Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3013

Search results for: Power Saving

3013 Optimum Turbomachine Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: S. B. Alavi, G. Cerri, L. Chennaoui, A. Giovannelli, S. Mazzoni

Abstract:

Power Regeneration in Refrigeration Plant concept has been analyzed and has been shown to be capable of saving about 25% power in Cryogenic Plants with the Power Regeneration System (PRS) running under nominal conditions. The innovative component Compressor Expander Group (CEG) based on turbomachinery has been designed and built modifying CETT compressor and expander, both selected for optimum plant performance. Experiments have shown the good response of the turbomachines to run with R404a as working fluid. Power saving up to 12% under PRS derated conditions (50% loading) has been demonstrated. Such experiments allowed predicting a power saving up to 25% under CEG full load.

Keywords: Compressor, Expander, Power Saving, Refrigeration Plant, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Vapor Pressure Booster.

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3012 Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Chen-Ming Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.

Keywords: LTE-A, Relay, TDD, Power Saving.

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3011 Power Saving System in Green Data Center

Authors: Joon-young Jung, Dong-oh Kang, Chang-seok Bae

Abstract:

Power consumption is rapidly increased in data centers because the number of data center is increased and more the scale of data center become larger. Therefore, it is one of key research items to reduce power consumption in data center. The peak power of a typical server is around 250 watts. When a server is idle, it continues to use around 60% of the power consumed when in use, though vendors are putting effort into reducing this “idle" power load. Servers tend to work at only around a 5% to 20% utilization rate, partly because of response time concerns. An average of 10% of servers in their data centers was unused. In those reason, we propose dynamic power management system to reduce power consumption in green data center. Experiment result shows that about 55% power consumption is reduced at idle time.

Keywords: Data Center, Green IT, Management Server, Power Saving.

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3010 Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.

Keywords: Electric power standard, factor, ore grinding, power consumption, reactive power, technological.

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3009 Efficient Use of Energy through Incorporation of a Gas Turbine in Methanol Plant

Authors: M. Azadi, N. Tahouni, M. H. Panjeshahi

Abstract:

A techno-economic evaluation for efficient use of energy in a large scale industrial plant of methanol is carried out. This assessment is based on integration of a gas turbine with an existing plant of methanol in which the outlet gas products of exothermic reactor is expanded to power generation. Also, it is decided that methanol production rate is constant through addition of power generation system to the existing methanol plant. Having incorporated a gas turbine with the existing plant, the economic results showed total investment of MUSD 16.9, energy saving of 3.6 MUSD/yr with payback period of approximately 4.7 years.

Keywords: Energy saving, Gas turbine, Methanol, Power generation.

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3008 Interplay of Power Management at Core and Server Level

Authors: Jörg Lenhardt, Wolfram Schiffmann, Jörg Keller

Abstract:

While the feature sizes of recent Complementary Metal Oxid Semiconductor (CMOS) devices decrease the influence of static power prevails their energy consumption. Thus, power savings that benefit from Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) are diminishing and temporal shutdown of cores or other microchip components become more worthwhile. A consequence of powering off unused parts of a chip is that the relative difference between idle and fully loaded power consumption is increased. That means, future chips and whole server systems gain more power saving potential through power-aware load balancing, whereas in former times this power saving approach had only limited effect, and thus, was not widely adopted. While powering off complete servers was used to save energy, it will be superfluous in many cases when cores can be powered down. An important advantage that comes with that is a largely reduced time to respond to increased computational demand. We include the above developments in a server power model and quantify the advantage. Our conclusion is that strategies from datacenters when to power off server systems might be used in the future on core level, while load balancing mechanisms previously used at core level might be used in the future at server level.

Keywords: Power efficiency, static power consumption, dynamic power consumption, CMOS.

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3007 Research on Regional Energy Saving Potential Based on Nonparametric Radial Adjustment and Slack Adjustment

Authors: Donglan Zha, Ning Ding

Abstract:

Taking the provincial capital, labor and energy as inputs, regional GDP as output from 1995 to 2007, the paper quantifies the vertical and lateral energy saving potential by introducing the radial adjustment and slack adjustment of DEA. The results show that by the vertical, the achievement of energy saving in 2007 is better than their respective historical performances. By horizontal, in 2007 it can be found that Tianjin, Liaoning, Shanghai and Yunnan do better in energy saving than other provinces. In national wide, the higher of energy efficiency, the larger of per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry in the national economy, the more open to the outside, the lower the energy saving potential demonstrates, while the energy endowment has negative effect on energy saving potential.

