Synergistic Impacts and Optimization of Gas Flow Rate, Concentration of CO2, and Light Intensity on CO2 Biofixation in Wastewater Medium by Chlorella vulgaris
The synergistic impact and optimization of gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity on CO2 biofixation rate were investigated using wastewater as a medium to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris under different conditions (gas flow rate 1-8 L/min), CO2 concentration (0.03-7%), and light intensity (150-400 µmol/m2.s)). Response Surface Methodology and Box-Behnken experimental Design were applied to find optimum values for gas flow rate, CO2 concentration, and light intensity. The optimum values of the three independent variables (gas flow rate, concentration of CO2, and light intensity) and desirability were 7.5 L/min, 3.5%, and 400 µmol/m2.s, and 0.904, respectively. The highest amount of biomass produced and CO2 biofixation rate at optimum conditions were 5.7 g/L, 1.23 gL-1d-1, respectively. The synergistic effect between gas flow rate and concentration of CO2, and between gas flow rate and light intensity was significant on the three responses, while the effect between CO2 concentration and light intensity was less significant on CO2 biofixation rate. The results of this study could be highly helpful when using microalgae for CO2 biofixation in wastewater treatment.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3566347Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 499
 Razzak, S.A., et al., Integrated CO2 capture, wastewater treatment and biofuel production by microalgae culturing—A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2013. 27: p. 622-653.
 Barclay, W. and K. Apt, Strategies for bioprospecting microalgae for potential commercial applications. Handbook of microalgal culture: applied phycology and biotechnology, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2013: p. 69-79.
 Cheng, J., et al., Improving CO2 fixation efficiency by optimizing Chlorella PY-ZU1 culture conditions in sequential bioreactors. Bioresource technology, 2013. 144: p. 321-327.
 Al Ketife, A.M., S. Judd, and H. Znad, Optimization of cultivation conditions for combined nutrient removal and CO2 fixation in a batch photobioreactor. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 2017. 92(5): p. 1085-1093.
 Tebbani, S., et al., CO2 biofixation by Microalgae: automation process. 2014: Wiley-ISTE.
 Naderi, G., M.O. Tade, and H. Znad, Modified photobioreactor for biofixation of carbon dioxide by Chlorella vulgaris at different light intensities. Chemical Engineering & Technology, 2015. 38(8): p. 1371-1379.
 Cheng, L., et al., Carbon dioxide removal from air by microalgae cultured in a membrane-photobioreactor. Separation and purification technology, 2006. 50(3): p. 324-329.
 Cheng, J., et al., Improving the CO 2 fixation rate by increasing flow rate of the flue gas from microalgae in a raceway pond. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2018. 35(2): p. 498-502.
 Yoo, C., et al., Selection of microalgae for lipid production under high levels carbon dioxide. Bioresource technology, 2010. 101(1): p. S71-S74.
 Gouveia, L., et al., Microalgae biomass production using wastewater: treatment and costs: scale-up considerations. Algal Research, 2016. 16: p. 167-176.
 Maity, J.P., et al., Microalgae for third generation biofuel production, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and wastewater treatment: Present and future perspectives–A mini review. Energy, 2014. 78: p. 104-113.
 De-Bashan, L.E., et al., Removal of ammonium and phosphorus ions from synthetic wastewater by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris coimmobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Water research, 2002. 36(12): p. 2941-2948.
 Bayramoğlu, G., et al., Biosorption of mercury (II), cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous system by microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii immobilized in alginate beads. International Journal of Mineral Processing, 2006. 81(1): p. 35-43.
 Hernandez, J.-P., L.E. de-Bashan, and Y. Bashan, Starvation enhances phosphorus removal from wastewater by the microalga Chlorella spp. co-immobilized with Azospirillum brasilense. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 2006. 38(1-2): p. 190-198.
 Park, J. and R. Craggs, Wastewater treatment and algal production in high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition. Water Science and Technology, 2010: p. 633-639.
 Beuckels, A., E. Smolders, and K. Muylaert, Nitrogen availability influences phosphorus removal in microalgae-based wastewater treatment. Water research, 2015. 77: p. 98-106.
 Hodges, A., et al., Nutrient and suspended solids removal from petrochemical wastewater via microalgal biofilm cultivation. Chemosphere, 2017. 174: p. 46-48.
 Anjos, M., et al., Optimization of CO2 bio-mitigation by Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource technology, 2013. 139: p. 149-154.
 Zhang, K., N. Kurano, and S. Miyachi, Optimized aeration by carbon dioxide gas for microalgal production and mass transfer characterization in a vertical flat-plate photobioreactor. Bioprocess and biosystems engineering, 2002. 25(2): p. 97-101.
 Kasiri, S., et al., Optimization of CO2 fixation by Chlorella kessleri using response surface methodology. Chemical Engineering Science, 2015. 127: p. 31-39.
 Chinnasamy, S., et al., Biomass production potential of a wastewater alga Chlorella vulgaris ARC 1 under elevated levels of CO2 and temperature. International journal of molecular sciences, 2009. 10(2): p. 518-532.
 Hulatt, C.J. and D.N. Thomas, Productivity, carbon dioxide uptake and net energy return of microalgal bubble column photobioreactors. Bioresource technology, 2011. 102(10): p. 5775-5787.
 Fan, L.H., et al., Optimization of carbon dioxide fixation by Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in a membrane‐photobioreactor. Chemical Engineering & Technology: Industrial Chemistry‐Plant Equipment‐Process Engineering‐Biotechnology, 2007. 30(8): p. 1094-1099.
 Han, F., et al., Optimization and lipid production enhancement of microalgae culture by efficiently changing the conditions along with the growth-state. Energy Conversion and Management, 2015. 90: p. 315-322.
 Cheah, W.Y., et al., Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae. Bioresource technology, 2015. 184: p. 190-201.
 Ho, S.-H., et al., Characterization and optimization of carbohydrate production from an indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris FSP-E. Bioresource Technology, 2013. 135: p. 157-165.
 Shabani, M., CO2 bio-sequestration by Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis in response to different levels of salinity and CO2. Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2016. 6(2): p. 53.
 Assunção, J., et al., CO2 utilization in the production of biomass and biocompounds by three different microalgae. Engineering in Life Sciences, 2017. 17(10): p. 1126-1135.
 Kuo, C.-M., et al., Simultaneous microalgal biomass production and CO2 fixation by cultivating Chlorella sp. GD with aquaculture wastewater and boiler flue gas. Bioresource technology, 2016. 221: p. 241-250.
 Chaudhary, R., A.K. Dikshit, and Y.W. Tong, Carbon-dioxide biofixation and phycoremediation of municipal wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017: p. 1-8.
 Nayak, M., A. Karemore, and R. Sen, Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application. Algal Research, 2016. 16: p. 216-223.
 Kassim, M.A. and T.K. Meng, Carbon dioxide (CO2) biofixation by microalgae and its potential for biorefinery and biofuel production. Science of the Total Environment, 2017. 584: p. 1121-1129.
 Gonçalves, A.L., et al., The effect of increasing CO2 concentrations on its capture, biomass production and wastewater bioremediation by microalgae and cyanobacteria. Algal research, 2016. 14: p. 127-136.
 Ferreira, A., et al., Scenedesmus obliquus mediated brewery wastewater remediation and CO2 biofixation for green energy purposes. Journal of cleaner production, 2017. 165: p. 1316-1327.