Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 659

Search results for: inflammatory

659 Rose geranium Essential Oil as a Source of New and Safe Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat

Abstract:

Since the available anti-inflammatory drugs exert an extensive variety of side effects, the search for new anti-inflammatory agents has been a priority of pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of rose geranium (RGEO). The chemical composition of the RGEO was investigated by gas chromatography. The major components were citronellol (29.13%), geraniol (12.62%), and citronellyl formate (8.06%). In the carrageenan induced paw edema, five different groups were established and RGEO was administered orally in three different doses. RGEO (100 mg/kg) was able to significantly reduce the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with diclofenac, the positive control. In addition, RGEO showed a potent anti-inflammatory activity by topical treatment in the method of croton oil-induced ear edema. When the dose was 5 or 10 ml of RGEO per ear, the inflammation was reduced by 73 and 88%, respectively. This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of Algerian RGEO. In addition, histological analysis confirmed that RGEO inhibited the inflammatory responses in the skin. Our results indicate that RGEO may have significant potential for the development of novel anti-inflammatory drugs with improved safety profile.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory effect, carrageenan, citronellol, histopathology, Rose geranium

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658 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

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The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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657 Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Wild Herb Urginea wightii

Authors: S. K. Hemalata, M. N. Shiva Kameshwari

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The present work focusses on anti-inflammatory action of Urginea wightii in-vitro. Urginea wightii is a member of Hyacinthaceae and considered to be wonder plant because of its varied important medicinal properties. The plant is endemic to India, Africa, and Mediterranian regions. Presence of alkaloids, flavonoid-glycosides especially flavonone derivatives are responsible for the strong anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii. In present research work, anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of the bulb powder was tested on Male Wistar Rats. In these test animals, inflammation was induced by injecting carrageenan as the irritant to induce paw edema in Wistar rats. Inflammation of Paw edema was treated with both plant extract and Pyrox gel a known synthetic anti-inflammatory drug through external application. The result indicated that anti-inflammatory activity of Urginea wightii extract was almost similar to the synthetic Pyrox gel. This disproves the modern world's scepticism towards the herbal medicines and encourages to rely on natural plant extracts.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory activity, flavonoid-glycosides, Pyrox gel, Urginia wightii

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656 Adalimumab Therapy for Inflammatory Discitis Associated with Spondyloarthropathy

Authors: Liu Yuhong, Hussen Mansai, Mei Chunli

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Inflammatory discitis is a sterile inflammatary disease that typically presents with abnormalities in two adjacent vertebral bodies and the intervening disk. Diagnosis this disorder is usually difficult and ideal management remains controversial. In this report,we examine a case of inflammatory discitis in a 56 year old female in which treatment with adalimumab ameliorated symptoms. The 56-year-old female patient developed repeatedly inflammatory discitis in the past three years, presenting with severe back pain, an elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiological erosive changes in vertebral and intervertebral disk of the spine. Surgical treatment, antibiotics and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) were used, but the patient still suffered from recurrent onset of unbearable backache. Three years later from the patient’s first admission,adalimumab was prescribed due to the third occurrence of Anderson lesions, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the same day of adalimumab therapy, her symptoms had a dramatic improvement. On the following day she could stand and walk slowly, her CRP and ESR were decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-B27, the patient’s inflammatory discitis was considered to be associated with spondyloarthropathy.

Keywords: adalimumab, inflammatory discitis, spondyloarthropathy, patient

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655 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Topical Anthocyanins by Complexation and Niosomal Encapsulation

Authors: Aroonsri Priprem, Sucharat Limsitthichaikoon, Suttasinee Thappasarapong

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Anthocyanins are natural pigments with effective UV protection but their topical use could be limited due to their physicochemical characteristics. An attempt to overcome such limitations by complexation of 2 major anthocyanin-rich sources, C. ternatea, and Z. mays, for investigation on potential use as topical anti-inflammatory. Cell studies indicate no cytotoxicity of the anthocyanin complex (AC) up to 1 mg/ml tested in HaCaT and human forehead fibroblasts by MTT. Croton oil-induced ear edema in Wistar rats suggests an effective dose of 5 mg/cm2 of AC as a topical anti-inflammatory in comparison to 0.5 mg/cm2 of fluocinolone acetonide. Niosomal encapsulation of the AC significantly prolonged the anti-inflammatory activity particularly at 8 h after topical application (p = 0.0001). The AC was not cytotoxic and its anti-inflammatory and activity was dose-dependent and prolonged by niosomal encapsulation. It has also shown to promote collagen type 1 production in cell culture. Thus, AC could be a potential candidate for topical anti-inflammatory agent from natural resources.

