Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4823

Search results for: western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

4823 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar

Abstract:

Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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4822 Role of Interlukin-18 in Primary Knee Osteoarthritis: Clinical, Laboratory and Radiological Study

Authors: Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim, Enas Mohamed Shahine, Abeer Shawky El Hadedy, Emmanuel Kamal Aziz Saba, Ghada Salah Attia Hussein

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease characterized by a progressive degradation of articular cartilage and is the leading cause of disability in elderly persons. IL-18 contributes to the destruction of cartilage and bone in the disease process of arthritis. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in primary knee OA patients. Serum level of IL-18 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 primary knee OA patients and compared to 20 age and gender-matched healthy volunteers as a control group. Radiographic severity of OA was assessed by Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) global scale. Pain, stiffness and functional assessment were done using Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). OA patients had significantly higher serum IL-18 level than in control group (420.93 ± 345.4 versus 151.03 ± 144.16 pg/ml, P=0.001). Serum level of IL-18 was positively correlated with KL global scale (P=0.001). There were no statistically significant correlations between serum level of IL-18 and pain, stiffness, function subscales and total WOMAC index scores among the studied patients. In conclusions, IL-18 has a role in the pathogenesis of OA and it is positively correlated with the radiographic damage of OA.

Keywords: Interlukin-18, knee osteoarthritis, primary osteoarthritis, WOMAC scale

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4821 Comparative Study Between Continuous Versus Pulsed Ultrasound in Knee Osteoarthritis

Authors: Karim Mohamed Fawzy Ghuiba, Alaa Aldeen Abd Al Hakeem Balbaa, Shams Elbaz

Abstract:

Objectives: To compare between the effects continuous and pulsed ultrasound on pain and function in patient with knee osteoarthritis. Design: Randomized-Single blinded Study. Participants: 6 patients with knee osteoarthritis with mean age 53.66±3.61years, Altman Grade II or III. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups; Group A received continuous ultrasound and Group B received pulsed ultrasound. Outcome measures: Effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound were evaluated by pain threshold assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and function assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) scores. Results: There was no significant decrease in VAS and WOMAC scores in patients treated with pulsed or continuous ultrasound; and there were no significant differences between both groups. Conclusion: there is no difference between the effects of pulsed and continuous ultrasound in pain relief or functional outcome in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

Keywords: knee osteoarthritis, pulsed ultrasound, ultrasound therapy, continuous ultrasound

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4820 Comparison Of Data Mining Models To Predict Future Bridge Conditions

Authors: Pablo Martinez, Emad Mohamed, Osama Mohsen, Yasser Mohamed

Abstract:

Highway and bridge agencies, such as the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario, use the Bridge Condition Index (BCI) which is defined as the weighted condition of all bridge elements to determine the rehabilitation priorities for its bridges. Therefore, accurate forecasting of BCI is essential for bridge rehabilitation budgeting planning. The large amount of data available in regard to bridge conditions for several years dictate utilizing traditional mathematical models as infeasible analysis methods. This research study focuses on investigating different classification models that are developed to predict the bridge condition index in the province of Ontario, Canada based on the publicly available data for 2800 bridges over a period of more than 10 years. The data preparation is a key factor to develop acceptable classification models even with the simplest one, the k-NN model. All the models were tested, compared and statistically validated via cross validation and t-test. A simple k-NN model showed reasonable results (within 0.5% relative error) when predicting the bridge condition in an incoming year.

Keywords: asset management, bridge condition index, data mining, forecasting, infrastructure, knowledge discovery in databases, maintenance, predictive models

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4819 The Attitude and Willingness to Use Telecare for Arthritis Patients

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang

Abstract:

Nowadays, the population is aging, the number of people who need to be taken care of is increased, but the manpower and funding are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to explore the attitudes and willingness of arthritis patients to adopt telecare and to take a large medical institution in the central area of Taiwan as a sample hospital. A structured questionnaire (using the Likert five-point scale) was used to collect chronic patients over 20 years old as sample data, and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were effectively collected. The SPSS 18.0 statistical software was used for reliability analysis and independent sample t-test to explore the differences in attitudes and willingness to use telecare for arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients. The Cronbach's alpha value of this study questionnaire was above 0.94, showing good reliability. Arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients had statistically significant differences in attitudes toward telecare, while the willingness to use did not reach statistically significant differences. In addition, the average attitude and intention of arthritis patients for telecare are 3.38 and 3.41, respectively, indicating that arthritis patients have a certain degree of attitude and willingness to adopt telecare, which is worthy of follow-up research and practical industry push.

