Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: metaphor

84 Metaphors Investigation between President Xi Jinping of China and Trump of Us on the Corpus-Based Approach

Authors: Jie Zheng, Ruifeng Luo

Abstract:

The United States is the world’s most developed economy with the strongest military power. China is the fastest growing country with growing comprehensive strength and its economic strength is second only to the US. However, the conflict between them is getting serious in recent years. President’s address is the representative of a nation’s ideology. The paper has built up a small sized corpus of President Xi Jinping and Trump’s speech in Davos to investigate their respective use and types of metaphors and calculate the respective percentage of each type of metaphor. The result shows President Xi Jinping employs more metaphors than Trump. The metaphors of Xi includes “building” metaphor, “plant” metaphor, “journey” metaphor, “ship” metaphor, “traffic” metaphor, “nation is a person” metaphor, “show” metaphor, etc while Trump’s comprises “war” metaphor, “building” metaphor, “journey” metaphor, “traffic” metaphor, “tax” metaphor, “book” metaphor, etc. After investigating metaphor use differences, the paper makes an analysis of the underlying ideology between the two nations. China is willing to strengthen ties with all the countries all over the world and has built a platform of development for them and itself to go to the destination of social well being while the US pays much concern to itself, emphasizing its first leading position and is also willing to help its alliances to development. The paper’s comparison of the ideology difference between the two countries will help them get a better understanding and reduce the conflict to some extent.

Keywords: metaphor; corpus; ideology; conflict

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83 Metaphor Institutionalization as Phase Transition: Case Studies of Chinese Metaphors

Authors: Xuri Tang, Ting Pan

Abstract:

Metaphor institutionalization refers to the propagation of a metaphor that leads to its acceptance in speech community as a norm of the language. Such knowledge is important to both theoretical studies of metaphor and practical disciplines such as lexicography and language generation. This paper reports an empirical study of metaphor institutionalization of 14 Chinese metaphors. It first explores the pattern of metaphor institutionalization by fitting the logistic function (or S-shaped curve) to time series data of conventionality of the metaphors that are automatically obtained from a large-scale diachronic Chinese corpus. Then it reports a questionnaire-based survey on the propagation scale of each metaphor, which is measured by the average number of subjects that can easily understand the metaphorical expressions. The study provides two pieces of evidence supporting the hypothesis that metaphor institutionalization is a phrase transition: (1) the pattern of metaphor institutionalization is an S-shaped curve and (2) institutionalized metaphors generally do not propagate to the whole community but remain in equilibrium state. This conclusion helps distinguish metaphor institutionalization from topicalization and other types of semantic change.

Keywords: metaphor institutionalization, phase transition, propagation scale, s-shaped curve

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82 From Conceptual Metaphor Theory to Generative Conceptual Metaphor Theory

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, generative metaphor theory, metaphorical inference pattern transfer, analogical reasoning

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81 Towards a Generative Theory of Conceptual Metaphor

Authors: Rida Elarkoubi

Abstract:

The contemporary theory of metaphor is primarily a theory of cognition, concerned with the structure, function, and inner design of metaphor as an instrument of thought. Converging evidence in several academic disciplines over the course of fourdecades has gradually pushed metaphor from literary studies back to its cognitive homeland. However, the study of metaphor and its effect on the organization of language has remained purely descriptive since it was first developed in 1979. The common practice among theorists of metaphor can be reduced to a purely descriptive-interpretive task, where theorists of metaphor usually associate the structure of several metaphorical expressions, or that of an entire discourse, with one or handful conceptual metaphors; but this could only be achieved retrospectively. That is, scholars of metaphor can afford to link the metaphorical expressions in a given corpus with an assumed conceptual metaphor only in the presence of both variables. This renders the study of metaphor a purely descriptive endeavor, with much space for subjective interpretation. The current paper revisits the proposal of transforming Conceptual Metaphor Theory from a descriptive semi-interpretive theory into a generative theory capable of operationalizing the process of metaphorical mapping and generating the metaphorical output antecedently. This paper provides a general outline of the procedure, where the process can be broken down into a dual-step procedure made of 1) a selected Metaphor Identification Procedure MI-P, 2) an Automated Inference Pattern Transfer Procedure AIPT-P. Combined together, the two processes should be able scan a given corpus, extract core metaphors, and generate core propositions in the target corpus antecedently and prior to any interaction with the target corpus.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, inference pattern transfer, metaphorical mapping, generative metaphor theory, analogical reasoning

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80 The English Translation of Arabic Metaphors in the Holy Qura’n

