Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Nd:YAG laser

9 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar


The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, rotating disk electrode optical emission spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonance, ICCD spectrometer, Nd:YAG laser, engine oil.

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8 Nonlinear Transformation of Laser Generated Ultrasonic Pulses in Geomaterials

Authors: Elena B. Cherepetskaya, Alexander A. Karabutov, Natalia B. Podymova, Ivan Sas


Nonlinear evolution of broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens is studied using the apparatus “GEOSCAN-02M”. Ultrasonic pulses are excited by the pulses of Qswitched Nd:YAG laser with the time duration of 10 ns and with the energy of 260 mJ. This energy can be reduced to 20 mJ by some light filters. The laser beam radius did not exceed 5 mm. As a result of the absorption of the laser pulse in the special material – the optoacoustic generator–the pulses of longitudinal ultrasonic waves are excited with the time duration of 100 ns and with the maximum pressure amplitude of 10 MPa. The immersion technique is used to measure the parameters of these ultrasonic pulses passed through a specimen, the immersion liquid is distilled water. The reference pulse passed through the cell with water has the compression and the rarefaction phases. The amplitude of the rarefaction phase is five times lower than that of the compression phase. The spectral range of the reference pulse reaches 10 MHz. The cubic-shaped specimens of the Karelian gabbro are studied with the rib length 3 cm. The ultimate strength of the specimens by the uniaxial compression is (300±10) MPa. As the reference pulse passes through the area of the specimen without cracks the compression phase decreases and the rarefaction one increases due to diffraction and scattering of ultrasound, so the ratio of these phases becomes 2.3:1. After preloading some horizontal cracks appear in the specimens. Their location is found by one-sided scanning of the specimen using the backward mode detection of the ultrasonic pulses reflected from the structure defects. Using the computer processing of these signals the images are obtained of the cross-sections of the specimens with cracks. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 0.1 MPa to 5 MPa the nonlinear transformation of the ultrasonic pulse passed through the specimen with horizontal cracks results in the decrease by 2.5 times of the amplitude of the rarefaction phase and in the increase of its duration by 2.1 times. By the increase of the reference pulse amplitude from 5 MPa to 10 MPa the time splitting of the phases is observed for the bipolar pulse passed through the specimen. The compression and rarefaction phases propagate with different velocities. These features of the powerful broadband ultrasonic pulses passed through the rock specimens can be described by the hysteresis model of Preisach- Mayergoyz and can be used for the location of cracks in the optically opaque materials.

Keywords: Cracks, geological materials, nonlinear evolution of ultrasonic pulses, rock.

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7 Ultraviolet Lasing from Vertically-Aligned ZnO Nanowall Array

Authors: Masahiro Takahashi, Kosuke Harada, Shihomi Nakao, Mitsuhiro Higashihata, Hiroshi Ikenoue, Daisuke Nakamura, Tatsuo Okada


Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the light emitting materials in ultraviolet (UV) region. In addition, ZnO nanostructures are also attracting increasing research interest as buildingblocks for UV optoelectronic applications. We have succeeded in synthesizing vertically-aligned ZnO nanostructures by laser interference patterning, which is catalyst-free and non-contact technique. In this study, vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall arrays were synthesized using two-beam interference. The maximum height and average thickness of the ZnO nanowalls were about 4.5µm and 200 nm, respectively.UV lasing from a piece of the ZnO nanowall was obtained under the third harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser excitation, and the estimated threshold power density for lasing was about 150 kW/cm2. Furthermore, UV lasing from the vertically-aligned ZnO nanowall was also achieved. The results indicate that ZnO nanowalls can be applied to random laser.

Keywords: Zinc Oxide, nanowall, interference laser, UV lasing.

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6 Some Studies on Temperature Distribution Modeling of Laser Butt Welding of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Sheets

Authors: N. Siva Shanmugam, G. Buvanashekaran, K. Sankaranarayanasamy


In this research work, investigations are carried out on Continuous Wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser welding system after preliminary experimentation to understand the influencing parameters associated with laser welding of AISI 304. The experimental procedure involves a series of laser welding trials on AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with various combinations of process parameters like beam power, beam incident angle and beam incident angle. An industrial 2 kW CW Nd:YAG laser system, available at Welding Research Institute (WRI), BHEL Tiruchirappalli, is used for conducting the welding trials for this research. After proper tuning of laser beam, laser welding experiments are conducted on AISI 304 grade sheets to evaluate the influence of various input parameters on weld bead geometry i.e. bead width (BW) and depth of penetration (DOP). From the laser welding results, it is noticed that the beam power and welding speed are the two influencing parameters on depth and width of the bead. Three dimensional finite element simulation of high density heat source have been performed for laser welding technique using finite element code ANSYS for predicting the temperature profile of laser beam heat source on AISI 304 stainless steel sheets. The temperature dependent material properties for AISI 304 stainless steel are taken into account in the simulation, which has a great influence in computing the temperature profiles. The latent heat of fusion is considered by the thermal enthalpy of material for calculation of phase transition problem. A Gaussian distribution of heat flux using a moving heat source with a conical shape is used for analyzing the temperature profiles. Experimental and simulated values for weld bead profiles are analyzed for stainless steel material for different beam power, welding speed and beam incident angle. The results obtained from the simulation are compared with those from the experimental data and it is observed that the results of numerical analysis (FEM) are in good agreement with experimental results, with an overall percentage of error estimated to be within ±6%.