Keywords: telecare, arthritis patients, attitudes, intention

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4818 Physical, Psychological, and Sexual Implications of Living with Rheumatoid Arthritis among Women in Re

Authors: Anwaar Anwar Tayel

Abstract:

Background: Rheumatic arthritis (RA) affect all aspects of patients' life, lead to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient's life. Aim of the study: Identify physical, psychological, and sexual implications of rheumatoid arthritis among women in reproductive age. In addition to investigating the correlations between physical functional disability, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction.Settings: The study was conducted at Rheumatology Clinic at the Main University Hospital of Alexandria. Subjects: Purposive sample was chosen from women patients with rheumatoid arthritis to be subjects of this study (n=250). Tools: Four tools were used to collect data. Tool I: Socio-demographic questionnaire. Tool II: Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ- DI). Tool III: Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). Tool IV: The Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (SDQ) Results: The majority of the studied women suffer from severe physical disability, extreme level of depression, anxiety, and about half of them had an extreme level of stress. Also, the majority of the studied women had a severe level of sexual dysfunction. Also, statistically significant correlations between women's physical disability index, psychological problems, and sexual dysfunction were detected. Conclusion: The findings from this study confirm that women patients with RA suffer from multiple negative implications on the physical, psychological and sexual functions. Recommendations: Provide ongoing support to the patients from the time of diagnosis throughout their care and management. To help them to manage their pain and disabilities, improve their sexual function, promote their mental health, and optimize psychosocial functioning

Keywords: pysical, spycholgical, sexual, implication, rheumatic arthritis

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4817 Evaluation of Computer Usage and Related Health Hazards

Authors: B. O. Adegoke, B. O. Ola, D. T. Ademiluyi

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of computer and its related health hazard among computer users in South-Western zone of Nigeria. Two hundred and eighteen (218) computer users constituted the population used to evaluate association between posture, extensive computer use and related health hazard. The instruments for the study are a questionnaire on demographics, lifestyle, body features and work ability index while mean rating, standard deviation and t test were used for data analysis. Identified health related hazard include damages to the eyesight, bad posture, arthritis, musculoskeletal disorders, headache, stress and so on. The results showed that factors such as work demand, posture, closeness to computer screen and excessive working hours on computers constitute health hazards in both old and young computer users of various gender. It is therefore recommended that total number of hours spent with computer should be monitored and controlled.

Keywords: computer-related health hazard, musculoskeletal disorders, computer usage, work ability index

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4816 Tertiary Education Trust Fund Intervention Projects and Resource Utilization in Universities in South Western States, Nigeria

Authors: Oluwlola Felicia Kikelomo

Abstract:

This study examined the influence of Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETF) intervention projects and resource utilization in universities in South Western State of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive design of the correlation type. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six out of 14 beneficiary universities in the States. Instruments used to collect data were TETF Intervention Projects Checklist (TETFIPC), Educational Facilities Checklists (EFC) and Resources Utilization Checklists (RUC). The research questions raised were answered using percentage and utilization rates, while Pearson product-moment correlation statistic was used to test the hypotheses formulated to guide the study 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study indicated that building construction had the highest TETF allocation (64.5%), while staff development opportunities had the least (1.1%) in the sampled universities. Significant and positive relationship existed between time and space utilization rates and student academic performance in the universities (r (1,800) = 0.63 and r (1,800) = 0.59, p ≤ 0.05 respectively). Based, on these findings, it was recommended that there should be periodic evaluation of completed TETF projects and utilization to ensure that TETF funds are properly used for the approved projects; and that TETF should improve on the provision of educational facilities to universities for staff and students’ use through increase in education tax from 2% to 4% with collaboration with the world bank and other funding agencies as being practiced in other countries of the world such as Norway, Spain, and United Kingdom.

