords: Alkali fusion, hydrothermal, fly ash, zeolite.

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354 PID Parameter Optimization of an UAV Longitudinal Flight Control System

Authors: Kamran Turkoglu, Ugur Ozdemir, Melike Nikbay, Elbrous M. Jafarov

Abstract:

In this paper, an automatic control system design based on Integral Squared Error (ISE) parameter optimization technique has been implemented on longitudinal flight dynamics of an UAV. It has been aimed to minimize the error function between the reference signal and the output of the plant. In the following parts, objective function has been defined with respect to error dynamics. An unconstrained optimization problem has been solved analytically by using necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality, optimum PID parameters have been obtained and implemented in control system dynamics.

Keywords: Optimum Design, KKT Conditions, UAV, Longitudinal Flight Dynamics, ISE Parameter Optimization.

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353 On Optimum Stratification

Authors: M. G. M. Khan, V. D. Prasad, D. K. Rao

Abstract:

In this manuscript, we discuss the problem of determining the optimum stratification of a study (or main) variable based on the auxiliary variable that follows a uniform distribution. If the stratification of survey variable is made using the auxiliary variable it may lead to substantial gains in precision of the estimates. This problem is formulated as a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLPP), which turn out to multistage decision problem and is solved using dynamic programming technique.

Keywords: Auxiliary variable, Dynamic programming technique, Nonlinear programming problem, Optimum stratification, Uniform distribution.

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352 Optimum Radio Capacity Estimation of a Single-Cell Spread Spectrum MIMO System under Rayleigh Fading Conditions

Authors: P. Varzakas

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of estimating the optimal radio capacity of a single-cell spread spectrum (SS) multiple-inputmultiple- output (MIMO) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is examined. The optimisation between the radio capacity and the theoretically achievable average channel capacity (in the sense of information theory) per user of a MIMO single-cell SS system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment is presented. Then, the spectral efficiency is estimated in terms of the achievable average channel capacity per user, during the operation over a broadcast time-varying link, and leads to a simple novel-closed form expression for the optimal radio capacity value based on the maximization of the achieved spectral efficiency. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the proposed analysis.

Keywords: Channel capacity, MIMO systems, Radio capacity, Rayleigh fading, Spectral efficiency.

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351 Optimum Performance Measures of Interdependent Queuing System with Controllable Arrival Rates

Authors: S. S. Mishra

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt is made to compute the total optimal cost of interdependent queuing system with controllable arrival rates as an important performance measure of the system. An example of application has also been presented to exhibit the use of the model. Finally, numerical demonstration based on a computing algorithm and variational effects of the model with the help of the graph have also been presented.

Keywords: Computing, Controllable arrival rate, Optimum performance measure.

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350 Reciprocating Compressor Optimum Design and Manufacturing with Respect to Performance, Reliability and Cost

Authors: A. Almasi

Abstract:

Reciprocating compressors are flexible to handle wide capacity and condition swings, offer a very efficient method of compressing almost any gas mixture in wide range of pressure, can generate high head independent of density, and have numerous applications and wide power ratings. These make them vital component in various units of industrial plants. In this paper optimum reciprocating compressor configuration regarding interstage pressures, low suction pressure, non-lubricated cylinder, speed of machine, capacity control system, compressor valve, lubrication system, piston rod coating, cylinder liner material, barring device, pressure drops, rod load, pin reversal, discharge temperature, cylinder coolant system, performance, flow, coupling, special tools, condition monitoring (including vibration, thermal and rod drop monitoring), commercial points, delivery and acoustic conditions are presented.

Keywords: Design, optimum, reciprocating compressor.

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349 Expected Present Value of Losses in the Computation of Optimum Seismic Design Parameters

Authors: J. García-Pérez

Abstract:

An approach to compute optimum seismic design parameters is presented. It is based on the optimization of the expected present value of the total cost, which includes the initial cost of structures as well as the cost due to earthquakes. Different types of seismicity models are considered, including one for characteristic earthquakes. Uncertainties are included in some variables to observe the influence on optimum values. Optimum seismic design coefficients are computed for three different structural types representing high, medium and low rise buildings, located near and far from the seismic sources. Ordinary and important structures are considered in the analysis. The results of optimum values show an important influence of seismicity models as well as of uncertainties on the variables.

Keywords: Importance factors, optimum parameters, seismic losses, seismic risk, total cost.