Keywords: radial adjustment; slack adjustment; regional disparity; energy saving potential

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3006 A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

Authors: Ying Xin, Shigeki Kametani

Abstract:

This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does.

In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

Keywords: Energy-saving, VRF, GHP, EHP, Air Conditioning System.

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3005 Increase Energy Savings with Lighting Automation Using Light Pipes and Power LEDs

Authors: İ. Kıyak, G. Gökmen

Abstract:

Using of natural lighting has come into prominence in constructed buildings, especially in last ten years, under scope of energy efficiency. Natural lighting methods are one of the methods that aim to take advantage of day light in maximum level and decrease using of artificial lighting. Increasing of day light amount in buildings by using suitable methods will give optimum result in terms of comfort and energy saving when the daylight-artificial light integration is ensured with a suitable control system. Using of natural light in places that require lighting will ensure energy saving in great extent. With this study, it is aimed to save energy used for purpose of lighting. Under this scope, lighting of a scanning laboratory of a hospital was realized by using a lighting automation containing natural and artificial lighting. In natural lighting, light pipes were used and in artificial lighting, dimmable power LED modules were used. Necessity of lighting was followed with motion sensors. The lighting automation containing natural and artificial light was ensured with fuzzy logic control. At the scanning laboratory where this application was realized, energy saving in lighting was obtained.

Keywords: Daylight transfer, fuzzy logic controller, light pipe, Power LED.

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3004 Evaluation on the Viability of Combined Heat and Power with Different Distributed Generation Technologies for Various Bindings in Japan

Authors: Yingjun Ruan, Qingrong Liu, Weiguo Zhou, Toshiyuki Watanabe

Abstract:

This paper has examined the energy consumption characteristics in six different buildings including apartments, offices, commercial buildings, hospitals, hotels and educational facilities. Then 5-hectare (50000m2) development site for respective building-s type has been assumed as case study to evaluate the introduction effect of Combined Heat and Power (CHP). All kinds of CHP systems with different distributed generation technologies including Gas Turbine (GT), Gas Engine (GE), Diesel Engine (DE), Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC), have been simulated by using HEATMAP, CHP system analysis software. And their primary energy utilization efficiency, energy saving ratio and CO2 reduction ratio have evaluated and compared respectively. The results can be summarized as follows: Various buildings have their special heat to power ratio characteristics. Matching the heat to power ratio demanded from an individual building with that supplied from a CHP system is very important. It is necessary to select a reasonable distributed generation technologies according to the load characteristics of various buildings. Distributed generation technologies with high energy generating efficiency and low heat to power ratio, like SOFC and PEFC is more reasonable selection for Building Combined Heat and Power (BCHP). CHP system is an attractive option for hotels, hospitals and apartments in Japan. The users can achieve high energy saving and environmental benefit by introducing a CHP systems. In others buildings, especially like commercial buildings and offices, the introduction of CHP system is unreasonable.

Keywords: Combined heat and power, distributed generation technologies, heat-tao-power ratio, energy saving ratio, CO2 reduction ratio

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3003 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

Authors: Hwan Su Jung, Ahn Jun Gil, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

Keywords: Deadline, Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling, Power State Transition.

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3002 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.

Keywords: Ceramic raw material, Energy saving stove, Stove design, Performance of stove, Stove for stew coconut sugar.

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3001 Modelling Conditional Volatility of Saving Rate by a Time-Varying Parameter Model

Authors: Katleho D. Makatjane, Kalebe M. Kalebe

Abstract:

The present paper used time-varying parameters which are based on the score function of a probability density at time t to model volatility of saving rate. We used a scaled likelihood function to update the parameters of the model overtime. Our results revealed high diligence of time-varying since the location parameter is greater than zero. Furthermore, we discovered a leptokurtic condition on saving rate’s distribution. Kapetanios, Shin-Shell Nonlinear Augmented Dickey-Fuller (KSS-NADF) test showed that the saving rate has a nonlinear unit root; therefore, it can be modeled by a generalised autoregressive score (GAS) model. Additionally, value at risk (VaR) and conditional tail expectation (CTE) indicate that 99% of the time people in Lesotho are saving more than spending. This puts the economy in high risk of not expanding. Therefore, the monetary policy committee (MPC) of Lesotho should revise their monetary policies towards this high saving rates risk.