Keywords: tertiary education trust fund, intervention, education, human development

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4815 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

Abstract:

One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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4814 The Role of the Founding Ideals of a University in Higher Education

Authors: Masanori Kimura

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The “founding spirit” of a Japanese university is similar to the mission statement of a Western university, but the difference between the two is that the former more closely reflects the founder’s inner world because it usually originates from the strong personal beliefs that the founder held when establishing the university. To find how much this ideology actually valued in today’s higher education, this paper surveys 2091 job openings for foreign language full-time faculty positions, posted by Japanese private universities from 2012 to 2016. The results suggest that women’s universities and universities with religious affiliations have a tendency to request that successful candidates observe their founding spirit, or at least demonstrate some understanding of the ideology after being hired. On the other hand, co-ed universities and universities with no religious affiliations do not show such a distinct tendency. A chi-square test revealed that this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p<.01). Furthermore, the paper argues that it is not always appropriate for universities to evaluate themselves based on a single evaluation scale such as university rankings, and that both faculty and staff members need to be more aware of the founding spirit to improve the quality of the education the university provides.

Keywords: founding spirit, higher education, university administrative management, university evaluation

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4813 Spironolactone in Psoriatic Arthritis: Safety, Efficacy and Effect on Disease Activity

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan

Abstract:

Therapeutic approaches used previously relied on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that had only partial clinical benefit and were associated with significant toxicity. Spironolactone, an oral aldosterone antagonist, suppresses inflammatory mediators. Clinical efficacy of spironolactone compared with placebo in patients with active psoriatic arthritis despite treatment with prior traditional DMARDs. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled study patients (n=31) were randomized to placebo and spironolactone (2 m/kg/day). Patients on background concurrent DMARDs continued stable doses (methotrexate, leflunomide, and/or sulfasalazine). Primary outcome measures were the assessment of disease activity measures i.e. 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and diseases activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA) at week 24. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire–Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at week 24. Additional efficacy outcome measures at week 24 included improvements in the markers of inflammation (ESR and CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1. At week 24, spironolactone significantly reduced disease activity measure DAS-28 (p<0.001) and DAPSA (p=0.001) compared with placebo. Significant improvements in key secondary measures HAQ-DI (disability index) were evident with spironolactone (p=0.02) versus placebo. After week 24, there was significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines level TNF-α, IL-6 (p<0.01) as compared with placebo group. However, there was no significant improvement in IL-1 in both treatment and placebo groups. There were minor side effects which did not mandate stopping of spironolactone. No change in any biochemical profile was noted after spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone was effective in the treatment of PsA, improving disease activity, physical function and suppressing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated.

Keywords: spironolactone, inflammation, inflammatory cytokine, psoriatic arthritis

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4812 E-Learning Network Support Services: A Comparative Case Study of Australian and United States Universities

Authors: Sayed Hadi Sadeghi

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This research study examines the current state of support services for e-network practice in an Australian and an American university. It identifies information that will be of assistance to Australian and American universities to improve their existing online programs. The study investigated the two universities using a quantitative methodological approach. Participants were students, lecturers and admins of universities engaged with online courses and learning management systems. The support services for e-network practice variables, namely academic support services, administrative support and technical support, were investigated for e-practice. Evaluations of e-network support service and its sub factors were above average and excellent in both countries, although the American admins and lecturers tended to evaluate this factor higher than others did. Support practice was evaluated higher by all participants of an American university than by Australians. One explanation for the results may be that most suppliers of the Australian university e-learning system were from eastern Asian cultural backgrounds with a western networking support perspective about e-learning.

Keywords: support services, e-Network practice, Australian universities, United States universities

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4811 Assessment of Acquired Language Disorders in Bilingual French-English Adults in Ontario: Current Practice and Challenges

Authors: Sophie Laurence, Catherine Rivard

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The assessment of acquired language disorders in the adult population, whether for a bilingual or monolingual adult, is a complex process that requires the speech-language pathologist (SLP) to make a judicious choice when selecting the assessment method and tools. However, this task is even more complex with Ontario's bilingual population due to the lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate tools for this population. Numerous researches examined language assessment of the pediatric bilingual population; however, few studies have focused on assessing acquired language disorders in bilingual adults. This study's main objective is to identify the challenges that SLPs encounter when assessing language in the bilingual English-French adult population in Ontario to ultimately be able to serve this population in the future better. An online questionnaire was made available to 1325 members of the College of Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists of Ontario (CASLPO) who work with the adult population. The answers to this questionnaire (n = 71) allowed us to identify the tools and strategies most commonly used by SLPs in current practice, identify the assessment challenges faced by SLPs, and determine the causes of these challenges as well as potential solutions. In an English and French assessment, the Western Aphasia Battery, the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, and the Boston Naming Test were the three tools that respondents deemed to be the most relevant for the assessment. Besides, the results revealed that limited access to SLPs and interpreters who speak the client's language and the lack of standardized and normalized assessment tools for Ontario's French-speaking and bilingual English-French clientele are at the heart of the challenges of current SLP practice. Consistent with these findings, respondents highlighted two potential solutions to address these challenges: SLPs have access to standardized/normalized tools for the population under study and better access to SLPs and interpreters who speak the client's language.