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348 Synthesis of Activated Carbon Using Agricultural Wastes from Biodiesel Production

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, V. Loryuenyong, E. Phakdeepataraphan, S. Watpathomsub, V. Kunakemakorn

Abstract:

In this research, the optimum conditions for the synthesis of activated carbon from biodiesel wastes such as palm shells (PS) and Jatropha curcas fruit shells (JS) by chemical activation method using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as an activating agent under nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. The effects of soaking in hydrofluoric acid (HF), impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time on adsorption capacity of methylene blue (MB) and iodine (I2) solution were examined. The results showed that HF-treated activated carbons exhibited higher adsorption capacities by eliminating ash residues, which might fill up the pores. In addition, the adsorption capacities of methylene blue and iodine solution were also significantly influenced by the types of raw materials, the activation temperature and the activation time. The highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue 257.07mg/g and iodine 847.58mg/g were obtained from Jatropha curcas wastes.

Keywords: Activated Carbon, Palm Shells (PS), Jatropha Curcas Fruit Shells (JS), Agricultural Wastes, Biodiesel Wastes, Optimum Conditions.

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347 Optimum Locations for Intercity Bus Terminals with the AHP Approach – Case Study of the City of Esfahan

Authors: Mehrdad Arabi, Ehsan Beheshtitabar, Bahador Ghadirifaraz, Behrooz Forjanizadeh

Abstract:

Interaction between human, location and activity defines space. In the framework of these relations, space is a container for current specifications in relations of the 3 mentioned elements. The change of land utility considered with average performance range, urban regulations, society requirements etc. will provide welfare and comfort for citizens. From an engineering view it is fundamental that choosing a proper location for a specific civil activity requires evaluation of locations from different perspectives. The debate of desirable establishment of municipal service elements in urban regions is one of the most important issues related to urban planning. In this paper, the research type is applicable based on goal, and is descriptive and analytical based on nature. Initially existing terminals in Esfahan are surveyed and then new locations are presented based on evaluated criteria. In order to evaluate terminals based on the considered factors, an AHP model is used at first to estimate weight of different factors and then existing and suggested locations are evaluated using Arc GIS software and AHP model results. The results show that existing bus terminals are located in fairly proper locations. Further results of this study suggest new locations to establish terminals based on urban criteria.

Keywords: Arc GIS, Esfahan city, Optimum locations, Terminals.

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346 Improvement Approach on Rotor Time Constant Adaptation with Optimum Flux in IFOC for Induction Machines Drives

Authors: S. Grouni, R. Ibtiouen, M. Kidouche, O. Touhami

Abstract:

Induction machine models used for steady-state and transient analysis require machine parameters that are usually considered design parameters or data. The knowledge of induction machine parameters is very important for Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC). A mismatched set of parameters will degrade the response of speed and torque control. This paper presents an improvement approach on rotor time constant adaptation in IFOC for Induction Machines (IM). Our approach tends to improve the estimation accuracy of the fundamental model for flux estimation. Based on the reduced order of the IM model, the rotor fluxes and rotor time constant are estimated using only the stator currents and voltages. This reduced order model offers many advantages for real time identification parameters of the IM.

Keywords: Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC), InductionMachine (IM), Rotor Time Constant, Parameters ApproachAdaptation. Optimum rotor flux.

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345 Determination of the Optimum Size of Building Stone Blocks: Case Study of Delichai Travertine Mine

Authors: Hesam Sedaghat Nejad, Navid Hosseini, Arash Nikvar Hassani

Abstract:

Determination of the optimum block size with high profitability is one of the significant parameters in designation of the building stone mines. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum dimensions of building stone blocks in Delichai travertine mine of Damavand in Tehran province through combining the effective parameters proven in determination of the optimum dimensions in building stones such as the spacing of joints and gaps, extraction tools constraints with the help of modeling by Gemcom software. To this end, following simulation of the topography of the mine, the block model was prepared and then in order to use spacing joints and discontinuities as a limiting factor, the existing joints set was added to the model. Since only one almost horizontal joint set with a slope of 5 degrees was available, this factor was effective only in determining the optimum height of the block, and thus to determine the longitudinal and transverse optimum dimensions of the extracted block, the power of available loader in the mine was considered as the secondary limiting factor. According to the aforementioned factors, the optimal block size in this mine was measured as 3.4×4×7 meter.

Keywords: Building stone, optimum block size, Delichai Travertine Mine, loader power.