Keywords: Generalized autoregressive score, time-varying, saving rate, Lesotho.

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3000 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: Clear sky, Daylight Illuminance Ratio, Energy saving, Wall window.

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2999 Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics

Authors: Muammer Ozkan, Orkun Ozener, Irfan Yavasliol

Abstract:

The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy, Driving Characteristics, Optimization

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2998 Performance Analysis of MIMO-OFDM Using Convolution Codes with QAM Modulation

Authors: I Gede Puja Astawa, Yoedy Moegiharto, Ahmad Zainudin, Imam Dui Agus Salim, Nur Annisa Anggraeni

Abstract:

Performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system can be improved by adding channel coding (error correction code) to detect and correct errors that occur during data transmission. One can use the convolution code. This paper present performance of OFDM using Space Time Block Codes (STBC) diversity technique use QAM modulation with code rate ½. The evaluation is done by analyzing the value of Bit Error Rate (BER) vs. Energy per Bit to Noise Power Spectral Density Ratio (Eb/No). This scheme is conducted 256 subcarrier transmits Rayleigh multipath channel in OFDM system. To achieve a BER of 10-3 is required 10dB SNR in SISO-OFDM scheme. For 2x2 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 10 dB to achieve a BER of 10-3. For 4x4 MIMO-OFDM scheme requires 5 dB while adding convolution in a 4x4 MIMO-OFDM can improve performance up to 0 dB to achieve the same BER. This proves the existence of saving power by 3 dB of 4x4 MIMO-OFDM system without coding, power saving 7dB of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM and significant power savings from SISO-OFDM system

Keywords: Convolution code, OFDM, MIMO, QAM, BER.

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2997 Contribution of the Cogeneration Systems to Environment and Sustainability

Authors: Kemal Çomakli, Uğur Çakir, Ayşegül Çokgez Kuş, Erol Şahin

Abstract:

A lower consumption of thermal energy will contribute not only to a reduction in the running costs, but also in the reduction of pollutant emissions that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Cogeneration or CHP (Combined Heat and Power) is the system that produces power and usable heat simultaneously by decreasing the pollutant emissions and increasing the efficiency. Combined production of mechanical or electrical and thermal energy using a simple energy source, such as oil, coal, natural or liquefied gas, biomass or the sun; affords remarkable energy savings and frequently makes it possible to operate with greater efficiency when compared to a system producing heat and power separately. This study aims to bring out the contributions of cogeneration systems to the environment and sustainability by saving the energy and reducing the emissions. In this way we made a comprehensive investigation in the literature by focusing on the environmental aspects of the cogeneration systems. In the light of these studies we reached that, cogeneration systems must be consider in sustainability and their benefits on protecting the ecology must be investigated.

Keywords: Sustainability, cogeneration systems, energy economy, energy saving.

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2996 Energy Saving Suction Hood

Authors: I.Daut, N. Gomesh, M. Irwanto, Y. M. Irwan

Abstract:

Public awareness towards green energy are on the rise and this can be prove by many product being manufactured or prerequired to be made as energy saving devices mainly to save consumer from spending more on utility billing. These schemes are popular nowadays and many homemade appliances are turned into energy saving gadget which attracts the attention of consumers. Knowing the public demands and pattern towards purchasing home appliances thus the idea of “energy saving suction hood (ESSH)" is proposed. The ESSH can be used in many places that require smoke ventilation or even to reduce the room temperature as many conventional suction hoods (CSH) do, but this device works automatically by the usage of sensors that detects the smoke/temperature and automatically spins the exhaust fan. As it turns, the mechanical rotation rotates the AC generator which is coupled together with the fan and then charges the battery. The innovation of this product is, it does not rely on the utility supply as it is also hook up with a solar panel which also charges the battery, Secondly, it generates energy as the exhaust fan mechanically rotates. Thirdly, an energy loop back feature is introduced to this system which will supply for the ventilator fan. Another major innovation is towards interfacing this device with an in house production of generator. This generator is produced by proper design on stator as well as rotor to reduce the losses. A comparison is made between the ESSH and the CSH and result shows that the ESSH saves 172.8kWh/year of utility supply which is used by CSH. This amount of energy can save RM 3.14 from monthly utility bill and a total of RM 37.67 per year. In fact this product can generate 175 Watt of power from generator(75W) and solar panel(100W) that can be used either to supply other household appliances and/or to loop back to supply the fans motor. The innovation of this system is essential for future production of other equipment by using the loopback power method and turning most equipment into a standalone system.