Keywords: assessment, acquired language disorders, bilingualism, speech-Language pathology, adult population

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4810 A Comparison between Russian and Western Approach for Deep Foundation Design

Authors: Saeed Delara, Kendra MacKay

Abstract:

Varying methodologies are considered for pile design for both Russian and Western approaches. Although both approaches rely on toe and side frictional resistances, different calculation methods are proposed to estimate pile capacity. The Western approach relies on compactness (internal friction angle) of soil for cohesionless soils and undrained shear strength for cohesive soils. The Russian approach relies on grain size for cohesionless soils and liquidity index for cohesive soils. Though most recommended methods in the Western approaches are relatively simple methods to predict pile settlement, the Russian approach provides a detailed method to estimate single pile and pile group settlement. Details to calculate pile axial capacity and settlement using the Russian and Western approaches are discussed and compared against field test results.

Keywords: pile capacity, pile settlement, Russian approach, western approach

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4809 Polymer Nanocarrier for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy

Authors: Vijayakameswara Rao Neralla, Jueun Jeon, Jae Hyung Park

Abstract:

To develop a potential nanocarrier for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we prepared a hyaluronic acid (HA)-5β-cholanic acid (CA) conjugate with an acid-labile ketal linker. This conjugate could self-assemble in aqueous conditions to produce pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles as potential carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX). MTX was rapidly released from nanoparticles under inflamed synovial tissue in RA. In vitro cytotoxicity data showed that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles were non-toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo biodistribution results confirmed that, after their systemic administration, pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles selectively accumulated in the inflamed joints of collagen-induced arthritis mice. These results indicate that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as a drug carrier for RA therapy.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, hyaluronic acid, nanocarrier, self-assembly, MTX

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4808 Branding and Posting Strategy on Facebook Pages of Higher Education Institutions in Ontario, Canada in 2019-2020: A Quantitative and Qualitative Investigation

Authors: Mai To

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Higher education institutions (HEIs) in Ontario, Canada have invested in social media presence for multiple purposes, such as branding, student’ engagement, and recruitment. To have a full picture of the social media strategy implemented by HEIs in Ontario, Canada, this study used a mixed-method approach to analyze Facebook posts’ characteristics and content. A total of 1789 Facebook posts from September 2019 to April 2020 of six selected HEIs were collected for analysis and coding based on five pre-determined branding positions: Elite, Nurturing, Campus, Outcome, and Commodity. Besides, the study also calculated the engagement rate for each social media practice to measure its effectiveness. The results show that there were not many differences in practices such as posting frequency, length, types, and timing among HEIs. However, the distribution of branding positions and content targeting future students versus current students was varied, although the HEIs employed all five branding positions and targeted the same lists of audiences. Some practices such as evening post for colleges and nurturing branding for universities attracted significantly higher engagement. This study provides a review of current social media practices and branding strategy, as well as informs the practices that can better engage the audiences.

Keywords: branding, higher education, social media, student engagement, student recruitment

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4807 A Framework for Analyzing Public Interaction of Saudi Universities on Twitter

Authors: Sahar Al-Qahtani, Rabeeh Ayaz Abbasi, Naif Radi Aljohani

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Many universities use social media platforms as new communication channels to disseminate information and promptly communicate with their audience. As Twitter is one of the widely used social media platforms, this research aims to explore the adaption and utilization of Twitter by universities. We propose a framework called 'Social Network Analysis for Universities on Twitter' (SNAUT) to analyze the usage of Twitter by universities and to measure their interaction with public. The study includes a sample of around 110,000 tweets from 36 Saudi universities, including both public and private universities. Using SNAUT, we can (1) investigate the purpose of using Twitter by universities, (2) determine the broad topics discussed by them, and (3) identify the groups closely associated with the universities. The results show that most of the Saudi universities (whether public or private) actively use Twitter. Results also reveal that public universities respond to public queries more frequently, but private universities stand out more in terms of information dissemination using retweets and diverse hashtags. Finally, we develop a ranking mechanism in SNAUT for ranking universities based on their social interaction with the public on Twitter.