Authors: Mohammad Hamzah Alshehab

Abstract:

Metaphor is a substitute expression in everyday life in languages, thoughts and actions. It has an original value in language use with different conceptual, grammatical and properties. In addition, it is a central concept in literary studies. The present paper aims at investigating metaphor’s types imbedded in some Holy Verses (HV). For achieving the objectives of this paper, two English versions were chosen , the first is the Translation of the Meanings of the Noble Qura’n in the English Language by Mohammad AlHilali and Mohammad Khan, and the second version is the English Translation of the Holy Qura’n by Mohammad Ali were used. The researcher selected (20) Holy Verses include metaphors to be analyzed and investigated. Metaphor types were categorized by an assessment of the two translations followed by a discussion between the two versions of translation.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphor’s types, Holy Qura’n, Holy Verses

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79 Temporal Axis in Japanese: The Paradox of a Metaphorical Orientation in Time

Authors: Tomoko Usui

Abstract:

In the field of linguistics, it has been said that concepts associated with space and motion systematically contribute structure to the temporal concept. This is the conceptual metaphor theory. conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept (time) as their target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source (space). This paper will examine two major temporal conceptual metaphors: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor and Time-RP Metaphor. Moving time generally receives a front-back orientation, however, Japanese shows a different orientation given to time. By means of Ego perspective, this paper will illustrate the paradox of a metaphorical orientation in time.

Keywords: Ego-centered Moving Time Metaphor, Japanese saki, temporal metaphors, Time RP Metaphor

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78 Comparing Russian and American Students’ Metaphorical Competence

Authors: Svetlana L. Mishlanova, Evgeniia V. Ermakova, Mariia E. Timirkina

Abstract:

The paper is concerned with the study of metaphor production in essays written by Russian and English native speakers in the framework of cognitive metaphor theory. It considers metaphorical competence as individual’s ability to recognize, understand and use metaphors in speech. The work analyzes the influence of visual metaphor on production and density of conventional and novel verbal metaphors. The main methods of research include experiment connected with image interpretation, metaphor identification procedure (MIPVU) and visual conventional metaphors identification procedure proposed by VisMet group. The research findings will be used in the project aimed at comparing metaphorical competence of native and non-native English speakers.

Keywords: metaphor, metaphorical competence, conventional, novel

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77 The Effectiveness of Metaphor Therapy on Depression among Female Students

Authors: Marzieh Talebzadeh Shoushtari

Abstract:

The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metaphor therapy on depression among female students. The sample included 60 female students with depression symptoms selected by simple sampling and randomly divided into two equal groups (experimental and control groups). Beck Depression Inventory was used to measure the variables. This was an experimental study with a pre-test/post-test design with control group. Eight metaphor therapy sessions were held for the experimental group. A post-test was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results showed that the Metaphor therapy decreased depression in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: metaphor therapy, depression, female, students

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76 Like Making an Ancient Urn: Metaphor Conceptualization of L2 Writing

Authors: Muhalim Muhalim

Abstract:

Drawing on Lakoff’s theory of metaphor conceptualization, this article explores the conceptualization of language two writing (L2W) of ten students-teachers in Indonesia via metaphors. The ten postgraduate English language teaching students and at the same time (former) English teachers received seven days of intervention in teaching and learning L2. Using introspective log and focus group discussion, the results illuminate us that all participants are unanimous on perceiving L2W as process-oriented rather than product-oriented activity. Specifically, the metaphor conceptualizations exhibit three categories of process-oriented L2W: deliberate process, learning process, and problem-solving process. However, it has to be clarified from the outset that this categorization is not rigid because some of the properties of metaphors might belong to other categories. Results of the study and implications for English language teaching will be further discussed.

Keywords: metaphor conceptualisation, second language, learning writing, teaching writing

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75 The Application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory to the Treatment of Depression

Authors: Uma Kanth, Amy Cook

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) proposes that metaphor is fundamental to human thought. CMT utilizes embodied cognition, in that emotions are conceptualized as effects on the body because of a coupling of one’s bodily experiences and one’s somatosensory system. Time perception is a function of embodied cognition and conceptual metaphor in that one’s experience of time is inextricably dependent on one’s perception of the world around them. A hallmark of depressive disorders is the distortion in one’s perception of time, such as neurological dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, and yet, to the author’s best knowledge, previous studies have not before linked CMT, embodied cognition, and depressive disorders. Therefore, the focus of this paper is the investigation of how the applications of CMT and embodied cognition (especially regarding time perception) have promise in improving current techniques to treat depressive disorders. This paper aimed to extend, through a thorough review of literature, the theoretical basis required to further research into CMT and embodied cognition’s application in treating time distortion related symptoms of depressive disorders. Future research could include the development of brain training technologies that capitalize on the principles of CMT, with the aim of promoting cognitive remediation and cognitive activation to mitigate symptoms of depressive disorder.