Keywords: anthocyanin complex, ear edema, inflammation, niosomes, skin

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654 Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Lavandula antineae Maire from Algeria

Authors: Soumeya Krimat, Tahar Dob, Aicha Kesouri, Ahmed Nouasri, Hafidha Metidji

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Lavandula antineae Maire is an endemic medicinal plant of Algeria which is traditionally used for the treatment of chills, bruises, oedema and rheumatism. The objective of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory of hydromethanolic aerial parts extract of Lavandula antineae for the first time using carrageenan-paw edema and croton oil-ear odema models. The plant extract, at the dose of 200 mg/kg, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (P˂0.05) in the carrageenan induced edema test in mice, showing 80.74% reduction in the paw thikness comparable to that produced by the standard drug aspirin 83.44% at 4h. When it was applied topically at a dosage of 1 and 2 mg per ear, the percent edema reduction in treated mice was 29.45% and 74.76%, respectively. These results demonstrate that Lavandula antineae Maire extract possess remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory and pain diseases.

Keywords: lavandula antineae maire, medicinal plant, anti-inflammatory activity, carrageenan-paw edema, croton oil-ear edema

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653 Anti-Inflammatory Studies of Grewia crenata Leaves Extract in Albino Rats

Authors: A. N. Ukwuani, M. G. Abubakar, S. W. Hassan

Abstract:

Grewia crenata is used locally in the treatment of fractured bones, wound healing and inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanolic extract of G. crenata leaves was investigated using egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema model in albino rat. The extract produced a time-dependent inhibition of egg albumin induced-hind paw oedema at 30th minutes up to 150th minutes in all the groups compared to the control. Significant reduction (p<0.05) of hind paw oedema was observed 150 minutes after egg albumin injection. The percentage inhibition produced by the extract at 200 mg/kg (22.1%) was comparable to that produced by 10 mg/kg indomethacin (24.9%) at the 150th minutes of post-egg albumin injection. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and glycosides. The results obtained in this study suggest that Grewia crenata can be a potential source of anti-inflammatory agent and validates its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

Keywords: Grewia crenata, anti-inflammatory, hind paw, oedema

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652 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan, Atif Zafar

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In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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651 Design and Synthesis of Novel Benzamides as Non-Ulcerogenic Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Khadse Saurabh, Talele Gokul, Surana Sanjay

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In an endeavor to find a new class of anti-inflammatory agents, a series of novel benzamides (ab1-ab16) were synthesized by utilizing some arylideneoxazolones (az1-az4) having 2-acetyloxyphenyl substitution on their second position. Structures of these synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and HRMS. Among the tested benzamide compounds 3ab1, 3ab2, 3ab11, and 3ab16 showed promising anti-inflammatory activity with lessened propensity to cause gastro-intestinal hypermotility and ulceration when compared with standard Indomethacin. Virtual screening was performed by docking the designed compounds into the ATP binding site of COX-2 receptor to predict if these compounds have analogous binding mode to the COX-2 inhibitor.

Keywords: benzamides, anti-inflammatory, gastro-intestinal hypermotility, ulcerogenic activity, docking

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650 Effects of Oral Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammation and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: M. Samsami, A. Hekmatdoost, N. Ebrahimi Daryani, P. Rezanejad Asl

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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which immune and inflammatory factors are thought to be effective in this disease. Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. This study determined the effects of resveratrol compound on inflammatory factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 patients with UC. Subjects received one capsule daily for 6 wk of either resveratrol (500 mg) or a placebo. Inflammatory factors, anthropometric measures, and IBDQ-9 (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-9) scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. STATA12 software was used for data analysis. No significant differences were found in the background variables between the two groups at baseline. The results indicated that resveratrol supplementation for 6 week significantly decreased plasma levels of TNF-a and hs-CRP and the activity of NF-κB over the placebo group (p<0.001). Significant differences remained after adjustment for vitamin C (p<0.0001). The IBDQ-9 scores increased significantly in the resveratrol group over the placebo group (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that resveratrol supplementation can be useful in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: IBD, inflammation, resveratrol, ulcerative colitis

