Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: nanocarrier

19 Understanding Nanocarrier Efficacy in Drug Delivery Systems Using Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Maedeh Rahimnejad, Bahman Vahidi, Bahman Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, Fatemeh Yazdian, Puria Motamed Fath, Roghieh Jamjah

Abstract:

Introduction: The intensive labor and high cost of developing new vehicles for controlled drug delivery highlights the need for a change in their discovery process. Computational models can be used to accelerate experimental steps and control the high cost of experiments. Methods: In this work, to better understand the interaction of anti-cancer drug and the nanocarrier with the cell membrane, we have done molecular dynamics simulation using NAMD. We have chosen paclitaxel for the drug molecule and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier. Results: Next, center of mass (COM) between molecules and the van der Waals interaction energy close to the cell membrane has been analyzed. Furthermore, the simulation results of the paclitaxel interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane have been compared. Discussion: Analysis by molecular dynamics (MD) showed that not only the energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane is low, but also the center of mass amount decreases in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction; therefore they show significantly better interaction in comparison to the individual drug with the cell membrane.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug, center of mass, interaction energy, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier

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18 Assessment of Drug Delivery Systems from Molecular Dynamic Perspective

Authors: M. Rahimnejad, B. Vahidi, B. Ebrahimi Hoseinzadeh, F. Yazdian, P. Motamed Fath, R. Jamjah

Abstract:

In this study, we developed and simulated nano-drug delivery systems efficacy in compare to free drug prescription. Computational models can be utilized to accelerate experimental steps and control the experiments high cost. Molecular dynamics simulation (MDS), in particular NAMD was utilized to better understand the anti-cancer drug interaction with cell membrane model. Paclitaxel (PTX) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were selected for the drug molecule and as a natural phospholipid nanocarrier, respectively. This work focused on two important interaction parameters between molecules in terms of center of mass (COM) and van der Waals interaction energy. Furthermore, we compared the simulation results of the PTX interaction with the cell membrane and the interaction of DPPC as a nanocarrier loaded by the drug with the cell membrane. The molecular dynamic analysis resulted in low energy between the nanocarrier and the cell membrane as well as significant decrease of COM amount in the nanocarrier and the cell membrane system during the interaction. Thus, the drug vehicle showed notably better interaction with the cell membrane in compared to free drug interaction with the cell membrane.

Keywords: anti-cancer drug, center of mass, interaction energy, molecular dynamics simulation, nanocarrier

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17 Polymer Nanocarrier for Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy

Authors: Vijayakameswara Rao Neralla, Jueun Jeon, Jae Hyung Park

Abstract:

To develop a potential nanocarrier for diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we prepared a hyaluronic acid (HA)-5β-cholanic acid (CA) conjugate with an acid-labile ketal linker. This conjugate could self-assemble in aqueous conditions to produce pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles as potential carriers of the anti-inflammatory drug methotrexate (MTX). MTX was rapidly released from nanoparticles under inflamed synovial tissue in RA. In vitro cytotoxicity data showed that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles were non-toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo biodistribution results confirmed that, after their systemic administration, pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles selectively accumulated in the inflamed joints of collagen-induced arthritis mice. These results indicate that pH-responsive HA-CA nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as a drug carrier for RA therapy.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, hyaluronic acid, nanocarrier, self-assembly, MTX

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16 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender

Abstract:

Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: biosafe, MRSA, nanocarrier, resistance, unimolecular-micelles

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15 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek

Abstract:

Protein apoferritin seems to be a very promising structure for use as a nanocarrier. It is prepared from intracellular ferritin protein naturally found in most organisms. The role of ferritin proteins is to store and transport ferrous ions. Apoferritin is a hollow protein cage without ferrous ions that can be prepared from ferritin by reduction with thioglycolic acid or dithionite. The structure of apoferritin is composed of 24 protein subunits, creating a sphere with 12 nm in diameter. The inner cavity has a diameter of 8 nm. The drug encapsulation process is based on the response of apoferritin structure to the pH changes of surrounding solution. In low pH, apoferritin is disassembled into individual subunits and its structure is “opened”. It can then be mixed with any desired cytotoxic drug and after adjustment of pH back to neutral the subunits are reconnected again and the drug is encapsulated within the apoferritin particles. Excess drug molecules can be removed by dialysis. The receptors for apoferritin, SCARA5 and TfR1 can be found in the membrane of both healthy and cancer cells. To enhance the specific targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier, it is possible to modify its surface with targeting moieties, such as antibodies. To ensure sterically correct complex, we used a a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (ApoDox) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (ApoDox-Nano) or gold (III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (ApoDox-HAu). The applied amount of gold in form of gold (III) chloride hydrate was 10 times higher than in the case of gold nanoparticles. However, after removal of the excess unbound ions by electrophoretic separation, the concentration of gold on the surface of apoferritin was only 6 times higher for ApoDox-HAu in comparison with ApoDox-Nano. Moreover, the reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties (excitation maximum at 480 nm with emission maximum at 600 nm) and thus its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of ApoDox-Nano were similar to the unmodified ApoDox, therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, we used ELISA-like method with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, we applied ApoDox without targeting antibodies and ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies). The amount of unmodified ApoDox on antigen after incubation and subsequent rinsing with water was 5 times lower than in the case of ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies. The modification of non-gold ApoDox with antibodies caused no change in its targeting properties. It can therefore be concluded that the demonstrated procedure allows us to create nanocarrier with enhanced targeting properties, suitable for nanomedicine.

Keywords: apoferritin, doxorubicin, nanocarrier, targeting antibodies

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14 Regulating Nanocarrier and Mononuclear Phagocyte System Interactions through Esomeprazole-Based Preconditioning Strategy

Authors: Zakia Belhadj, Bing He, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Wenbing Dai, Qiang Zhang

Abstract:

Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) forms an abominable obstacle hampering the tumor delivery efficiency of nanoparticles. Passively targeted nanocarriers have received clinical approval over the past 20 years. However, none of the actively targeted nanocarriers have entered clinical trials. Thus it is important to endue effective targeting ability to actively targeted approaches by overcoming biological barriers to nanoparticle drug delivery. Here, it presents that an Esomeprazole-based preconditioning strategy for regulating nanocarrier-MPS interaction to substantially prolong circulation time and enhance tumor targeting of nanoparticles. In vitro, the clinically approved proton pump inhibitor Esomeprazole “ESO” was demonstrated to reduce interactions between macrophages and subsequently injected targeted vesicles by interfering with their lysosomal trafficking. Of note, in vivo studies demonstrated that ESO pretreatment greatly decreased the liver and spleen uptake of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles, highly enhanced their tumor accumulation, thereby provided superior therapeutic efficacy of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles co-loaded with Doxorubicin (DOX) and Gefitinib (GE). This MPS-preconditioning strategy using ESO provides deeper insights into regulating nanoparticles interaction with the phagocytic system and enhancing their cancer cells' accessibility for anticancer therapy.

Keywords: esomeprazole (ESO), mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), preconditioning strategy, targeted lipid vesicles

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13 Characteristics of Bio-hybrid Hydrogel Materials with Prolonged Release of the Model Active Substance as Potential Wound Dressings

Authors: Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta, Dagmara Malina, Małgorzata Miastkowska

Abstract:

In recent years, biocompatible hydrogels have been used more and more in medical applications, especially as modern dressings and drug delivery systems. The main goal of this research was the characteristics of bio-hybrid hydrogel materials incorporated with the nanocarrier-drug system, which enable the release in a gradual and prolonged manner, up to 7 days. Therefore, the use of such a combination will provide protection against mechanical damage and adequate hydration. The proposed bio-hybrid hydrogels are characterized by: transparency, biocompatibility, good mechanical strength, and the dual release system, which allows for gradual delivery of the active substance, even up to 7 days. Bio-hybrid hydrogels based on sodium alginate (SA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), glycerine, and Aloe vera solution (AV) were obtained through the chemical crosslinking method using poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate as a crosslinking agent. Additionally, a nanocarrier-drug system was incorporated into SA/PVA/AV hydrogel matrix. Here, studies were focused on the release profiles of active substances from bio-hybrid hydrogels using the USP4 method (DZF II Flow-Through System, Erweka GmbH, Langen, Germany). The equipment incorporated seven in-line flow-through diffusion cells. The membrane was placed over support with an orifice of 1,5 cm in diameter (diffusional area, 1.766 cm²). All the cells were placed in a cell warmer connected with the Erweka heater DH 2000i and the Erweka piston pump HKP 720. The piston pump transports the receptor fluid via seven channels to the flow-through cells and automatically adapts the setting of the flow rate. All volumes were measured by gravimetric methods by filling the chambers with Milli-Q water and assuming a density of 1 g/ml. All the determinations were made in triplicate for each cell. The release study of the model active substance was carried out using a regenerated cellulose membrane Spectra/Por®Dialysis Membrane MWCO 6-8,000 Carl Roth® Company. These tests were conducted in buffer solutions – PBS at pH 7.4. A flow rate of receptor fluid of about 4 ml /1 min was selected. The experiments were carried out for 7 days at a temperature of 37°C. The released concentration of the model drug in the receptor solution was analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Company). Additionally, the following properties of the modified materials were studied: physicochemical, structural (FT-IR analysis), morphological (SEM analysis). Finally, the cytotoxicity tests using in vitro method were conducted. The obtained results exhibited that the dual release system allows for the gradual and prolonged delivery of the active substances, even up to 7 days.

Keywords: wound dressings, SA/PVA hydrogels, nanocarrier-drug system, USP4 method

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12 Curcumin Loaded Modified Chitosan Nanocarrier for Tumor Specificity

Authors: S. T. Kumbhar, M. S. Bhatia, R. C. Khairate

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An effective nanodrug delivery system was developed by using chitosan for increased encapsulation efficiency and retarded release of curcumin. Potential ionotropic gelation method was used for the development of chitosan nanoparticles with TPP as cross-linker. The characterization was done for analysis of size, structure, surface morphology, and thermal behavior of synthesized chitosan nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was more than 80%, with improved drug loading capacity. The in-vitro drug release study showed that curcumin release rate was decreased significantly. These chitosan nanoparticles could be a suitable platform for co-delivery of curcumin and anticancer agent for enhanced cytotoxic effect on tumor cells.

Keywords: Curcumin, chitosan, nanoparticles, anticancer activity

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11 Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Lysozyme-Silver Nanoparticles Complex

Authors: Shahnaz Ashrafpour, Tahereh Tohidi Moghadam, Bijan Ranjbar

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Identifying the nature of protein-nanoparticle interactions and favored binding sites is an important issue in functional characterization of biomolecules and their physiological responses. Herein, interaction of silver nanoparticles with lysozyme as a model protein has been monitored via fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of complex between the biomolecule and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induced a steady state reduction in the fluorescence intensity of protein at different concentrations of nanoparticles. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching spectra suggested that silver nanoparticles act as a foreign quencher, approaching the protein via this residue. Analysis of the Stern-Volmer plot showed quenching constant of 3.73 µM−1. Moreover, a single binding site in lysozyme is suggested to play role during interaction with AgNPs, having low affinity of binding compared to gold nanoparticles. Unfolding studies of lysozyme showed that complex of lysozyme-AgNPs has not undergone structural perturbations compared to the bare protein. Results of this effort will pave the way for utilization of sensitive spectroscopic techniques for rational design of nanobiomaterials in biomedical applications.

Keywords: nanocarrier, nanoparticles, surface plasmon resonance, quenching fluorescence

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10 Cyclic NGR Peptide Anchored Block Co-Polymeric Nanoparticles as Dual Targeting Drug Delivery System for Solid Tumor Therapy

Authors: Madhu Gupta, G. P. Agrawa, Suresh P. Vyas

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Certain tumor cells overexpress a membrane-spanning molecule aminopeptidase N (CD13) isoform, which is the receptor for peptides containing the NGR motif. NGR-modified Docetaxel (DTX)-loaded PEG-b-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (cNGR-DNB-NPs) were developed and evaluated for their in vitro potential in HT-1080 cell line. The cNGR-DNB-NPs containing particles were about 148 nm in diameter with spherical shape and high encapsulation efficiency. Cellular uptake was confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry. Both quantitatively and qualitatively results confirmed the NGR conjugated nanoparticles revealed the higher uptake of nanoparticles by CD13-overexpressed tumor cells. Free NGR inhibited the cellular uptake of cNGR-DNB-NPs, revealing the mechanism of receptor mediated endocytosis. In vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that cNGR-DNB-NPs, formulation was more cytotoxic than unconjugated one, which were consistent well with the observation of cellular uptake. Hence, the selective delivery of cNGR-DNB-NPs formulation in CD13-overexpressing tumors represents a potential approach for the design of nanocarrier-based dual targeted delivery systems for targeting the tumor cells and vasculature.