Keywords: depression, conceptual metaphor theory, embodied cognition, time

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74 The Image as an Initial Element of the Cognitive Understanding of Words

Authors: S. Pesina, T. Solonchak

Abstract:

An analysis of word semantics focusing on the invariance of advanced imagery in several pressing problems. Interest in the language of imagery is caused by the introduction, in the linguistics sphere, of a new paradigm, the center of which is the personality of the speaker (the subject of the language). Particularly noteworthy is the question of the place of the image when discussing the lexical, phraseological values and the relationship of imagery and metaphors. In part, the formation of a metaphor, as an interaction between two intellective entities, occurs at a cognitive level, and it is the category of the image, having cognitive roots, which aides in the correct interpretation of the results of this process on the lexical-semantic level.

Keywords: image, metaphor, concept, creation of a metaphor, cognitive linguistics, erased image, vivid image

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73 Theoretical Reflections on Metaphor and Cohesion and the Coherence of Face-To-Face Interactions

Authors: Afef Badri

Abstract:

The role of metaphor in creating the coherence and the cohesion of discourse in online interactive talk has almost received no attention. This paper intends to provide some theoretical reflections on metaphorical coherence as a jointly constructed process that evolves in online, face-to-face interactions. It suggests that the presence of a global conceptual structure in a conversation makes it conceptually cohesive. Yet, coherence remains a process largely determined by other variables (shared goals, communicative intentions, and framework of understanding). Metaphorical coherence created by these variables can be useful in detecting bias in media reporting.

Keywords: coherence, cohesion, face-to-face interactions, metaphor

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72 Deep Learning Based, End-to-End Metaphor Detection in Greek with Recurrent and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Konstantinos Perifanos, Eirini Florou, Dionysis Goutsos

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This paper presents and benchmarks a number of end-to-end Deep Learning based models for metaphor detection in Greek. We combine Convolutional Neural Networks and Recurrent Neural Networks with representation learning to bear on the metaphor detection problem for the Greek language. The models presented achieve exceptional accuracy scores, significantly improving the previous state-of-the-art results, which had already achieved accuracy 0.82. Furthermore, no special preprocessing, feature engineering or linguistic knowledge is used in this work. The methods presented achieve accuracy of 0.92 and F-score 0.92 with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and bidirectional Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTMs). Comparable results of 0.91 accuracy and 0.91 F-score are also achieved with bidirectional Gated Recurrent Units (GRUs) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Nets (CRNNs). The models are trained and evaluated only on the basis of training tuples, the related sentences and their labels. The outcome is a state-of-the-art collection of metaphor detection models, trained on limited labelled resources, which can be extended to other languages and similar tasks.

Keywords: metaphor detection, deep learning, representation learning, embeddings

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71 Variations of Metaphors: Wittgenstein's Contribution to Literary Studies

Authors: Dorit Lemberger

Abstract:

Wittgenstein directly used the term "metaphor" only infrequently and with reservations, but his writings include a number of metaphors that have become imprinted in the philosophical memory of Western thought. For example, the ladder in his book Tractatus, or in Philosophical investigations - the ancient city, the beetle in a box, the fly in the fly-bottle, and the duck-rabbit. In light of Wittgenstein's stressing, throughout his investigations, that the only language that exists is ordinary language, and that there is no "second-order" language, the question should be asked: How do these metaphors function, specifically, and in general, how are we to relate to language use that exceeds the normal? Wittgenstein did not disregard such phenomena, but he proposed viewing them in a different way, that would enable understanding them as uses in ordinary language, without necessarily exceeding such language. Two important terms that he coined in this context are "secondary sense" and "experience of meaning". Each denotes language use as reflective of a subjective element characteristic of the speaker, such as intent, experience, or emphasis of a certain aspect. More recent Wittgenstein scholars added the term "quasi-metaphor", that refers to his discussion of the possibility of aesthetic judgment. This paper will examine how, according to Wittgenstein, these terms function without exceeding ordinary language, and will illustrate how they can be applied, in an analysis of the poem "Butterfly" by Nelly Sachs.

