Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Optimization of Dissolution of Chevreul’s Salt in Ammonium Chloride Solutions

Authors: Mustafa Sertçelik, Hacali Necefoğlu, Turan Çalban, Soner Kuşlu


In this study, Chevreul’s salt was dissolved in ammonium chloride solutions. All experiments were performed in a batch reactor. The obtained results were optimized. Parameters used in the experiments were the reaction temperature, the ammonium chloride concentration, the reaction time and the solid-to-liquid ratio. The optimum conditions were determined by 24 factorial experimental design method. The best values of four parameters were determined as based on the experiment results. After the evaluation of experiment results, all parameters were found as effective in experiment conditions selected. The optimum conditions on the maximum Chevreul’s salt dissolution were the ammonium chloride concentration 4.5 M, the reaction time 13.2 min., the reaction temperature 25 oC, and the solid-to-liquid ratio 9/80 g.mL-1. The best dissolution yield in these conditions was 96.20%.

Keywords: Ammonium chloride, Chevreul’s salt, copper, Factorial experimental design method, optimization.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1221


[1] E. Jackson, Hydrometallurgical Extraction and Reclamation, Wiley, New York, (1986), pp. 204–238.
[2] Habashi, F. Precipitation in hydrometallurgy, in Proceedings of the XVIII International Mineral Processing Congress, Sydney, (1993), 1323–1328.
[3] Habashi, F. and Dugdale, R. Ammonium sulphite in the hydrometallurgy of copper, Metal, (1974), 28129–132.
[4] E.H.E. Pietsch (Ed.), Gmelin’s Handbook, Aufl. System No. 60, vol. 8, Verlag Chemie, Weinheim: Bergstrasse, (1958), p. 484.
[5] P. Kierkegaard, B. Nyberg, Acta Chem. Scand. 19, (1965) 2189.
[6] Brant, P.; Fernando, Q.; J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. (1978), 40, 235.
[7] Martins, C. R.; Cabral Neto, C. A.; Alves, J. J. F.; de Andrade, J. B.;J. Braz. Chem. Soc. (1999), 10, 453.
[8] Cox, X. B.; Linton, R. W.; Miguel, A. H.; de Andrade, J. B.; Atmos. Environ. (1986), 20, 1139.
[9] Conklin, M. H. and Hoffmann, M. R. Metal ion-sulphur (IV) chemistry. 3. Thermodynamics and kinetics of transient iron (III)–sulphur (IV) complexes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, (1988), 899–907.
[10] Da Silva, L. A., Matos, J. R., and De Andrade, J. B. Synthesis, identification and thermal decomposition of double sulphites like Cu2SO3.MSO3.2H2O (M=Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd), Thermochim. Acta, 360, (2000), 17–27.
[11] Çolak, S., Çalban, T., Yeşilyurt, M., Sergili, D., Ekinci, Z. Recovery of copper powders from leach solutions containing copper by means of ammonia, sulphur dioxide and acetonitrile. Powder Technology. (2003), 134, 65.
[12] de Andrade, J. B., da Silva, L. A. Isomorphic series of double sulphites of the Cu2SO3.MSO3.2H2O (M = Cu, Fe, Mn, and Cd) type. J. Braz. Chem. Sci. (2004), 15, 170.
[13] Innoue, M., Grijalva, H., Inoue, M. B. and Fernando, Q. Spectroscopic and magnetic properties of Chevreul’s salt, a mixed valence copper sulphite Cu3(SO3)2.2H2O. Inorganica Chimica Acta. (1999), 295, 125.
[14] Parker, A. J., Muir, D. M. Recovery of copper powder from copper concentrates and from solutions of copper(II) sulphates using sulphur dioxide and aqueous acetonitrile. Hydrometallurgy. (1981), 6, 239.
[15] Çalban, T., Çolak, S., Yeşilyurt, M. Statistical modeling of Chevreul’s salt recovery from leach solutions containing copper. Chemical Engineering and Processing. (2006), 45, 168.
[16] Yeşilyurt, M. and Çalban, T. Precipitation of Chevreul’s salt from CuSO4 solutions with Na2SO3, Chem. Process Eng., (2007), 28, 85–91.
[17] Giovannelli, G., Natali, S., Zortea, L., Bozzini, B. An investigation into the surface layers formed on oxidised copper exposed to SO2 in humid air under hypoxic conditions. Corrosion Science. (2012), 57, 104-113.
[18] Fischmann, A. J., Dixon D. G. Upgrading of a chalcopyrite concentrate by reaction with copper(II) and sulphite–Unexpected formation of Chevreul’s salt, Cu2SO3.CuSO3.2H2O. Minerals Engineering. (2010), 23, 746-751.
[19] Çalban, T., Kaynarca, B., Sevim, F., Eroğlu, H. Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul's Salt Using (NH4)2SO3 from Synthetic Aqueous CuSO4 Solutions. Asian Journal of Chemistry. (2014), 26/18, 6111-6117.
[20] Çalban, T., Kaynarca, B., Kuşlu, S., Çolak, S. Leaching kinetics of Chevreul's salt in hydrochloric acid solutions. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. (2014), 20/4, 1141-1147.
[21] Çalban, T., Kuşlu, S. and Çolak, S. Precipitation Conditions of Chevreul’s salt from Synthetic Aqueous CuSO4 Solutions, Chemical Engineering Communications, (2009) 196, 1018-1029.
[22] Çalban, T., Laçin, O., Kurtbaş, A., Experimental Chevreul’s Salt Production Methods on Copper Recovery. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering. (2015), 9/4, 377-380.
[23] Gülensoy, H., Komplexometri ve Komplexometrik Titrasyonların Temelleri, Fatih Yayınevi, İstanbul, Turkey, (1984).
[24] Montgomery, D. C. Design and Analysis of Experiments, John Wiley, New York, (1976).
[25] Çalban, T., Kavcı, E. Removal of Calcium from Soda Liquid Waste Containing Calcium Chloride. Energy Sources, Part A. (2010), 32, 407.
[26] Durak, H., Genel, Y., Kuşlu, S., Çolak, S. Optimization of the Dissolution of Tincal Ore in Phosphoric Acid Solutions at High Temperatures. Chemical Engineering Communications. (2015), 202/2, 245-251.
[27] Çalban, T., Çolak, S., Yeşilyurt, M. Optimization of leaching of copper from oxidized copper ore in NH3-(NH4)2SO4 medium. Chemical Engineering Communications. (2005), 192/10-12, 1515.
[28] Çalban, T., Çolak, S. and Yeşilyurt, M. Statistical modelling of Chevreul’s salt recovery from leach solutions containing copper. Chemical Engineering and Processing. (2006), 45, 168-174.
[29] Yates, F. The Design and Analysis of Factorial Experiments. Farnham Royal: Commonweath Agricultural Bureaux. (1959).