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344 Optimum Design of an 8x8 Optical Switch with Thermal Compensated Mechanisms

Authors: Tien-Tung Chung, Chin-Te Lin, Chung-Yun Lee, Kuang-Chao Fan, Shou-Heng Chen

Abstract:

This paper studies the optimum design for reducing optical loss of an 8x8 mechanical type optical switch due to the temperature change. The 8x8 optical switch is composed of a base, 8 input fibers, 8 output fibers, 3 fixed mirrors and 17 movable mirrors. First, an innovative switch configuration is proposed with thermal-compensated design. Most mechanical type optical switches have a disadvantage that their precision and accuracy are influenced by the ambient temperature. Therefore, the thermal-compensated design is to deal with this situation by using materials with different thermal expansion coefficients (α). Second, a parametric modeling program is developed to generate solid models for finite element analysis, and the thermal and structural behaviors of the switch are analyzed. Finally, an integrated optimum design program, combining Autodesk Inventor Professional software, finite element analysis software, and genetic algorithms, is developed for improving the thermal behaviors that the optical loss of the switch is reduced. By changing design parameters of the switch in the integrated design program, the final optimum design that satisfies the design constraints and specifications can be found.

Keywords: Optical switch, finite element analysis, thermal-compensated design, optimum design.

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343 Finite Element Investigation of Transmission Conditions for Non-Monotonic Temperature Interphases

Authors: Hamid Mozafari, Andreas Öchsner, Amran Alias

Abstract:

Imperfect transmission conditions modeling a thin reactive 2D interphases layer between two dissimilar bonded strips have been extracted. In this paper, the soundness of these transmission conditions for heat conduction problems are examined by the finite element method for a strong temperature-dependent source or sink and non-monotonic temperature distributions around the faces..

Keywords: Imperfect interface, Transmission conditions, Finiteelement analysis, Interphase

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342 On Problem of Parameters Identification of Dynamic Object

Authors: Kamil Aida-zade, C. Ardil

Abstract:

In this paper, some problem formulations of dynamic object parameters recovery described by non-autonomous system of ordinary differential equations with multipoint unshared edge conditions are investigated. Depending on the number of additional conditions the problem is reduced to an algebraic equations system or to a problem of quadratic programming. With this purpose the paper offers a new scheme of the edge conditions transfer method called by conditions shift. The method permits to get rid from differential links and multipoint unshared initially-edge conditions. The advantage of the proposed approach is concluded by capabilities of reduction of a parametric identification problem to essential simple problems of the solution of an algebraic system or quadratic programming.

Keywords: dynamic objects, ordinary differential equations, multipoint unshared edge conditions, quadratic programming, conditions shift

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341 Effect of Environmental Conditions on Energy Efficiency of AAC-based Building Envelopes

Authors: V. Koci, J. Madera, R. Cerny

Abstract:

Calculations of energy efficiency of several AACbased building envelopes under different climatic conditions are presented. As thermal insulating materials, expanded polystyrene and hydrophobic and hydrophilic mineral wools are assumed. The computations are accomplished using computer code HEMOT developed at Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The climatic data of Athens, Kazan, Oslo, Prague and Reykjavík are obtained using METEONORM software.

Keywords: climatic conditions, computational simulation, energy efficiency, thermal insulation

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340 Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

Authors: Alper Akın, İbrahim Aydoğdu

Abstract:

This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teachinglearning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: Optimum structural design, hybrid techniques, teaching-learning based optimization, harmony search algorithm, minimum weight, steel space frame.

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339 Effect of Geometrical Parameters on Natural Frequencies of FGM Cylindrical shell with Holes Under Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Mostafa Ghayour, Mohammad Sadegh Golabi

Abstract:

In the recent years, functionally gradient materials (FGMs) have gained considerable attention in the high temperature environment applications. In this paper, free vibration of thin functionally graded cylindrical shell with hole composed of stainless steel and zirconia is studied. The mechanical properties vary smoothly and continuously from one surface to the other according to a volume fraction power-law distribution. The Influence of shell geometrical parameters, variations of volume fractions and boundary conditions on natural frequency is considered. The equations of motion are based on strains-displacement relations from Love-s shell theory and Rayleigh method. The results have been obtained for natural frequencies of cylindrical shell with holes for different shape, number and location in this paper.

Keywords: Functionally gradient material, Vibration, various boundary conditions, cylindrical shells.