Keywords: metaphor, quasi-metaphor, secondary sense, experience of meaning

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70 Shaking the Iceberg: Metaphoric Shifting and Loss in the German Translations of 'The Sun Also Rises'

Authors: Christopher Dick

Abstract:

While the translation of 'literal language' poses numerous challenges for the translator, the translation of 'figurative language' creates even more complicated issues. It has been only in the last several decades that scholars have attempted to propose theories of figurative language translation, including metaphor translation. Even less work has applied these theories to metaphoric translation in literary texts. And almost no work has linked an analysis of metaphors in translation with the recent scholarship on conceptual metaphors. A study of literature in translation must not only examine the inevitable shifts that occur as specific metaphors move from source language to target language but also analyze the ways in which these shifts impact conceptual metaphors and, ultimately, the text as a whole. Doing so contributes to on-going efforts to bridge the sometimes wide gulf between considerations of content and form in literary studies. This paper attempts to add to the body of scholarly literature on metaphor translation and the function of metaphor in a literary text. Specifically, the study examines the metaphoric expressions in Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises. First, the issue of Hemingway and metaphor is addressed. Next, the study examines the specific metaphors in the original novel in English and the German translations, first in Annemarie Horschitz’s 1928 German version and then in the recent Werner Schmitz 2013 translation. Hemingway’s metaphors, far from being random occurrences of figurative language, are linguistic manifestations of deeper conceptual metaphors that are central to an interpretation of the text. By examining the modifications that are made to these original metaphoric expressions as they are translated into German, one can begin to appreciate the shifts involved with metaphor translation. The translation of Hemingway’s metaphors into German represents significant metaphoric loss and shifting that subsequently shakes the important conceptual metaphors in the novel.

Keywords: Hemingway, Conceptual Metaphor, Translation, Stylistics

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69 A Comparative Study on Multimodal Metaphors in Public Service Advertising of China and Germany

Authors: Xing Lyu

Abstract:

Multimodal metaphor promotes the further development and refinement of multimodal discourse study. Cultural aspects matter a lot not only in creating but also in comprehending multimodal metaphor. By analyzing the target domain and the source domain in 10 public service advertisements of China and Germany about environmental protection, this paper compares the source when the target is alike in each multimodal metaphor in order to seek similarities and differences across cultures. The findings are as follows: first, the multimodal metaphors center around three major topics: the earth crisis, consequences of environmental damage, and appeal for environmental protection; second, the multimodal metaphors mainly grounded in three universal conceptual metaphors which focused on high level is up; earth is mother and all lives are precious. However, there are five Chinese culture-specific multimodal metaphors which are not discovered in Germany ads: east is high leve; a purposeful life is a journey; a nation is a person; good is clean, and water is mother. Since metaphors are excellent instruments on studying ideology, this study can be helpful on intercultural/cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, cultural aspects, public service advertising, cross-cultural communication

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68 The Universal Cultural Associations in the Conceptual Metaphors Used in the Headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers: A Critical Cognitive Study

Authors: Hind Hassan Arruwaite

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Conceptual metaphor is a cognitive semantic tool that provides access to people's conceptual systems. The correlation in the human conceptual system surpasses limited time and specific cultures. The universal associations provide universal schemas that organize people's conceptualization of the world. The study aims to explore how the cultural associations used in conceptual metaphors create commonalities and harmony between people of the world. In the research methodology, the researcher implemented Critical Metaphor Analysis, Metaphor Candidate Identification and Metaphor Identification Procedure models to deliver qualitative and descriptive findings. The semantic tension was the key criterion in identifying metaphorically used words in the headlines. The research materials are the oil trade conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of Arab News and Saudi Gazette Newspapers. The data will be uploaded to the self-constructed corpus to examine electronic lists for identifying conceptual metaphors. The study investigates the types of conceptual metaphors used in the headlines of the newspapers, the cultural associations identified in the conceptual metaphors, and whether the identified cultural associations in conceptual metaphors create universal conceptual schemas. The study aligned with previous seminal works on conceptual metaphor theory in emphasizing the distinctive power of conceptual metaphors in exposing the cultural associations that unify people's perceptions. The correlation of people conceptualization provides universal schemas that involve elements of human sensorimotor experiences. The study contributes to exposing the shared cultural associations that ensure the commonality of all humankind's thinking mechanism.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, critical metaphor analysis, conceptual metaphor theory, primary and specific metaphors, corpus-driven approach, universal associations, image schema, sensorimotor experience, oil trade

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67 University Level Spanish Heritage Language Students' Use of Metaphor in Writing: Exploring Auto-Biographical Linguistic Narratives