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649 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta

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Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers

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648 Role of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Electroacupuncture Analgesia on Chronic Inflammatory Pain in Mice

Authors: Jun Yang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

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Chronic inflammatory pain results from peripheral tissue injury or local inflammation to increase the release of protons, histamines, adenosine triphosphate, and several proinflammatory cytokines. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in fibromyalgia, neuropathic, and inflammatory pain; however, its exact mechanisms in chronic inflammatory pain are still unclear. We investigate the analgesic effect of EA by injecting complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) in the hind paw of mice to induce chronic inflammatory pain ( > 14 d). Our results showed that EA significantly reduced chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic inflammatory pain model. Chronic mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was also abolished in TRPV1−/− mice. TRPV1 increased in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) at 2 weeks after CFA injection. The expression levels of downstream molecules such as pPKA, pPI3K, and pPKC increased, as did those of pERK, pp38, and pJNK. Transcription factors (pCREB and pNFκB) and nociceptive ion channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8) were involved in this process. Inflammatory mediators such as GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein), S100B, and RAGE (Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) were also involved. The expression levels of these molecules were reduced in EA (electroacupuncture) and TRPV1−/−mice but not in the sham EA group. The present study demonstrated that EA or TRPV1 gene deletion reduced chronic inflammatory pain through TRPV1 and related molecules. In addition, our data provided evidence to support the clinical use of EA for treating chronic inflammatory pain.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation, electroacupuncture

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647 Mitochondrial Apolipoprotein A-1 Binding Protein Promotes Repolarization of Inflammatory Macrophage by Repairing Mitochondrial Respiration

Authors: Hainan Chen, Jina Qing, Xiao Zhu, Ling Gao, Ampadu O. Jackson, Min Zhang, Kai Yin

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Objective: Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is highly associated with mitochondrial respiration. Recent studies have suggested that mitochondrial apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein (APOA1BP) was essential for the cellular metabolite NADHX repair to NADH, which is necessary for the mitochondrial function. The exact role of APOA1BP in the repolarization of M1 to M2, however, is uncertain. Material and method: THP-1-derived macrophages were incubated with LPS (10 ng/ml) or/and IL-4 (100 U/ml) for 24 hours. Biochemical parameters of oxidative phosphorylation and M1/M2 markers were analyzed after overexpression of APOA1BP in cells. Results: Compared with control and IL-4-exposed M2 cells, APOA1BP was downregulated in M1 macrophages. APOA1BP restored the decline in mitochondrial function to improve metabolic and phenotypic reprogramming of M1 to M2 macrophages. Blocking oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin blunts the effects of APOA1BP on M1 to M2 repolarization. Mechanistically, LPS triggered the hydration of NADH and increased its hydrate NADHX which inhibit cellular NADH dehydrogenases, a key component of electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation. APOA1BP decreased the level of NADHX via converting R-NADHX to biologically useful S-NADHX. The mutant of APOA1BP aspartate188, the binding site of NADHX, fail to repair oxidative phosphorylation, thereby preventing repolarization. Conclusions: Restoring mitochondrial function by increasing mitochondrial APOA1BP might be useful to improve the reprogramming of inflammatory macrophages into anti-inflammatory cells to control inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: inflammatory diseases, macrophage repolarization, mitochondrial respiration, apolipoprotein A-1 binding protein, NADHX, NADH

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646 Fatty Acid Extracts of Sea Pen (Virgularia gustaviana) and Their Potential Applications as Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi

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In this study, the crude extracts of Virgularia gustavina were examined as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent. To assess inflammation, Xylene was applied to the ear of mice. The mice of the experimental group were fed with doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg of lipid extract of chloroform and hexane as a separate group and then statistical analysis was performed on the results. Chloroform and hexane extracts of sea pen have strong anti-inflammatory effects even at low doses which is probably due to 54% arachidonic acid. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of hexane and chloroform extracts were measured with MIC and MBC methods and it is shown that chloroform extract has best activity against Staphylococcus aureus on 125 µg/ml doze in MIC method.