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338 The Influence of the Inlet Conditions on the Airside Heat Transfer Performance of Plain Finned Evaporator

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Mohamed Saighi, Ibrahim Belal

Abstract:

A numerical study has been conducted to investigate the influence of fin pitch and relative humidity on the heat transfer performance of the fin-and-tube heat exchangers having plain fin geometry under dehumidifying conditions. The analysis is done using the ratio between the heat transfer coefficients in totally wet conditions and those in totally dry conditions using the appropriate correlations for both dry and wet conditions. For a constant relative humidity, it is found that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of the air frontal velocity. By contrast, the fin efficiency decreases when the face velocity is increased. Apparently, this phenomenon is attributed to the path of condensate drainage. For the influence of relative humidity, the results showed an increase in heat transfer performance and a decrease in wet fin efficiency when relative humidity increases. This is due to the higher amount of mass transfer encountered at higher relative humidity. However, it is found that the effect of fin pitch on the heat transfer performance depends strongly on the face velocity. At lower frontal velocity the heat transfer increases with fin pitch. Conversely, an increase in fin pitch gives lower heat transfer coefficients when air velocity is increased.

Keywords: Dehumidifying conditions, Fin efficiency, Heat andmass transfer, Heat exchangers.

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337 Detecting the Capacity Reserve in an Overhead Line

Authors: S. Berjozkina, A. Sauhats, V. Bargels, E. Vanzovichs

Abstract:

There are various solutions for improving existing overhead line systems with the general purpose of increasing their limited capacity. The capacity reserve of the existing overhead lines is an important problem that must be considered from different aspects. The paper contains a comparative analysis of the mechanical and thermal limitations of an existing overhead line based on certain calculation conditions characterizing the examined variants. The methodology of the proposed estimation of the permissible conductor temperature and maximum load current is described in detail. The transmission line model consists of specific information of an existing overhead line of the Latvian power network. The main purpose of the simulation tasks is to find an additional capacity reserve by using accurate mathematical models. The results of the obtained data are presented.

Keywords: capacity of an overhead line, mechanical conditions, permissible conductor temperature, thermal conditions.

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336 Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays under Hot Bomb Conditions

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, F. Noor, M. J. Rashid

Abstract:

It has experimentally been proved that the performance of compression ignition (C.I.) engine is spray characteristics related. In modern diesel engine the spray formation and the eventual combustion process are the vital processes that offer more challenges towards enhancing the engine performance. In the present work the numerical simulation has been carried out for evaporating diesel sprays using Fluent software. For computational fluid dynamics simulation “Meshing” is done using Gambit software before transmitting it into Fluent. The simulation is carried out using hot bomb conditions under varying chamber conditions such as gas pressure, nozzle diameter and fuel injection pressure. For comparison purpose, the numerical simulations the chamber conditions were kept the same as that of the experimental data. At varying chamber conditions the spray penetration rates are compared with the existing experimental results.

Keywords: Evaporating diesel sprays, Penetration rates, Hot bomb conditions.

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335 The Occurrence of Fungi in Activated Sludge from MBRs

Authors: Mohamed F. Awad, M. Kraume

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence of fungi in aerobic and anoxic activated sludge from membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Thirty-six samples of both aerobic and anoxic activated sludge were taken from 2 MBR treating domestic wastewater. Over a period of eight months 2 samples from each plant were taken per month. The samples were prepared for count and definition of fungi. The obtained data show that, sixty species belonging to 27 genera were collected from activated sludge samples under aerobic and anoxic conditions. Regarding to the fungi definition, under aerobic condition the Geotrichum was found at (8.8%) followed by Penicillium (75.0%), Yeasts (65.7%) and Trichoderma (55.5%), while Yeasts (77.1%) Geotrichum candidumand Penicillium (61.1%) species were the most prevalent in anoxic activated sludge. The results indicate that activated sludge is habitat for growth and sporulation of different groups of fungi, both saprophytic and pathogenic.

Keywords: Aerobic conditions, Anoxic conditions, Activated sludge, Membrane bioreactor, Fungi.

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334 The Role of Nozzle-Exit Conditions on the Flow Field of a Plane Jet

Authors: Ravinesh C. Deo

Abstract:

This article reviews the role of nozzle-exit conditions on the flow field of a plane jet. The jet issuing from a sharp-edged orifice plate at a Reynolds number (Re=18000) with nozzle aspect ratio (AR=72) exhibits the greatest shear-layer instabilities, highest entrainment and jet-spreading rates compared to the radially contoured nozzle. The growth rate of the shear-layer is the highest for the orifice-jet although this property could be amplified for larger Re or AR. A local peak in turbulent energy is found at x»10h. The peak appears to be elevated for an orifice-jet with lower Re or AR. The far-field energy sustained by the orifice-jet exceeds the contoured case although a higher Re and AR may enhance this value. The spectra demonstrated the largest eddy structures for the contoured nozzle. However, the frequency of coherent eddies is higher for the orifice-jet, with a larger magnitude achievable for lower Re and AR

Keywords: Plane jet, Reynolds number, nozzle-exit conditions, nozzle geometry, aspect ratio.

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