Authors: Lorraine Ramos

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The question of heritage language learners in foreign language classrooms has been widely debated in second language education, especially with Spanish in a U.S. Instructors of Spanish as a foreign language have brought pedagogical focus to Spanish heritage language students in order to retain, develop and maintain their first language. This paper proposes a thorough examination of the use of conceptual metaphors within autobiographical linguistic narratives as a key indicator of the writing development of advanced Spanish-language students. By pairing genre theory from Systemic Functional Linguistics with metaphor theory, this paper will examine the metaphors used by 3rd and 4th year university Spanish students within the narrative genre from a corpus of 16, 091 words. The investigation has found that heritage language students use a variety of bicultural metaphors, transferred from both languages to conceptualize their linguistic development, in addition to using metaphor in specific narrative stages as a literary strategy. Since it has been found that the metaphors used were transcultural, the use of conceptual metaphors in heritage language learners can be further examined to help these students achieve their linguistic and academic goals in the Spanish by transferring from their knowledge in English. In conclusion, by closely examining the function of student discourse through their multicultural metaphoric competence, this study provides important insights on how to enable instructors to best further their students’ writing development in the target language.

Keywords: academic writing development, heritage language learners, language attitudes and ideologies, metaphor

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66 Filmic and Verbal Metafphors

Authors: Manana Rusieshvili, Rusudan Dolidze

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This paper aims at 1) investigating the ways in which a traditional, monomodal written verbal metaphor can be transposed as a monomodal non-verbal (visual) or multimodal (aural and -visual) filmic metaphor ; 2) exploring similarities and differences in the process of encoding and decoding of monomodal and multimodal metaphors. The empiric data, on which the research is based, embrace three sources: the novel by Harry Gray ‘The Hoods’, the script of the film ‘Once Upon a Time in America’ (English version by David Mills) and the resultant film by Sergio Leone. In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the research focuses on the following issues: 1) identification of verbal and non-verbal monomodal and multimodal metaphors in the above-mentioned sources and 2) investigation of the ways and modes the specific written monomodal metaphors appearing in the novel and the script are enacted in the film and become visual, aural or visual-aural filmic metaphors ; 3) study of the factors which play an important role in contributing to the encoding and decoding of the filmic metaphor. The collection and analysis of the data were carried out in two stages: firstly, the relevant data, i.e. the monomodal metaphors from the novel, the script and the film were identified and collected. In the second, final stage the metaphors taken from all of the three sources were analysed, compared and two types of phenomena were selected for discussion: (1) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become monomodal visual/aural metaphors in the film; (2) the monomodal written metaphors found in the novel and/or in the script which become multimodal, filmic (visual-aural) metaphors in the film.

Keywords: encoding, decoding, filmic metaphor, multimodality

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65 Cognitive Models of Future in Political Texts

Authors: Solopova Olga

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The present paper briefly recalls theoretical preconditions for investigating cognitive-discursive models of future in political discourse. The author reviews theories and methods used for strengthening a future focus in this discourse working out two main tools – a model of future and a metaphorical scenario. The paper examines the implications of metaphorical analogies for modeling future in mass media. It argues that metaphor is not merely a rhetorical ornament in the political discourse of media regulation but a conceptual model that legislates and regulates our understanding of future.

Keywords: cognitive approach, future research, political discourse, model, scenario, metaphor

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64 The Saying of Conceptual Metaphors about Law, Righteousness, and Justice in the Old Testament: Cardinal Tendencies