Keywords: sea pen (virgularia gustaviana), lipid extract, anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities, fatty acid

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645 Inflammatory Alleviation on Microglia Cells by an Apoptotic Mimicry

Authors: Yi-Feng Kao, Huey-Jine Chai, Chin-I Chang, Yi-Chen Chen, June-Ru Chen

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Microglia is a macrophage that resides in brain, and overactive microglia may result in brain neuron damage or inflammation. In this study, the phospholipids was extracted from squid skin and manufactured into a liposome (SQ liposome) to mimic apoptotic body. We then evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of SQ liposome on mouse microglial cell line (BV-2) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction. First, the major phospholipid constituents in the squid skin extract were including 46.2% of phosphatidylcholine, 18.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine, 7.7% of phosphatidylserine, 3.5% of phosphatidylinositol, 4.9% of Lysophosphatidylcholine and 19.3% of other phospholipids by HPLC-UV analysis. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the squid skin extract were 11.8 and 28.7%, respectively. The microscopic images showed that microglia cells can engulf apoptotic cells or SQ-liposome. In cell based studies, there was no cytotoxicity to BV-2 as the concentration of SQ-liposome was less than 2.5 mg/mL. The LPS induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), were significant suppressed (P < 0.05) by pretreated 0.03~2.5mg/ml SQ liposome. Oppositely, the anti-inflammatory cytokines transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion were enhanced (P < 0.05). The results suggested that SQ-liposome possess anti-inflammatory properties on BV-2 and may be a good strategy for against neuro-inflammatory disease.

Keywords: apoptotic mimicry, neuroinflammation, microglia, squid processing by-products

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644 Role of Moderate Intensity Exercises in the Amelioration of Oxidant-Antioxidant Status and the Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Abdul Qayyum, Atif Zafar

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Cytokines and reactive species play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was done to determine the levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS), inflammatory cytokines and the markers of protein, DNA and lipid oxidation in the blood of RA patients, with the aim to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory role of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA. RA patients were subdivided into two groups- first group (n=30) received treatment with conventional RA drugs while the second group (n=30) received moderate exercise therapy along with the conventional drugs for a period of 12 weeks. The levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines and markers of biomolecule oxidation were monitored before and after 12 weeks of treatment. RA patients showed a marked increase in the levels of ROS, RNS, inflammatory cytokines, lipid, protein and DNA oxidation as compared to the healthy controls. These parameters were ameliorated after treatment with drugs alone and exercise combined with drugs, with the amelioration being more significant in patients given drugs along with the moderate intensity exercise treatment. In conclusion, the role of ROS, RNS and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA has been confirmed by this study. These may also serve as potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity. Finally, the addition of moderate intensity exercises in the management of RA may be of great value.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, moderate intensity exercises

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643 Design, Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Some Coumarin and Flavone Derivatives Containing 1,4 Dioxane Ring System

Authors: Asif Husain, Shah Alam Khan

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Coumarins and flavones are oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds which are present in various biologically active compounds. Both the heterocyclic rings are associated with diverse biological actions, therefore considered as an important scaffold for the design of molecules of pharmaceutical interest. Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of few coumrain and flavone derivatives containing 1,4 dioxane ring system. Materials and methods: Coumarin derivatives (3a-d) were synthesized by reacting 7,8 dihydroxy coumarin (2a) and its 4-methyl derivative (2b) with epichlorohydrin/ethylene dibromide. The flavone derivatives (10a-d) were prepared by using quercetin and 3,4 dihydroxy flavones. Compounds of both the series were also evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and ulcerogenicity in animal models by reported methods. Results and Discussion: The structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed with the help of IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral studies. Elemental analyses data for each element analyzed (C, H, N) was found to be within acceptable range of ±0.4 %. Flavone derivatives, but in particular quercetin containing 1,4 dioxane ring system (10d) showed better anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity along with reduced gastrointestinal toxicity as compared to other synthesized compounds. The results of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of both the series are comparable with the positive control, diclofenac. Conclusion: Compound 10d, a quercetin derivative, emerged as a lead molecule which exhibited potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity with significant reduced gastric toxicity.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, 1, 4 dioxane, coumarin, flavone

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642 The Modulation of Health and Inflammatory Status in Young Pigs by Grape Waste Enriched in Polyphenols