Keywords: solid Tumor, docetaxel, targeting, NGR ligand

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9 An Alternative Nano Design Strategy by Neutralized AMPS and Soy Bean Lecithin to Form Nanoparticles

Authors: Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan, Fatemeh Bahadori, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Mehmet S. Eroglu

Abstract:

Paclitaxel is used in treatment of different cancer types mainly breast, ovarian, lung and Kaposi’s sarcoma. It is poorly soluble in water; therefore, currently used formulations tremendously show side-effects and high toxicity. Encapsulation of the drug in a nano drug carrier which causes both reducing side effects and increasing drug activity is a desired new approach for the nano-medicine to target the site of cancer. In this study, synthesis of a novel nano paclitaxel formulation made of a new amphiphilic monomer was followed by the investigation of its pharmacological properties. UV radical polymerization was carried out by using the monomer Lecithin-2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane (L-AMPS) and the drug-spacer, to obtain sterically high stabilized, biocompatible and biodegradable phospholipid nanoparticles, in which the drug paclitaxel (Pxl) was encapsulated (NanoPxl). Particles showed high drug loading capacity (68%) and also hydrodynamic size less than 200 nm with slight negative surface charge. The drug release profile was obtained and in vitro cytotoxicity test was performed on MCF-7 cell line. Consequently, these data indicated that paclitaxel loaded Lecithin-AMPS/PCL-MAC nanoparticles can be considered as a new, safe and effective nanocarrier for the treatment of breast cancer.

Keywords: paclitaxel, nanoparticle, drug delivery, L-AMPS

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8 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh

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Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

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7 Surface Modified Polyamidoamine Dendrimer with Gallic Acid Overcomes Drug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells HCT-116

Authors: Khushbu Priyadarshi, Chandramani Pathak

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Cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional therapies especially chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy is another challenge in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is important to address this issue. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural plant compound that exhibits various biological properties including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial. Despite of the wide spectrum biological properties GA has cytotoxic response and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, GA was conjugated with the Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer for improving the bioavailability and efficient delivery in drug-resistant HCT-116 Colon Cancer cells. Gallic acid was covalently linked to 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer. PAMAM dendrimer is well established nanocarrier but has cytotoxicity due to presence of amphiphilic nature of amino group. In our study we have modified surface of PAMAM dendrimer with Gallic acid and examine their anti-proliferative effects in drug-resistant HCT-116 cells. Further, drug-resistant colon cancer cells were established and thereafter treated with different concentration of PAMAM-GA to examine their anti-proliferative potential. Our results show that PAMAM-GA conjugate induces apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 and drug-resistant cells observed by Annexin-PI staining. In addition, it also shows that multidrug-resistant drug transporter P-gp protein expression was downregulated with increasing the concentration of GA conjugate. After that we also observed the significant difference in Rh123 efflux and accumulation in drug sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that conjugation of anti-cancer agents with PAMAM could improve drug resistant property and cytotoxic response to treatment of cancer.

Keywords: drug resistance, gallic acid, PAMAM dendrimer, P-glycoprotein

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6 Fabrication and Characterization of Folic Acid-Grafted-Thiomer Enveloped Liposomes for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Docetaxel

Authors: Farhan Sohail, Gul Shahnaz Irshad Hussain, Shoaib Sarwar, Ibrahim Javed, Zajif Hussain, Akhtar Nadhman

Abstract:

The present study was aimed to develop a hybrid nanocarrier (NC) system with enhanced membrane permeability, bioavailability and targeted delivery of Docetaxel (DTX) in breast cancer. Hybrid NC’s based on folic acid (FA) grafted thiolated chitosan (TCS) enveloped liposomes were prepared with DTX and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their enhanced permeability and bioavailability. Physicochemical characterization of NC’s including particle size, morphology, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, PXRD, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from NC’s was determined in vitro. Permeation enhancement and p-gp inhibition were performed through everted sac method on freshly excised rat intestine which indicated that permeation was enhanced 5 times as compared to pure DTX and the hybrid NC’s were strongly able to inhibit the p-gp activity as well. In-vitro cytotoxicity and tumor targeting was done using MDA-MB-231 cell line. The stability study of the formulations performed for 3 months showed the improved stability of FA-TCS enveloped liposomes in terms of its particles size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency as compared to TCS NP’s and liposomes. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in vivo using rabbits. The oral bioavailability and AUC0-96 was increased 10.07 folds with hybrid NC’s as compared to positive control. Half-life (t1/2) was increased 4 times (58.76 hrs) as compared to positive control (17.72 hrs). Conclusively, it is suggested that FA-TCS enveloped liposomes have strong potential to enhance permeability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs after oral administration and tumor targeting.

Keywords: docetaxel, coated liposome, permeation enhancement, oral bioavailability

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5 Enzyme Immobilization on Functionalized Polystyrene Nanofibersfor Bioprocessing Applications

Authors: Mailin Misson, Bo Jin, Sheng Dai, Hu Zhang

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Advances in biotechnology have witnessed a growing interest in enzyme applications for the development of green and sustainable bio processes. While known as powerful bio catalysts, enzymes are no longer of economic value when extended to large commercialization. Alternatively, immobilization technology allows enzyme recovery and continuous reuse which subsequently compensates high operating costs. Employment of enzymes on nano structured materials has been recognized as a promising approach to enhance enzyme catalytic performances. High porosity, inter connectivity and self-assembling behaviors endow nano fibers as exciting candidate for enzyme carrier in bio reactor systems. In this study, nano fibers were successfully fabricated via electro spinning system by optimizing the polymer concentration (10-30 %, w/v), applied voltage (10-30 kV) and discharge distance (11-26 cm). Microscopic images have confirmed the quality as homogeneous and good fiber alignment. The nano fibers surface was modified using strong oxidizing agent to facilitate bio molecule binding. Bovine serum albumin and β-galactosidase enzyme were employed as model bio catalysts and immobilized onto the oxidized surfaces through covalent binding. Maximum enzyme adsorption capacity of the modified nano fibers was 3000 mg/g, 3-fold higher than the unmodified counterpart (1000 mg/g). The highest immobilization yield was 80% and reached the saturation point at 2 mg/ml of enzyme concentration. The results indicate a significant increase of activity retention by the enzyme-bound modified nano fibers (80%) as compared to the nascent one (60%), signifying excellent enzyme-nano carrier bio compatibility. The immobilized enzyme was further used for the bio conversion of dairy wastes into value-added products. This study demonstrates great potential of acid-modified electrospun polystyrene nano fibers as enzyme carriers.

Keywords: immobilization, enzyme, nanocarrier, nanofibers

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4 Fabrication of Ligand Coated Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for Synergistic Treatment of Autoimmune Disease

Authors: Asiya Mahtab, Sushama Talegaonkar

Abstract:

The research is aimed at developing targeted lipid-based nanocarrier systems of chondroitin sulfate (CS) to deliver an antirheumatic drug to the inflammatory site in arthritic paw. Lipid-based nanoparticle (TEF-lipo) was prepared by using a thin-film hydration method. The coating of prepared drug-loaded nanoparticles was done by the ionic interaction mechanism. TEF-lipo and CS-coated lipid nanoparticle (CS-lipo) were characterized for mean droplet size, zeta potential, and surface morphology. TEF-lipo and CS-lipo were further subjected to in vitro cell line studies on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage, U937, and MG 63 cell lines. The pharmacodynamic study was performed to establish the effectiveness of the prepared lipid-based conventional and targeted nanoparticles in comparison to pure drugs. Droplet size and zeta potential of TEF-lipo were found to be 128. 92 ± 5.42 nm and +12.6 ± 1.2 mV. It was observed that after the coating of TEF-lipo with CS, particle size increased to 155.6± 2.12 nm and zeta potential changed to -10.2± 1.4mV. Transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed that the nanovesicles were uniformly dispersed and detached from each other. Formulations followed sustained release pattern up to 24 h. Results of cell line studies ind icated that CS-lipo formulation showed the highest cytotoxic potential, thereby proving its enhanced ability to kill the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage and U937 cells when compared with other formulations. It is clear from our in vivo pharmacodynamic results that targeted nanocarriers had a higher inhibitory effect on arthritis progression than nontargeted nanocarriers or free drugs. Results demonstrate that this approach will provide effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, and CS served as a potential prophylactic against the advancement of cartilage degeneration.