Authors: Ivana Prochazkova

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Cognitive linguistics offers biblical scholarship a specific methodological tool for analysis and interpretation of metaphorical expressions. Its methodology makes it possible to study processes involved in constructing the meaning of individual metaphorical expressions and whole conceptual metaphors; to analyze their function in the text; to follow the semantic development of concepts and conceptual domains, and to trace semantic changes and their motivation. The legal language in the Hebrew canon is extremely specific and formalized. Especially in the preambles to the collections of laws in the Pentateuch, more general considerations of the motif of keeping and breaking the law are encountered. This is also true in the psalms and wisdom literature. Legal theory and the philosophy of law deal with these motifs today. Metaphors play an important role in texts that reflect on more general issues. The purpose of this conference contribution is to write all over the central metaphorical concept, conceptual metaphor ךרד תורה (TORAH/LAW IS A JOURNEY), its function in the Torah and principal trends of the further development in the Prophets and the Writings. The conceptual metaphor תורה ךרד (TORAH/LAW IS A JOURNEY) constitutes a coherent system in conjunction with other metaphors that include e.g., conceptual metaphors נחה תורה (TORAH/LAW LEADS); its variant רעה תורה (TORAH IS A SHEPHERD/GUIDE); מקור תורה (TORAH/LAW IS A FOUNTAIN/A SOURCE OF LIFE). Some conceptual metaphors are well known, and their using are conventional (עשׁר תורה TORAH/LAW IS RICHES, שׂשׂון תורה TORAH/LAW IS DELIGHT, דבשׁ תורה TORAH/LAW IS HONEY, שׁמשׁ תורה TORAH/LAW IS SUN ). But some conceptual metaphors are by its occurrence innovative and unique (e.g., שׁריון תורה TORAH /LAW IS BODY ARMOR, כובע תורה TORAH /LAW IS A HELMET, בגד תורה TORAH/LAW IS A GARMENT, etc.). There will be given examples. Conceptual metaphors will be described by means of some 'metaphorical vehicles,' which are Hebrew expressions in the source domain that are repeatedly used in metaphorical conceptualizations of the target domain(s). Conceptual metaphors will be further described by means of 'generic narrative structures,' which are the particular aspects of a conceptual metaphor that emerge during the metaphorical structuring of concepts. They are the units of the metaphorical vehicles – the Hebrew expressions in the source domain – that structure concepts in much the same way that the conceptual metaphor in the target domain does. And finally, they will be described by means of the network of correspondences that exist between metaphorical vehicles – or generic metaphorical structures – and the Hebrew expressions in the target domain.

Keywords: cognitive theology, conceptual metaphor in the Old Testament, conceptual metaphors of the Torah, conceptual domain of law, righteousness, and justice

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63 The Translation Of Original Metaphor In Literature

Authors: Esther Matthews

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This paper looks at ways of translating new metaphors: those conceived and created by authors, which are often called ‘original’ metaphors in the world of Translation Studies. An original metaphor is the most extreme form of figurative language, often dramatic and shocking in effect. It displays unexpected juxtapositions of language, suggesting there could be as many different translations as there are translators. However, some theorists say original metaphors should be translated ‘literally’ or ‘word for word’ as far as possible, suggesting a similarity between translators’ solutions. How do literary translators approach this challenge? This study focuses on Spanish-English translations of a novel full of original metaphors: Nada by Carmen Laforet (1921 – 2004). Original metaphors from the text were compared to the four published English translations by Inez Muñoz, Charles Franklin Payne, Glafyra Ennis, and Edith Grossman. These four translators employed a variety of translation methods, but they translated ‘literally’ in well over half of the original metaphors studied. In a two-part translation exercise and questionnaire, professional literary translators were asked to translate a number of these metaphors. Many different methods were employed, but again, over half of the original metaphors were translated literally. Although this investigation was limited to one author and language pair, it gives a clear indication that, although literary translators’ solutions vary, on the whole, they prefer to translate original metaphors as literally as possible within the confines of English grammar and syntax. It also reveals literary translators’ desire to reproduce the distinctive character of an author’s work as accurately as possible for the target reader.

Keywords: translation, original metaphor, literature, translator training

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62 An Ideational Grammatical Metaphor of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe's 'There Was a Country'

Authors: Muhammed-Badar Salihu Jibrin, Chibabi Makedono Darlington

Abstract:

This paper studied Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM) of Narrative History in Chinua Achebe’s There Was a Country. It started with a narrative historical style as a recent genre out of the conventional historical writings. In order to explore the linguistic phenomenon using a particular lexico-grammatical tool of IGM, the theoretical background was examined based on Hallidayan Systemic Functional Linguistics. Furthermore, the study considered the possibility of applying IGM to the Part 4 of Achebe’s historical text with recourse to the concept of congruence in IGM and research questions before formulating a working methodology. The analysis of Achebe’s memoir was, thus, presented in tabular forms to account for the quantitative content analysis with qualitative research technique, as well as the metaphorical and congruent wording through nominalization and process types with samples. The frequencies and percentage were given appropriately with respect to each subheadings of the text. To this end, the findings showed that material and relational types indicated dominance. The discussion and implications were that the findings confirmed earlier study by MAK Halliday and C.I.M.I.M. Matthiessen’s suggestion that IGM should show dominance of material type process. The implication is that IGM can be an effective tool for the analysis of a narrative historical text. In conclusion, it was observed that IGM does not only carry grammatical function but also an ideological role in shaping the historical discourse within the narrative mode between writers and readers.