Keywords: Energy saving suction hood (ESSH), conventional suction hoods (CSH), energy, and power

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2995 An Efficient VLSI Design Approach to Reduce Static Power using Variable Body Biasing

Authors: Md. Asif Jahangir Chowdhury, Md. Shahriar Rizwan, M. S. Islam

Abstract:

In CMOS integrated circuit design there is a trade-off between static power consumption and technology scaling. Recently, the power density has increased due to combination of higher clock speeds, greater functional integration, and smaller process geometries. As a result static power consumption is becoming more dominant. This is a challenge for the circuit designers. However, the designers do have a few methods which they can use to reduce this static power consumption. But all of these methods have some drawbacks. In order to achieve lower static power consumption, one has to sacrifice design area and circuit performance. In this paper, we propose a new method to reduce static power in the CMOS VLSI circuit using Variable Body Biasing technique without being penalized in area requirement and circuit performance.

Keywords: variable body biasing, state saving technique, stack effect, dual V-th, static power reduction.

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2994 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei

Abstract:

The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.

Keywords: Energy saving, organic fluids, radial turbine, refrigeration plant, vapor compression systems.

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2993 Energy Saving Potential with Improved Concrete in Ice Rink Floor Designs

Authors: Ehsan B. Haghighi, Pavel Makhnatch, Jörgen Rogstam

Abstract:

The ice rink floor is the largest heat exchanger in an ice rink. The important part of the floor consists of concrete, and the thermophysical properties of this concrete have strong influence on the energy usage of the ice rink. The thermal conductivity of concrete can be increased by using iron ore as ballast. In this study, the Transient Plane Source (TPS) method showed an increase up to 58.2% of thermal conductivity comparing the improved concrete to standard concrete. Moreover, two alternative ice rink floor designs are suggested to incorporate the improved concrete. A 2D simulation was developed to investigate the temperature distribution in the conventional and the suggested designs. The results show that the suggested designs reduce the temperature difference between the ice surface and the brine by 1-4˚C, when comparing with convectional designs at equal heat flux. This primarily leads to an increased coefficient of performance (COP) in the primary refrigeration cycle and secondly to a decrease in the secondary refrigerant pumping power. The suggested designs have great potential to reduce the energy usage of ice rinks. Depending on the load scenario in the ice rink, the saving potential lies in the range of 3-10% of the refrigeration system energy usage. This calculation is based on steady state conditions and the potential with improved dynamic behavior is expected to increase the potential saving.

Keywords: Concrete, iron ore, ice rink, energy saving.

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2992 A High-Speed and Low-Energy Ternary Content Addressable Memory Design Using Feedback in Match-Line Sense Amplifier

Authors: Syed Iftekhar Ali, M. S. Islam

Abstract:

In this paper we present an energy efficient match-line (ML) sensing scheme for high-speed ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM). The proposed scheme isolates the sensing unit of the sense amplifier from the large and variable ML capacitance. It employs feedback in the sense amplifier to successfully detect a match while keeping the ML voltage swing low. This reduced voltage swing results in large energy saving. Simulation performed using 130nm 1.2V CMOS logic shows at least 30% total energy saving in our scheme compared to popular current race (CR) scheme for similar search speed. In terms of speed, dynamic energy, peak power consumption and transistor count our scheme also shows better performance than mismatch-dependant (MD) power allocation technique which also employs feedback in the sense amplifier. Additionally, the implementation of our scheme is simpler than CR or MD scheme because of absence of analog control voltage and programmable delay circuit as have been used in those schemes.

Keywords: content-addressable memory, energy consumption, feedback, peak power, sensing scheme, sense amplifier, ternary.

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2991 Energy Efficiency of Adaptive-Rate Medium Access Control Protocols for Sensor Networks

Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei

Abstract:

Energy efficient protocol design is the aim of current researches in the area of sensor networks where limited power resources impose energy conservation considerations. In this paper we care for Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols and after an extensive literature review, two adaptive schemes are discussed. Of them, adaptive-rate MACs which were introduced for throughput enhancement show the potency to save energy, even more than adaptive-power schemes. Then we propose an allocation algorithm for getting accurate and reliable results. Through a simulation study we validated our claim and showed the power saving of adaptive-rate protocols.