Authors: Gina Cecilia Pistol, Loredana Calin, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

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Inflammatory-associated diseases have an increased trend in the past decades. The pharmacological strategies aimed to treat these inflammatory diseases are very expensive and with non-beneficial results. The current trend is to find alternative strategies to counteract or to control inflammatory component of diseases. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in bioactive compounds (e.g. polyphenols) which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammation associated with cancer progression and other pathologies with inflammatory component. The in vivo models are very useful for studying the immune and inflammatory status. The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is related to human from anatomic and physiologic point of view, representing a feasible model for studying the human inflammatory pathologies. Starting from these data, we evaluated the effect of a diet containing 5% grape seed cakes (GS) on piglets blood biochemical parameters and immune pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-4) in spleen and lymph nodes. 12 weaned piglets were fed for 30 days with a control diet or an experimental diet containing 5% GS. At the end of trial, plasma and tissue samples (spleen and lymph nodes) were collected and the biochemical and inflammatory markers were analysed by using biochemistry analyser and ELISA techniques. Our results showed that diet included 5% GS did not influence the health status determined by plasma biochemical parameters. Only a tendency for a slight increase of the biochemical parameters associated with energetic profile (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) was observed. Also, GS diet had no effect on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines content in spleen and lymph nodes tissue. Further experiments are needed in order to investigate other rate of dietary inclusion which could provide more evidence about the effect of grape bioactive compounds on pigs used as animal model.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape seed by-product, immune organs

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641 In vitro Anti-Gonococcal, Anti-Inflammatory and HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Activities of the Herbal Mixture

Authors: T. E. Tshikalange, B. C. Mophuting

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Traditional medicine often consists of complex ingredients prepared from a mixture of plant species. These herbal mixtures are used in the treatment of various ailments such as sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The present study was carried out to determine the biological activities of the herbal mixture used traditionally in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. This herbal mixture consists of four plant species from families Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, and Myrtaceae. Five crude extracts (hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, water and boiled) of the herbal mixture were investigated for anti-gonococcal, anti-inflammatory, and reverse transcriptase activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the plant extracts was determined by measuring the extract inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory enzyme lipoxygenase. The extracts were also tested for anti-HIV activity against recombinant HIV-1 enzyme using non-radioactive HIV-RT colorimetric assay. The boiled extract exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity with an IC₅₀ of 87 µg/ml compared to that of the positive control quercetin (IC₅₀= 92 µg/ml). All the other extracts showed little or no activity. Hexane extract was the only extract that showed reverse transcriptase extract inhibitory effect with an IC₅₀ of 74 µg/ml. Anti-gonococcal and cytotoxicity investigations are underway. The preliminary results support the use of herbal mixture by traditional healers.

Keywords: sexually transmitted diseases, lipoxygenase, anti-inflammatory, herbal mixture

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640 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir

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One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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639 Low Term Aerobic Training Is Not Associated with Anti-Inflammatory in Obese Women

Authors: Zohreh Afsharmand, Sokhanguei Yahya

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A growing body of literature suggests that that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. In this study, the effect of 6 weeks aerobic training on IL-6 and IL-1B as inflammatory cytokine were investigated in adult obese women. For this purpose, 26 sedentary adult obese women were divided into exercise and control groups (n=12). Pre and post training of mentioned cytokines were measured in two groups. Student’s t-tests for paired samples were performed to determine whether there were significant within-group changes in the outcomes. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between the exercise and control groups with regard to anthropometrical markers or inflammatory cytokines. Despite the significant decrease in all anthropometrical markers, no significant differences were found in serum IL-6 and IL-1B by aerobic training with compared to baseline. Our findings indicate that aerobic training intervention for a short time is not associated with the anti-inflammatory property in obese women.