Keywords: Laser welding, Butt weld, 304 SS, FEM.

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5 Dominant Flow Features of Two Inclined Impinging Jets Confined in Large Enclosure

Authors: T. Chammem, H. Mhiri, O. Vauquelin


The present study was provided to examine the vortical structures generated by two inclined impinging jets with experimental and numerical investigations. The jets are issuing with a pitch angle α=40° into a confined quiescent fluid. The experimental investigation on flow patterns was visualized by using olive particles injected into the jets illuminated by Nd:Yag laser light to reveal the finer details of the confined jets interaction. It was observed that two counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVPs) were generated in the near region. A numerical investigation was also performed. First, the numerical results were validates against the experimental results and then the numerical model was used to study the effect of section ratio on the evolution of the CVPs. Our results show promising agreement with experimental data, and indicate that our model has the potential to produce useful and accurate data regarding the evolution of CVPs.

Keywords: Inclined impinging jets, counter-rotating vortex pair, CFD, experimental investigation, section ratio.

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4 High Energy Dual-Wavelength Mid-Infrared Extracavity KTA Optical Parametric Oscillator

Authors: Hongjun Liu, Qibing Sun, Nan Huang, Shaolan Zhu, Wei Zhao


A high energy dual-wavelength extracavity KTA optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with excellent stability and beam quality, which is pumped by a Q-switched single-longitudinal-mode Nd:YAG laser, has been demonstrated based on a type II noncritical phase matching (NCPM) KTA crystal. The maximum pulse energy of 10.2 mJ with the output stability of better than 4.1% rms at 3.467 μm is obtained at the repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 2 ns, and the 11.9 mJ of 1.535 μm radiation is obtained simultaneously. This extracavity NCPM KTA OPO is very useful when high energy, high beam quality and smooth time domain are needed.

Keywords: mid-infrared laser, OPO, dual-wavelength laser

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3 Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Laser Welded Magnesium Alloys with Silver Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Ishak, K. Yamasaki, K. Maekawa


Magnesium alloys have gained increased attention in recent years in automotive, electronics, and medical industry. This because of magnesium alloys have better properties than aluminum alloys and steels in respects of their low density and high strength to weight ratio. However, the main problems of magnesium alloy welding are the crack formation and the appearance of porosity during the solidification. This paper proposes a unique technique to weld two thin sheets of AZ31B magnesium alloy using a paste containing Ag nanoparticles. The paste containing Ag nanoparticles of 5 nm in average diameter and an organic solvent was used to coat the surface of AZ31B thin sheet. The coated sheet was heated at 100 °C for 60 s to evaporate the solvent. The dried sheet was set as a lower AZ31B sheet on the jig, and then lap fillet welding was carried out by using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser in a closed box filled with argon gas. The characteristics of the microstructure and the corrosion behavior of the joints were analyzed by opticalmicroscopy (OM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and immersion corrosion test. The experimental results show that the wrought AZ31B magnesium alloy can be joined successfully using Ag nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles insert promote grain refinement, narrower the HAZ width and wider bond width compared to weld without and insert. Corrosion rate of welded AZ31B with Ag nanoparticles reduced up to 44 % compared to base metal. The improvement of corrosion resistance of welded AZ31B with Ag nanoparticles due to finer grains and large grain boundaries area which consist of high Al content. β-phase Mg17Al12 could serve as effective barrier and suppressed further propagation of corrosion. Furthermore, Ag distribution in fusion zone provide much more finer grains and may stabilize the magnesium solid solution making it less soluble or less anodic in aqueous

Keywords: Laser welding, magnesium alloys, nanoparticles, mechanical property

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2 Optical Limiting Characteristics of Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: G.Vinitha, A.Ramalingam


TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180°C from TiOSO4 aqueous solution with1m/l concentration. The obtained products were coated with silica by means of a seeded polymerization technique for a coating time of 1440 minutes to obtain well defined [email protected] core-shell structure. The uncoated and coated nanoparticles were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study their physico-chemical properties. Evidence from XRD and FTIR results show that SiO2 is homogenously coated on the surface of titania particles. FTIR spectra show that there exists an interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 and results in the formation of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface of TiO2 particles and SiO2 coating layer. The non linear optical limiting properties of TiO2 and [email protected] nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol were studied at 532nm using 5ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Three-photon absorption is responsible for optical limiting characteristics in these nanoparticles and it is seen that the optical nonlinearity is enhanced in core-shell structures when compared with single counterparts. This effective three-photon type absorption at this wavelength, is of potential application in fabricating optical limiting devices.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, optical limiting devicesseeded polymerization technique, three-photon type absorption

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1 Encrypted Audio Transmission Using Synchronized Nd: YAG Lasers

Authors: R.M. López-Gutiérrez, C. Cruz-Hernández, C. Posadas-Castillo, E.E.García-Guerrero


Encoded information based on synchronization of coupled chaotic Nd:YAG lasers in master-slave configuration is numerically studied. Encoding, transmission, and decoding of information in optical chaotic communication with a single channel is presented. We analyze the robustness of the encrypted audio transmission in a channel noise. In order to illustrate this synchronization robustness, we present two cases of study: synchronization and transmission with a single channel without and with noise in the channel.

Keywords: Encryption, Secure coomunication, Chaos, Synchronization, Complex networks, Nd:YAG laser.

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