Keywords: Adaptive-rate, adaptive-power, MAC protocol, energy efficiency, sensor networks.

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2990 Preliminary Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Data Center: Case Study

Authors: Xiaoshu Lu, Tao Lu, Matias Remes, Martti Viljanen

Abstract:

As the data-driven economy is growing faster than ever and the demand for energy is being spurred, we are facing unprecedented challenges of improving energy efficiency in data centers. Effectively maximizing energy efficiency or minimising the cooling energy demand is becoming pervasive for data centers. This paper investigates overall energy consumption and the energy efficiency of cooling system for a data center in Finland as a case study. The power, cooling and energy consumption characteristics and operation condition of facilities are examined and analysed. Potential energy and cooling saving opportunities are identified and further suggestions for improving the performance of cooling system are put forward. Results are presented as a comprehensive evaluation of both the energy performance and good practices of energy efficient cooling operations for the data center. Utilization of an energy recovery concept for cooling system is proposed. The conclusion we can draw is that even though the analysed data center demonstrated relatively high energy efficiency, based on its power usage effectiveness value, there is still a significant potential for energy saving from its cooling systems.

Keywords: Data center, case study, cooling system, energyefficiency.

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2989 Green Computing: From Current to Future Trends

Authors: Tariq Rahim Soomro, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

During recent years, attention in 'Green Computing' has moved research into energy-saving techniques for home computers to enterprise systems' Client and Server machines. Saving energy or reduction of carbon footprints is one of the aspects of Green Computing. The research in the direction of Green Computing is more than just saving energy and reducing carbon foot prints. This study provides a brief account of Green Computing. The emphasis of this study is on current trends in Green Computing; challenges in the field of Green Computing and the future trends of Green Computing.

Keywords: Energy consumption, e-waste recycling, Green Computing, Green IT

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2988 Optimal Power Allocation to Diversity Branches of Cooperative MISO Sensor Networks

Authors: Rooholah Hasanizadeh, Saadan Zokaei

Abstract:

In the context of sensor networks, where every few dB saving counts, the novel node cooperation schemes are reviewed where MIMO techniques play a leading role. These methods could be treated as joint approach for designing physical layer of their communication scenarios. Then we analyzed the BER performance of transmission diversity schemes under a general fading channel model and proposed a power allocation strategy to the transmitting sensor nodes. This approach is then compared to an equal-power assignment method and its performance enhancement is verified by the simulation. Another key point of the contribution lies in the combination of optimal power allocation and sensor nodes- cooperation in a transmission diversity regime (MISO). Numerical results are given through figures to demonstrate the optimality and efficiency of proposed combined approach.

Keywords: Optimal power allocation, cooperative MISO scheme, sensor networks, diversity branch.

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2987 Power and Wear Reduction Using Composite Links of Crank-Rocker Mechanism with Optimum Transmission Angle

Authors: Khaled M. Khader, Mamdouh I. Elimy

Abstract:

Reducing energy consumption became the major concern for all countries of the world during the recent decades. In general, power saving is currently the nominal goal of most industrial countries. It is well known that fossil fuels are the main pillar of development of world countries. Unfortunately, the increased rate of fossil fuel consumption will lead to serious problems caused by an expected depletion of fuels. Moreover, dangerous gases and vapors emission lead to severe environmental problems during fuel burning. Consequently, most engineering sectors especially the mechanical sectors are looking for improving any machine accompanied by reducing its energy consumption. Crank-Rocker planar mechanism is the most applied in mechanical systems. Besides, it is one of the most significant parts of the machines for obtaining the oscillatory motion. The transmission angle of this mechanism can be considered as an optimum value when its extreme values are equally varied around 90°. In addition, the transmission angle plays an important role in decreasing the required driving power and improving the dynamic properties of the mechanism. Hence, appropriate selection of mechanism links lengthens, which assures optimum transmission angle leads to decreasing the driving power. Moreover, mechanism's links manufactured from composite materials afford link's lightweight, which decreases the required driving torque. Furthermore, wear and corrosion problems can be treated through using composite links instead of using metal ones. This paper is dealing with improving the performance of crank-rocker mechanism using composite links due to their flexural elastic modulus values and stiffness in addition to high damping of composite materials.