Keywords: aerobic training, cytokine, inflammation, obesity

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638 Investigating Prostaglandin E2 and Intracellular Oxidative Stress Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages upon Treatment with Strobilanthes crispus

Authors: Anna Pick Kiong Ling, Jia May Chin, Rhun Yian Koh, Ying Pei Wong

Abstract:

Background: Uncontrolled inflammation may cause serious inflammatory diseases if left untreated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is commonly used to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, thus, reduce inflammation. However, long term administration of NSAIDs leads to various complications. Medicinal plants are getting more attention as it is believed to be more compatible with human body. One of them is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus which has been traditionally claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, its anti-inflammatory activities are yet to be scientifically documented. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of S. crispus by investigating its effects on intracellular oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Maximum Non-toxic Dose (MNTD) of methanol extract of both leaves and stems of S. crispus was first determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of S. crispus extracts at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD) on intracellular ROS as well as PGE2 levels in 1.0 µg/mL LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were then be measured using DCFH-DA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay kit, respectively. Results: The MNTD of leaf extract was determined as 700µg/mL while for stem was as low as 1.4µg/mL. When LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were subjected to the MNTD of S. crispus leaf extract, both intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels were significantly reduced. In contrast, stem extract at both MNTD and ½MNTD did not significantly reduce the PGE2 level, but significantly increased the intracellular ROS level. Conclusion: The methanol leaf extract of S. crispus may possess anti-inflammatory properties as it is able to significantly reduce the intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels of LPS-stimulated cells. Nevertheless, further studies such as investigating the interleukin, nitric oxide and cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels has to be conducted to further confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of S. crispus.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, natural products, prostaglandin E2, reactive oxygen species

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637 Anti-Melanogenesis and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Opuntia humifusa

Authors: Yonghwa Lee, Yoon Suk Kim, Yongsub Yi

Abstract:

This study was to confirm the effects of anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory effects from Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts. A potent anti-oxidant activity was shown from the leaf extract at IC50 value of 38.33±1.07 μg/mL and fruit extract at IC50 value of 40.23±2.21 μg/mL by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Also, phenolic contents were confirmed total phenolic assay by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fraction of taxifolin from leaf extract was identified using HPLC and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The extracts of Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem were confirmed about toxicity effect in B16 F1 by cell viability. Melanin contents were decreased. Opuntia humifusa fruit and stem extracts had a positive effect of melanin synthesis inhibition for skin whitening. In investigating the anti-inflammatory activities of Opuntia humifusa, the results of cell viability indicated that taxifolin did not show cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 cells at 500 μM of concentration. The results show that taxifolin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of Nitrite oxide (NO). In addition, taxifolin indicated the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α and interleukin (IL) -6 productions by cytokine assay and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression by western blot analysis, meaning that taxifolin had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. Our results suggested that taxifolin from Opuntia humifusa has anti-melanogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: anti-melanogenesis, anti-inflammatory, Opuntia humifusa, taxifolin

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636 Neuroprotective Effects of Gly-Pro-Glu-Thr-Ala-Phe-Leu-Arg, a Peptide Isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. Protein Hydrolysate

Authors: Maria Del Carmen Millan-Linares, Ana Lemus Conejo, Rocio Toscano, Alvaro Villanueva, Francisco Millan, Justo Pedroche, Sergio Montserrat-De La Paz

Abstract:

GPETAFLR (Glycine-Proline-Glutamine-Threonine-Alanine-Phenylalanine-Leucine-Arginine) is a peptide isolated from Lupinus angustifolius L. protein hydrolysate (LPH). Herein, the effect of this peptide was investigated in two different models of neuroinflammation: in the immortalized murine microglia cell line BV-2 and in a high-fat-diet-induced obesity mouse model. Methods and Results: Effects of GPETAFLR on neuroinflammation were evaluated by RT-qPCR, flow cytometry, and ELISA techniques. In BV-2 microglial cells, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhanced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) whereas GPETAFLR decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in BV2 microglial cells. M1 (CCR7 and iNOS) and M2 (Arg-1 and Ym-1) polarization markers results showed how the GPETAFLR octapeptide was able to decrease M1 polarization marker expression and increase the M2 polarization marker expression compared to LPS. Animal model results indicate that GPETAFLR has an immunomodulatory capacity, both decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in brain tissue. Polarization markers in the brain tissue were also modulated by GPETAFLR that decreased the pro-inflammatory expression (M1) and increased the anti-inflammatory expression (M2). Conclusion: Our results suggest that GPETAFLR isolated from LPH has significant potential for management of neuroinflammatory conditions and offer benefits derived from the consumption of Lupinus angustifolius L. in the prevention of neuroinflammatory-related diseases.