Keywords: social media, twitter, social network analysis, universities, higher education, Saudi Arabia

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4806 Ameliorative Effect of Martynia annua Linn. on Collagen-Induced Arthritis via Modulating Cytokines and Oxidative Stress in Mice

Authors: Alok Pal Jain, Santram Lodhi

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Martynia annua Linn. (Martyniaccae) is traditionally used in inflammation and applied locally to tuberculosis glands of camel’s neck. The leaves used topically to bites of venomous insects and wounds of domestic animals. Chemical examination of Martynia annua leaves revealed the presence of glycosides, tannins, proteins, phenols and flavonoids. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-arthritic activity of methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves. Methanolic extract of Martynia annua leaves was tested by using in vivo collagen-induced arthritis mouse model to investigate the anti-rheumatoid arthritis activity. In addition, antioxidant effect of methanolic extract was determined by the estimation of antioxidants level in joint tissues. The severity of arthritis was assessed by arthritis score and edema. Levels of cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, in the joint tissue homogenate were measured using ELISA. A high dose (250 mg/kg) of methanolic extract was significantly reduced the degree of inflammation in mice as compared with reference drug. Antioxidants level and malondialdehyde (MDA) in joint tissue homogenate found significantly (p < 0.05) higher. Methanolic extract at dose of 250 mg/kg modulated the cytokines production and suppressed the oxidative stress in the mice with collagen-induced arthritis. This study suggested that Martynia annua might be alternative herbal medicine for the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Martynia annua, collagen, rheumatoid arthritis, antioxidants

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4805 Stereotyping of Non-Western Students in Western Universities: Applying Critical Discourse Analysis to Undermine Educational Hegemony

Authors: Susan Lubbers

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This study applies critical discourse analysis to the language used by educators to frame international students of Asian backgrounds in Anglo-Western universities as quiet, shy, passive and unable to think critically. Emphasis is on the self-promoted ‘internationalised’ Australian tertiary context, where negative stereotypes are commonly voiced not only in the academy but also in the media. Parallels are drawn as well with other Anglo-Western educational contexts. The study critically compares the discourse of these persistent negative stereotypes, with in-class and interview discourses of international students of Asian and Western language, cultural and educational backgrounds enrolled in a Media and Popular Culture unit in an Australian university. The focus of analysis of the student discourse is on their engagement in critical dialogic interactions on the topics of culture and interculturality. The evidence is also drawn from student interviews and focus groups and from observation of whole-class discussion participation rates. The findings of the research project provide evidence that counters the myth of student as problem. They point rather to the widespread lack of intercultural awareness of Western educators and students as being at the heart of the negative perceptions of students of Asian backgrounds. The study suggests the efficacy of an approach to developing intercultural competence that is embedded, or integrated, into tertiary programs. The presentation includes an overview of the main strategies that have been developed by the tertiary educator (author) to support the development of intercultural competence of and among the student cohort. The evidence points to the importance of developing intercultural competence among tertiary educators and students. The failure by educators to ensure that the diverse voices, ideas and perspectives of students from all cultural, educational and language backgrounds are heard in our classrooms means that our universities can hardly be regarded or promoted as genuinely internationalised. They will continue as undemocratic institutions that perpetrate persistent Western educational hegemony.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical thinking, embedding, intercultural competence, interculturality, international student, internationalised education

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4804 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

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Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

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4803 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad

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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: NCD, well-being, older person, India

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4802 ASEAN Academics’ Perspective of Collaboration among ASEAN Universities

Authors: Hazri Jamil, Munir Shuib, Farhah Muhammad

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In line with the 27th ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Summit 2015 principles in Kuala Lumpur on higher education, synergised collaboration is aimed to promote resilience and vibrancy between institutions and academia. Hence, this paper aims to discuss matters concerning collaboration among ASEAN Universities derived from the perspectives of academics from the universities in ASEAN countries. The data were collected from 234 respondents of nine universities in ASEAN using questionnaires and online survey analyzed using purposive sampling. The findings revealed that more than half of the respondents in this survey were optimistic that the ASEAN universities have a great potential in collaboration among academics in ASEAN countries. The findings also indicated that collaboration among ASEAN universities will have a positive impact on the ASEAN economy and society. Finally, to enhance collaboration among the universities in ASEAN, educational improvement and exchanges as well as environmental issues are among the noteworthy aspects which need to be taken into account.