Keywords: ideational grammatical metaphor, nominalization, narrative history, memoire, dominance

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61 Music as Source Domain: A Cross-Linguistic Exploration of Conceptual Metaphors

Authors: Eleanor Sweeney, Chunyuan Di

Abstract:

The metaphors people use in everyday discourse do not arise randomly; rather, they develop from our physical experiences in our social and cultural environments. Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) explains that through metaphor, we apply our embodied understanding of the physical world to non-material concepts to understand and express abstract concepts. Our most productive source domains derive from our embodied understanding and allow us to develop primary metaphors, and from primary metaphors, an elaborate, creative world of culturally constructed complex metaphors. Cognitive Linguistics researchers draw upon individual embodied experience for primary metaphors. Socioculturally embodied experience through music has long furnished linguistic expressions in diverse languages, as conceptual metaphors or everyday expressions.  Can a socially embodied experience function in the same way as an individually embodied experience in the creation of conceptual metaphors? The authors argue that since music is inherently social and embodied, musical experiences function as a richly motivated source domain. The focus of this study is socially embodied musical experience which is then reflected and expressed through metaphors. This cross-linguistic study explores music as a source domain for metaphors of social alignment in English, French, and Chinese. The authors explored two public discourse sites, Facebook and Linguée, in order to collect linguistic metaphors from three different languages. By conducting this cross-linguistic study, cross-cultural similarities and differences in metaphors for which music is the source domain can be examined. Different musical elements, such as melody, speed, rhythm and harmony, are analyzed for their possible metaphoric meanings of social alignment. Our findings suggest that the general metaphor cooperation is music is a productive metaphor with some subcases, and that correlated social behaviors can be metaphorically expressed with certain elements in music. For example, since performance is a subset of the category behavior, there is a natural mapping from performance in music to behavior in social settings: social alignment is musical performance. Musical performance entails a collective social expectation that exerts control over individual behavior.  When individual behavior does not align with the collective social expectation, music-related expressions are often used to express how the individual is violating social norms. Moreover, when individuals do align their behavior with social norms, similar musical expressions are used. Cooperation is a crucial social value in all cultures, indeed it is a key element of survival, and music provides a coherent, consistent, and rich source domain—one based upon a universal and definitive cultural practice.

Keywords: Chinese, Conceptual Metaphor Theory, cross-linguistic, culturally embodied experience, English, French, metaphor, music

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60 'I Broke the Line Back to the Ancient Ones': Rethinking Intersectional Theory through Wounded Histories in Once Were Warriors (1994) and Whale Rider (2002).

Authors: Kerry Mackereth

Abstract:

Kimberle Crenshaw’s theory of intersectionality has become immensely influential in the fields of women’s and gender studies. However, intersectionality’s widespread use among feminist scholars and activists has been accompanied by critiques of its reliance upon subject categorization. These critiques are of particular import when connected to Wendy Brown’s characterization of identity politics as static 'wounded attachments'. Together, these critiques show how the gridlock model proposed by intersectionality’s primary metaphor, the traffic accident at the intersection, is useful for identifying discrimination but not for remembering historical injustices or imagining feminist and anti-racist resistance. Through the lens of New Zealand Maori film, focusing upon Once Were Warriors (1994) and Whale Rider (2002), this article examines how wounded histories need not be passively reproduced by contemporaneously oppressed groups. Instead, the metaphor of the traffic intersection should be complemented by the metaphor of the wound. Against Brown’s characterization of wounded attachments as negative, static identities, Gloria Anzaldua’s account of the borderland between the United States and Mexico as “una herida abierta”, an open wound, offers an alternative reading of the wound. Through Anzaldua’s and Hortense Spillers’ political thought, the wound is reconceptualized as not only a site of suffering but also as a regenerative space. The coexistence of deterioration and regeneration at the site of the wound underpins the narrative arc of both Once Were Warriors and Whale Rider. In both films, the respective child protagonists attempt to reconcile the pain of wounded histories with the imagination of cultural regeneration. The metaphor of the wound thus serves as an alternative theoretical resource for mapping experiences of oppression, one that enriches feminist theory by balancing the remembrance of historical grievance with the forging of hopeful political projects.

Keywords: gender theory, historical grievance, intersectionality, New Zealand film, postcolonialism

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59 Metaphors in Egyptian News Headlines in Relation to the Egyptian Political Situation 2012-2013

Authors: Wesam Mohamed Abdel Khalek Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper examines the use of metaphors in Arabic political news discourse, focusing particularly on the headlines of the news articles relating to the Egyptian political situation in the period from June 2012 to October 2013. Metaphors are skilfully manipulated in the headlines to influence the public stance towards several events and entities including Egypt, Muslim Brotherhood (MB), Morsi, the June 30th uprising, Al-Sisi and the Armed Forces. The findings reveal that Arabic political news discourse shares basic features with its English counterpart, namely the use of metaphors as persuasive strategies and the presence of certain target domains. Insights gained from this study feed back into the conceptual metaphor theory by providing further evidence to the universality of metaphors.

Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, political discourse, news discourse, Egyptian political situation

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58 Metaphor Scenarios of Translation: An Applied Linguistic Approach to Discourse Analysis

Authors: Elizabeta Eduard Baltadzhyan

Abstract:

This work presents a stage of an investigation about the metaphorical conceptualization of translation in Bulgarian language. The material is a linguistic corpus consisting of 38 interviews with several generations Bulgarian translators and interpreters. The aim of this presentation is to inform about the results of the organization of the source concepts in scenarios that dominate the discursive manifestations of the source domains. The data show that, on the one hand, translators from different generations share some basic assignments of source and target domains, e. g. translation is a journey or translation is an artistic presentation. On the other hand, there are some specific scenarios motivated by significant changes in the socio-economic structure of the country and the valuation of the translator´s mission and work, e. g., the scenario of pleasure and addictive activity marks the generation that enjoy great support and stimulation from the socialist government, whereas the war scenario marks the generation during the Perestroika time.

Keywords: Bulgarian language, metaphor, scenario, translation

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57 The Online Advertising Speech that Effect to the Thailand Internet User Decision Making

Authors: Panprae Bunyapukkna

Abstract:

This study investigated figures of speech used in fragrance advertising captions on the Internet. The objectives of the study were to find out the frequencies of figures of speech in fragrance advertising captions and the types of figures of speech most commonly applied in captions. The relation between figures of speech and fragrance was also examined in order to analyze how figures of speech were used to represent fragrance. Thirty-five fragrance advertisements were randomly selected from the Internet. Content analysis was applied in order to consider the relation between figures of speech and fragrance. The results showed that figures of speech were found in almost every fragrance advertisement except one advertisement of Lancôme. Thirty-four fragrance advertising captions used at least one kind of figure of speech. Metaphor was most frequently found and also most frequently applied in fragrance advertising captions, followed by alliteration, rhyme, simile and personification, and hyperbole respectively.

Keywords: advertising speech, fragrance advertisements, figures of speech, metaphor

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56 US-Iran Hostage Crisis by the Metaphor of Argo in the Light of Post-Modernist Post-Colonial and Realist Theories

Authors: Hatice Idil Gorgen

Abstract:

This paper argues that discourses and textuality which is literary tool of Western ethnocentrism create aggressive foreign policy against the West by Non-West countries. Quasi-colonial experiences create an inferiority complex on officially or not colonized areas by reconstructing their identity. This reconstructed identity leads revolution and resistance movement to feel secure themselves as a psychological defense against colonial powers. Knowledge learned by successful implementation of discourses grants right to has power for authority, in addition to serving as a tool to reinforce power of authority by its cognitive traits on foreign policy decision making. The combination of these points contributes to shaping and then make predictable state policies. In the methodology of paper, secondary data was firstly reviewed through university library using a range of sources such as academic abstract, OPAC system, bibliography databases and internet search engines. The film of Argo was used to strengthen and materialize theoretical explanations as a metaphor. This paper aims to highlight the cumulative effects on the construction of the identity throughout embedded discourses by textuality. To demonstrate it by a metaphor, Argo will be used as a primary source for good story-telling about history. U.S-Iran hostage crisis is mainly applied by aiming to see foundations Iran’s behavior in the context of its revolutionary identity and major influences of actions of U.S on it.

Keywords: discourse, post colonialism, post modernism, objectivity

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55 Knowledge Representation and Inconsistency Reasoning of Class Diagram Maintenance in Big Data

Authors: Chi-Lun Liu

Abstract:

Requirements modeling and analysis are important in successful information systems' maintenance. Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams are useful standards for modeling information systems. To our best knowledge, there is a lack of a systems development methodology described by the organism metaphor. The core concept of this metaphor is adaptation. Using the knowledge representation and reasoning approach and ontologies to adopt new requirements are emergent in recent years. This paper proposes an organic methodology which is based on constructivism theory. This methodology is a knowledge representation and reasoning approach to analyze new requirements in the class diagrams maintenance. The process and rules in the proposed methodology automatically analyze inconsistencies in the class diagram. In the big data era, developing an automatic tool based on the proposed methodology to analyze large amounts of class diagram data is an important research topic in the future.

Keywords: knowledge representation, reasoning, ontology, class diagram, software engineering

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