Keywords: GPETAFLR peptide, BV-2 cell line, neuroinflammation, cytokines, high-fat-diet

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635 Development of a Diagnostic Device to Predict Clinically Significant Inflammation Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Mohamed Majrashi, Patricia Connolly, Terry Gourlay

Abstract:

Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to cause inflammatory response during open heart surgery. It includes the initiation of different cascades such as coagulation, complement system and cytokines. Although the immune system is body’s key defense mechanism against external assault, when overexpressed, it can be injurious to the patient, particularly in a cohort of patients in which there is a heightened and uncontrolled response. The inflammatory response develops in these patients to an exaggerated level resulting in an autoimmune injury and may lead to poor postoperative outcomes (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organs failure). Previous studies by this group have suggested a correlation between the level of IL6 measured in patient’s blood before surgery and after polymeric activation and the observed inflammatory response during surgery. Based upon these findings, the present work is aimed at using this response to develop a test which can be used prior to the open heart surgery to identify the high-risk patients before their operation. The work will be accomplished via three main clinical phases including some pilot in-vitro studies, device development and clinical investigation. Current findings from studies using animal blood, employing DEHP and DEHP plasticized PVC materials as the activator, support the earlier results in patient samples. Having established this relationship, ongoing work will focus on developing an activated lateral flow strip technology as a screening device for heightened inflammatory propensity.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, cytokines, inflammatory response, overexpression

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634 Smokeless Tobacco Oral Manifestation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Saliva

Authors: Sintija Miļuna, Ričards Melderis, Loreta Briuka, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča

Abstract:

Objectives: Smokeless tobacco products in Latvia have become more available and favorable to young adults, especially students and athletes like hockey and floorball players. The aim of the research was to detect visual mucosal changes in the oral cavity in smokeless tobacco users and to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF Alpha) levels in saliva from smokeless tobacco users. Methods: A smokeless tobacco group (n=10) and a control group (non-tobacco users) (n=10) were intraorally examined for oral lesions and 5 ml of saliva were collected. Saliva was analyzed for Il-6, IL-1, Il-8, TNF Alpha using ELISA Sigma-Aldrich. Results IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were higher in the smokeless tobacco group (IL-1 115,61 pg/ml vs. 13.33 pg/ml; IL-6 389.09 pg/ml vs. 0 pg/ml; IL-8 1171.1 pg/ml vs. 224.3 pg/ml; TNF Alpha 941.87 pg/ml vs. 53.03 pg/ml). Conclusions White localized lesions were detected in places where smokeless tobacco users placed sachets. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were significantly higher in the smokeless tobacco group than in the control group. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rīga Stradiņš University No.22/28.01.2016.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, Snus, inflammatory biomarkers, oral lesions, oral pathology

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633 Folliculitis Decalvans: Update

Authors: Abdullah Alyoussef

Abstract:

Folliculitis decalvans is a rare inflammatory scalp disorder. This paper gives an update to patient management and treatment modalities. Folliculitis decalvans is classified as primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia and predominantly occurs in middle-aged adults. The cause of folliculitis decalvans (FD) remains unknown. Staphylococcus aureus and a deficient host immune response seem to play an important role in the development of this disfiguring scalp disease. Lesions occur mainly in the vertex and occipital area. Clinically, the lesions present with follicular pustules, lack of ostia, diffuse and perifollicular erythema, follicular tufting, and, oftentimes, hemorrhagic crusts and erosions. Histology displays a mainly neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate in early lesions and additionally lymphocytes and plasma cells in advanced lesions. Treatment is focused on the eradication of S. aureus and anti-inflammatory agents. Although the etiology of FD is unclear, S. aureus is almost always isolated from affected areas, and eradication is an important part of therapeutic management, in combination with systemic and ⁄ or topical anti-inflammatory treatment.