Keywords: academics, ASEAN, collaboration, higher education, universities

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4801 Role of Inflammatory Markers in Arthritic Rats Treated with Ethanolic Bark Extract of Albizia procera

Authors: M. Sangeetha, D. Chamundeeswari, C. Saravanababu, C. Rose, V. Gopal

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction, which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate role of inflammatory markers in arthritic rats treated with ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera. The protective effect of ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml FCA in the foot pad of left hind limb of rats. ETBE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) and the reference drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) were administered to arthritic rats. Paw volume was measured for all the animals before inducing arthritis and thereafter once in seven days by using plethysmometer for 42 days. Gene expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-10 were investigated in paw tissues. Up regulation of IL-1β and Down regulation IL-10 were observed in CFA injected rats when compared to normal rats. ETBE attenuated these alterations dose dependently when compared to the vehicle treated rats. These results provide insights into the mechanism of anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic use of Albizia procera in arthritis.

Keywords: CFA-Complete Freund’s adjuvant, ETBE – ethanolic bark extract, IL- interleukins, RA-rheumatoid arthritis

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4800 Cold Tomato Paste as an Alternative Therapy for Elderly Clients with Exacerbation of Arthritis

Authors: Mary Therese G. Caluna, Mark Justin B. Campanero, Erlin Maris T. Cantiller, Claudine Mae A. Cantillo, Nerissa L. Caño

Abstract:

Objective: The study determined the effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain caused by exacerbation of arthritis in the elderly, specifically on clients 60 years old and above. The study focused on alternative, cost-effective and non-pharmacological techniques in relieving pain experienced by the older people with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Using purposive non-probability sampling, the researchers gathered a total number of 40 subjects that passed the inclusion criteria provided by the researchers. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental group (20 subjects) and control groups (20 subjects). The Numeric Rating 11-point Scale (NRS-11) was utilized to assess the pain level of the subject prior the application of the treatment and after the application of the treatment. Key findings: There is a significant difference in the pain levels of the experimental group before and after the application of cold tomato paste. This indicates that that the application of cold tomato paste alleviates the pain experienced by elderly clients with exacerbation of arthritis. Conclusion: The effectiveness of cold tomato paste in relieving pain experienced by elderly clients who are in exacerbation of arthritis was proven to be evidence-based. The cold tomato paste application has significant impact in the field of nursing and therefore, can be used in both clinical trials and practices. The effectiveness of cold tomato application promotes innovation in the field of nursing, thus encouraging further researches regarding other uses of tomato and other herbal interventions to relieve the pain caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: alternative therapy, arthritis, cold tomato paste, elderly clients, exacerbation

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
4799 The Relevance of Intellectual Capital: An Analysis of Spanish Universities

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

Abstract:

In recent years, the intellectual capital reporting in higher education institutions has been acquiring progressive importance worldwide. Intellectual capital approaches becomes critical at universities, mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output as well as input in these institutions. Universities produce knowledge, either through scientific and technical research (the results of investigation, publications, etc.) or through teaching (students trained and productive relationships with their stakeholders). The purpose of the present paper is to identify the intangible elements about which university stakeholders demand most information. The results of a study done at Spanish universities are used to see which groups of universities have stakeholders who are more proactive to the disclosure of intellectual capital.

Keywords: intellectual capital, universities, Spain, cluster analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
4798 Good Functional Outcome after Late Surgical Treatment for Traumatic Rotator Cuff Tear, a Retrospective Cohort Study

Authors: Soheila Zhaeentan, Anders Von Heijne, Elisabet Hagert, André Stark, Björn Salomonsson

Abstract:

Recommended treatment for traumatic rotator cuff tear (TRCT) is surgery within a few weeks after injury if the diagnosis is made early, especially if a functional impairment of the shoulder exists. This may lead to the assumption that a poor outcome then can be expected in delayed surgical treatment, when the patient is diagnosed at a later stage. The aim of this study was to investigate if a surgical repair later than three months after injury may result in successful outcomes and patient satisfaction. There is evidence in literature that good results of treatment can be expected up to three months after the injury, but little is known of later treatment with cuff repair. 73 patients (75 shoulders), 58 males/17 females, mean age 59 (range 34-­‐72), who had undergone surgical intervention for TRCT between January 1999 to December 2011 at our clinic, were included in this study. Patients were assessed by MRI investigation, clinical examination, Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index (WORC), Oxford Shoulder Score, Constant-­‐Murley Score, EQ-­‐5D and patient subjective satisfaction at follow-­‐up. The patients treated surgically within three months ( < 12 weeks) after injury (39 cases) were compared with patients treated more than three months ( ≥ 12 weeks) after injury (36 cases). WORC was used as the primary outcome measure and the other variables as secondary. A senior consultant radiologist, blinded to patient category and clinical outcome, evaluated all MRI-­‐images. Rotator cuff integrity, presence of arthritis, fatty degeneration and muscle atrophy was evaluated in all cases. The average follow-­‐up time was 56 months (range 14-­‐149) and the average time from injury to repair was 16 weeks (range 3-­‐104). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the assessed parameters or scores between the two groups. The mean WORC score was 77 (early group, range 25-­‐ 100 and late group, range 27-­‐100) for both groups (p= 0.86), Constant-­‐Murley Score (p= 0.91), Oxford Shoulder Score (p= 0.79), EQ-­‐5D index (p= 0.86). Re-­‐tear frequency was 24% for both groups, and the patients with re-­‐tear reported less satisfaction with outcome. Discussion and conclusion: This study shows that surgical repair of TRCT performed later than three months after injury may result in good functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. However, this does not motivate an intentional delay in surgery when there is an indication for surgical repair as that delay may adversely affect the possibility to perform a repair. Our results show that surgeons may safely consider surgical repair even if a delay in diagnosis has occurred. A retrospective cohort study on 75 shoulders shows good functional result after traumatic rotator cuff tear (TRCT) treated surgically up to one year after the injury.

Keywords: traumatic rotator cuff injury, time to surgery, surgical outcome, retrospective cohort study

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4797 The Impact of University League Tables on the Development of Non-Elite Universities. A Case Study of England

Authors: Lois Cheung

Abstract:

This article examines the impact of League Tables on non-elite universities in the English higher education system. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of rankings in strategic planning by low-ranked universities in this highly competitive higher education market. A sample of non-elite universities was selected for a content analysis based on the measures used by The Guardian rankings. Interestingly, these universities care about their rankings within a single national system. The content analysis appears to be an effective approach to investigating the presence of such influences. It is particularly noteworthy that all sampled universities use these measure terminologies in their strategic plans, missions and news coverage on their institutional web-pages. This analysis may be an example of the key challenges that many low-ranking universities in England are probably facing in the highly competitive and diversified higher education market. These universities use rankings to communicate with their stakeholders, mainly students, in order to fill places to secure their major source of funding. The study concludes with comments on the likely effects of the rankings paradigm in undermining the contributions of non-elite universities.

Keywords: League tables, measures, post-1992 universities, ranking, strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4796 The New Universities Law in Saudi Arabia, Bath to Develop the Higher Education in the Kingdom

Authors: Gassrm Alfaleh

Abstract:

The new Law of Universities has many goals, one of them is how each university can be independent financially and educationally. Another goal is to open doors for foreign universities to open branches in the kingdom. This paper focuses on how these goals can create competition between local and foreign universities. And how this new law can bring significant changes in the Kingdom’s higher education sector. The methodology of this study is to compare the new Saudi law to another legal system, especially in Australia. And how this new law can affect the higher education environment and Saudi culture. It covers the view of other different legal jurisdictions and compares it to this new law. The major findings are that the new law of universities can give a chance to Saudi universities to achieve their goals based on empowerment, quality, and participate in developing the educational and research methods. It may allow universities to start their own resources, permit them to create endowments and companies, and may allow them to create their degrees and programs. It will help those universities to increase the efficiency of spending, developing financial resources, and human capabilities for universities in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. As a result, this paper states whether this new law can improve higher education in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: law, education, Saudi legal system, university

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4795 Intellectual Capital and Transparency in Universities: An Empirical Study

Authors: Yolanda Ramirez, Angel Tejada, Agustin Baidez

Abstract:

This paper shows the general perceptions of Spanish university stakeholders in relation to the university’s annual reports and the adequacy and potential of intellectual capital reporting. To this end, a questionnaire was designed and sent to every member of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. It was thought that these participants would provide a good example of the attitude of university stakeholders since they represent the different social groups connected with universities. From the results of this study we are in the position of confirming the need for universities to offer information on intellectual capital in their accounting information model.

Keywords: intellectual capital, disclosure, stakeholders, universities, annual report

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
4794 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

Abstract:

Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

Procedia PDF Downloads 397