Keywords: Composite material, crank-rocker mechanism, transmission angle, design techniques, power saving.

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2986 Energy Efficient Transmission of Image over DWT-OFDM System

Authors: Lakshmi Pujitha Dachuri, Nalini Uppala

Abstract:

In many applications retransmissions of lost packets are not permitted. OFDM is a multi-carrier modulation scheme having excellent performance which allows overlapping in frequency domain. With OFDM there is a simple way of dealing with multipath relatively simple DSP algorithms.

 In this paper, an image frame is compressed using DWT, and the compressed data is arranged in data vectors, each with equal number of coefficients. These vectors are quantized and binary coded to get the bit steams, which are then packetized and intelligently mapped to the OFDM system. Based on one-bit channel state information at the transmitter, the descriptions in order of descending priority are assigned to the currently good channels such that poorer sub-channels can only affect the lesser important data vectors. We consider only one-bit channel state information available at the transmitter, informing only about the sub-channels to be good or bad. For a good sub-channel, instantaneous received power should be greater than a threshold Pth. Otherwise, the sub-channel is in fading state and considered bad for that batch of coefficients. In order to reduce the system power consumption, the mapped descriptions onto the bad sub channels are dropped at the transmitter. The binary channel state information gives an opportunity to map the bit streams intelligently and to save a reasonable amount of power. By using MAT LAB simulation we can analysis the performance of our proposed scheme, in terms of system energy saving without compromising the received quality in terms of peak signal-noise ratio.

Keywords: Binary channel state, Channel state feedback, DWT-OFDM system, Energy saving, Fading broadcast channel.

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2985 Feasibility Study on the Use of HEMS for Thermal Comfort and Energy Saving in Japanese Residential Buildings

Authors: K. C. Rajan, H. B. Rijal, Kazui Yoshida, Masanori Shukuya

Abstract:

The electricity consumption in the Japanese household sector has increased with higher rate than that of other sectors. This may be because of aging and information oriented society that requires more electrical appliances to make the life better and easier, under this circumstances, energy saving is one of the essential necessity in Japanese society. To understand the way of energy use and demand response of the residential occupants, it is important to understand the structure of energy used. Home Energy Management System (HEMS) may be used for understanding the pattern and the structure of energy used. HEMS is a visualization system of the energy usage by connecting the electrical equipment in the home and thereby automatically control the energy use in each device, so that the energy saving is achieved. Therefore, the HEMS can provide with the easiest way to understand the structure of energy use. The HEMS has entered the mainstream of the Japanese market. The objective of this study is to understand the pattern of energy saving and cost saving in different regions including Japan during HEMS use. To observe thermal comfort level of HEMS managed residential buildings in Japan, the field survey was made and altogether, 1534 votes from 37 occupants related to thermal comfort, occupants’ behaviors and clothing insulation were collected and analyzed. According to the result obtained, approximately 17.9% energy saving and 8.9% cost saving is possible if HEMS is applied effectively. We found the thermal sensation and overall comfort level of the occupants is high in the studied buildings. The occupants residing in those HEMS buildings are satisfied with the thermal environment and they have accepted it. Our study concluded that the significant reduction in Japanese residential energy use can be achieved by the proper utilization of the HEMS. Better thermal comfort is also possible with the use of HEMS if energy use is managed in a rationally effective manner.

Keywords: Energy reduction, thermal comfort, HEMS market, thermal environment.

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2984 Numerical Investigation of Displacement Ventilation Effectiveness

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

Displacement ventilation of a room with an occupant is modeled using CFD. The geometry of manikin is accurately represented in CFD model to minimize potential. Indoor zero equation turbulence model is used to simulate all cases and the effect of the thermal radiation from manikin is taken into account. After validation of the code, predicted mean vote, mean age of air, and ventilation effectiveness are used to predict the thermal comfort zones and indoor air quality. The effect of the inlet velocity and temperature on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality is investigated. The results show that the inlet velocity has great effect on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality and low inlet velocity is sufficient to establish comfortable conditions inside the room. In addition, the displacement ventilation system achieves not only thermal comfort in ventilated rooms, but also energy saving of fan power.

Keywords: Displacement ventilation, Energy saving, Thermal comfort, Turbulence model.

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