Keywords: cicatricial alopecia, folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, erosion

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632 Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic and Antipyretic Activity of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. Extract in Animal Models

Authors: Linda Chularojmontri, Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Suvara Wattanapitayakul

Abstract:

Terminalia arjuna Roxb. (family Combretaceae) is commonly known as ‘Sa maw thet’ in Thai. The fruit is used in traditional medicine as natural mild laxatives, carminative and expectorant. Aim of the study: This research aims to study the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Terminalia arjuna extract by using animal models in comparison to the reference drugs. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory study was conducted by two experimental animal models namely ethyl phenylpropionate (EPP)-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema. The study of analgesic activity used two methods of pain induction including acetic acid and heat-induced pain. In addition, the antipyretic activity study was performed by induced hyperthermia with yeast. Results: The results showed that the oral administration of Terminalia arjuna extract possessed acute anti-inflammatory effect in carrageenan-induced paw edema. Terminalia arjuna extract showed the analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing response and heat-induced pain. This indicates its peripheral effect by inhibiting the biosynthesis and/or release of some pain mediators and some mechanism through Central nervous system. Moreover, Terminalia arjuna extract at the dose of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight showed the antipyretic activity, which might be because of the inhibition of prostaglandins. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the Terminalia arjuna extract possesses the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals.

Keywords: analgesic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antipyretic activity, Terminalia arjuna extract

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631 Stem Cell Augmentation Therapy for Cardiovascular Risk in Ankylosing Spondylitis: STATIN-as Study

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Nidhi Garg, Pawan Krishan

Abstract:

Objective: Bone marrow derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), protect against atherosclerotic vascular damage. However, EPCs are depleted in AS and contribute to the enhanced cardiovascular risk. Statins have a protective effect in CAD and diabetes by enhancing the proliferation, migration and survival of EPCs. Therapeutic potential of augmenting EPCs to treat the heightened cardiovascular risk of AS has not yet been exploited. We aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on EPCs population and inflammation in AS. Methods: 30 AS patients were randomized to receive 6 months of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n=15) and placebo (n=15) as an adjunct to existing stable anti-rheumatic drugs. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) were quantified by Flow Cytometry. Inflammatory measures (BASDAI, BASFI, CRP and ESR), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1) and lipids were measured at baseline and after treatment. Results: At baseline, inflammatory measures and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated and EPCs depleted among both groups. EPCs increased significantly (p < 0.01) after treatment with rosuvastatin. At 6 months, BASDAI, BASFI, ESR, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 improved significantly in rosuvastatin group. Significant negative correlation was observed between EPCs and BASDAI, CRP and IL-6 after rosuvastatin treatment. Conclusion: First study to show that rosuvastatin augments EPCs population in AS. This defines a novel mechanism of rosuvastatin treatment in AS: the augmentation of EPCs with improvement in proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory disease activity. The augmentation of EPCs by rosuvastatin may provide a novel strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in AS.

Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, rosuvastatin

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630 Resveratrol-Phospholipid Complex for Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol via the Skin for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

Authors: Malay K. Das, Bhupen Kalita

Abstract:

The poor oral bioavailability of resveratrol (RSV) due to presystemic metabolism can be avoided via dermal route of administration. The hydrophilic-lipophilic nature of resveratrol-phospholipid complex (RSVPs) favors the delivery of resveratrol via the skin. The RSVPs embedded polymeric patch with moderate adhesiveness was developed for dermal application for sustained anti-inflammatory effect. The prepared patches were evaluated for various physicochemical properties, surface morphology by SEM, TEM, and compatibility of patch components by FT-IR and DSC studies. The dermal flux of the optimized patch formulation was found to be at 4.28 ± 0.48 mg/cm2/24 h. The analysis of skin extract after permeation study revealed the presence of resveratrol, which confirmed the localization of RSVPs in the skin. The stability of RSVPs in the polymeric patch and the physiologic environment was confirmed by FE-SEM studies on the patches after drug release and skin permeation studies. The RSVPs particles released from the polymer matrix maintaining the structural integrity and permeate the keratinized horney layer of skin. The optimized patch formulation showed sustained anti-inflammatory effect (84.10% inhibition of inflammation at 24 h) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model compared to marketed diclofenac sodium gel (39.58% inhibition of inflammation at 24 h). The CLSM study confirmed the localization of RSVPs for a longer period, thus enabling drug targeting to the dermis for sustained anti-inflammatory effect. Histological studies with phase contrast trinocular microscope suggested no alteration of skin integrity and no evidence of the presence of inflammatory cells after exposure to the permeants. The patch was found to be safe for skin application as evaluated by Draize method for skin irritation scoring in a rabbit model. These results suggest the therapeutic efficacy of the developed patch in both acute and chronic inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: resveratrol-phospholipid complex, skin delivery, sustained anti-inflammatory effect, inflammatory diseases, dermal patch

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