Keywords: adjuvant induced arthritis, chondroitin sulfate, rheumatoid arthritis, teriflunomide

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3 Biodegradable Polymeric Vesicles Containing Magnetic Nanoparticles, Quantum Dots and Anticancer Drugs for Drug Delivery and Imaging

Authors: Fei Ye, Åsa Barrefelt, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Khalid M. Abu-Salah, Salman A. Alrokayan, Mamoun Muhammed, Moustapha Hassan

Abstract:

With appropriate encapsulation in functional nanoparticles drugs are more stable in physiological environment and the kinetics of the drug can be more carefully controlled and monitored. Furthermore, targeted drug delivery can be developed to improve chemotherapy in cancer treatment, not only by enhancing intracellular uptake by target cells but also by reducing the adverse effects in non-target organs. Inorganic imaging agents, delivered together with anti-cancer drugs, enhance the local imaging contrast and provide precise diagnosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. We have developed biodegradable polymeric vesicles as a nanocarrier system for multimodal bio-imaging and anticancer drug delivery. The poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA) vesicles were fabricated by encapsulating inorganic imaging agents of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), manganese-doped zinc sulfide (MN:ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) and the anticancer drug busulfan into PLGA nanoparticles via an emulsion-evaporation method. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of PLGA-SPION-Mn:ZnS phantoms exhibited enhanced negative contrast with r2 relaxivity of approximately 523 s-1 mM-1 Fe. Murine macrophage (J774A) cellular uptake of PLGA vesicles started fluorescence imaging at 2 h and reached maximum intensity at 24 h incubation. The drug delivery ability PLGA vesicles was demonstrated in vitro by release of busulfan. PLGA vesicles degradation was studied in vitro, showing that approximately 32% was degraded into lactic and glycolic acid over a period of 5 weeks. The biodistribution of PLGA vesicles was investigated in vivo by MRI in a rat model. Change of contrast in the liver could be visualized by MRI after 7 min and maximal signal loss detected after 4 h post-injection of PLGA vesicles. Histological studies showed that the presence of PLGA vesicles in organs was shifted from the lungs to the liver and spleen over time.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, anticancer drugs

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2 Immunoliposome-Mediated Drug Delivery to Plasmodium-Infected and Non-Infected Red Blood Cells as a Dual Therapeutic/Prophylactic Antimalarial Strategy

Authors: Ernest Moles, Patricia Urbán, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Sara Viera-Morilla, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Maria Antònia Busquets, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets

Abstract:

Bearing in mind the absence of an effective vaccine against malaria and its severe clinical manifestations causing nearly half a million deaths every year, this disease represents nowadays a major threat to life. Besides, the basic rationale followed by currently marketed antimalarial approaches is based on the administration of drugs on their own, promoting the emergence of drug-resistant parasites owing to the limitation in delivering drug payloads into the parasitized erythrocyte high enough to kill the intracellular pathogen while minimizing the risk of causing toxic side effects to the patient. Such dichotomy has been successfully addressed through the specific delivery of immunoliposome (iLP)-encapsulated antimalarials to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (pRBCs). Unfortunately, this strategy has not progressed towards clinical applications, whereas in vitro assays rarely reach drug efficacy improvements above 10-fold. Here, we show that encapsulation efficiencies reaching >96% can be achieved for the weakly basic drugs chloroquine (CQ) and primaquine using the pH gradient active loading method in liposomes composed of neutrally charged, saturated phospholipids. Targeting antibodies are best conjugated through their primary amino groups, adjusting chemical crosslinker concentration to retain significant antigen recognition. Antigens from non-parasitized RBCs have also been considered as targets for the intracellular delivery of drugs not affecting the erythrocytic metabolism. Using this strategy, we have obtained unprecedented nanocarrier targeting to early intraerythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite for which there is a lack of specific extracellular molecular tags. Polyethylene glycol-coated liposomes conjugated with monoclonal antibodies specific for the erythrocyte surface protein glycophorin A (anti-GPA iLP) were capable of targeting 100% RBCs and pRBCs at the low concentration of 0.5 μM total lipid in the culture, with >95% of added iLPs retained into the cells. When exposed for only 15 min to P. falciparum in vitro cultures synchronized at early stages, free CQ had no significant effect over parasite viability up to 200 nM drug, whereas iLP-encapsulated 50 nM CQ completely arrested its growth. Furthermore, when assayed in vivo in P. falciparum-infected humanized mice, anti-GPA iLPs cleared the pathogen below detectable levels at a CQ dose of 0.5 mg/kg. In comparison, free CQ administered at 1.75 mg/kg was, at most, 40-fold less efficient. Our data suggest that this significant improvement in drug antimalarial efficacy is in part due to a prophylactic effect of CQ found by the pathogen in its host cell right at the very moment of invasion.

Keywords: immunoliposomal nanoparticles, malaria, prophylactic-therapeutic polyvalent activity, targeted drug delivery

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1 Development of Wound Dressing System Based on Hydrogel Matrix Incorporated with pH-Sensitive Nanocarrier-Drug Systems

Authors: Dagmara Malina, Katarzyna Bialik-Wąs, Klaudia Pluta

Abstract:

The growing significance of transdermal systems, in which skin is a route for systemic drug delivery, has generated a considerable amount of data which has resulted in a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of transport across the skin in the context of the controlled and prolonged release of active substances. One of such solutions may be the use of carrier systems based on intelligent polymers with different physicochemical properties. In these systems, active substances, e.g. drugs, can be conjugated (attached), immobilized, or encapsulated in a polymer matrix that is sensitive to specific environmental conditions (e.g. pH or temperature changes). Intelligent polymers can be divided according to their sensitivity to specific environmental stimuli such as temperature, pH, light, electric, magnetic, sound, or electromagnetic fields. Materials & methods—The first stage of the presented research concerned the synthesis of pH-sensitive polymeric carriers by a radical polymerization reaction. Then, the selected active substance (hydrocortisone) was introduced into polymeric carriers. In a further stage, bio-hybrid sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) – SA/PVA-based hydrogel matrices modified with various carrier-drug systems were prepared with the chemical cross-linking method. The conducted research included the assessment of physicochemical properties of obtained materials i.e. degree of hydrogel swelling and degradation studies as a function of pH in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37°C in time. The gel fraction represents the insoluble gel fraction as a result of inter-molecule cross-linking formation was also measured. Additionally, the chemical structure of obtained hydrogels was confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopic technique. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique was used for the analysis of the average particle size of polymer-carriers and carrier-drug systems. The nanocarriers morphology was observed using SEM microscopy. Results & Discussion—The analysis of the encapsulated polymeric carriers showed that it was possible to obtain the time-stable empty pH-sensitive carrier with an average size 479 nm and the encapsulated system containing hydrocortisone with an average 543 nm, which was introduced into hydrogel structure. Bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices are stable materials, and the presence of an additional component: pH-sensitive carrier – hydrocortisone system, does not reduce the degree of cross-linking of the matrix nor its swelling ability. Moreover, the results of swelling tests indicate that systems containing higher concentrations of the drug have a slightly higher sorption capacity in each of the media used. All analyzed materials show stable and statically changing swelling values in simulated body fluids - there is no sudden fluid uptake and no rapid release from the material. The analysis of FT-IR spectra confirms the chemical structure of the obtained bio-hybrid hydrogel matrices. In the case of modifications with a pH-sensitive carrier, a much more intense band can be observed in the 3200-3500 cm⁻¹ range, which most likely originates from the strong hydrogen interactions that occur between individual components.

Keywords: hydrogels, polymer nanocarriers, sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) matrices, wound dressings.

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