Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Glycosaminoglycan

6 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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5 Glycosaminoglycan, a Cartilage Erosion Marker in Synovial Fluid of Osteoarthritis Patients Strongly Correlates with WOMAC Function Subscale

Authors: Priya Kulkarni, Soumya Koppikar, Narendrakumar Wagh, Dhanshri Ingle, Onkar Lande, Abhay Harsulkar


Cartilage is an extracellular matrix composed of aggrecan, which imparts it with a great tensile strength, stiffness and resilience. Disruption in cartilage metabolism leading to progressive degeneration is a characteristic feature of Osteoarthritis (OA). The process involves enzymatic depolymerisation of cartilage specific proteoglycan, releasing free glycosaminoglycan (GAG). This released GAG in synovial fluid (SF) of knee joint serves as a direct measure of cartilage loss, however, limited due to its invasive nature. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) is widely used for assessing pain, stiffness and physical-functions in OA patients. The scale is comprised of three subscales namely, pain, stiffness and physical-function, intends to measure patient’s perspective of disease severity as well as efficacy of prescribed treatment. Twenty SF samples obtained from OA patients were analysed for their GAG values in SF using DMMB based assay. LK 1.0 vernacular version was used to attain WOMAC scale. The results were evaluated using SAS University software (Edition 1.0) for statistical significance. All OA patients revealed higher GAG values compared to the control value of 78.4±30.1µg/ml (obtained from our non-OA patients). Average WOMAC calculated was 51.3 while pain, stiffness and function estimated were 9.7, 3.9 and 37.7, respectively. Interestingly, a strong statistical correlation was established between WOMAC function subscale and GAG (p = 0.0102). This subscale is based on day-to-day activities like stair-use, bending, walking, getting in/out of car, rising from bed. However, pain and stiffness subscale did not show correlation with any of the studied markers and endorsed the atypical inflammation in OA pathology. On one side, where knee pain showed poor correlation with GAG, it is often noted that radiography is insensitive to cartilage degenerative changes; thus OA remains undiagnosed for long. Moreover, active cartilage degradation phase remains elusive to both, patient and clinician. Through analysis of large number of OA patients we have established a close association of Kellgren-Lawrence grades and increased cartilage loss. A direct attempt to correlate WOMAC and radiographic progression of OA with various biomarkers has not been attempted so far. We found a good correlation in GAG levels in SF and the function subscale.

Keywords: cartilage, Glycosaminoglycan, synovial fluid, western ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index

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4 SEC-MALLS Study of Hyaluronic Acid and BSA Thermal Degradation in Powder and in Solution

Authors: Vasile Simulescu, Jakub Mondek, Miloslav Pekař


Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan distributed throughout connective, epithelial and neural tissues. The importance of hyaluronic acid increased in the last decades. It has many applications in medicine and cosmetics. Hyaluronic acid has been used in attempts to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via injecting it into the joint. Bovine serum albumin (also known as BSA) is a protein derived from cows, which has many biochemical applications. The aim of our research work was to compare the thermal degradation of hyaluronic acid and BSA in powder and in solution, by determining changes in molar mass and conformation, by using SEC-MALLS (size exclusion chromatography -multi angle laser light scattering). The aim of our research work was to observe the degradation in powder and in solution of different molar mass hyaluronic acid samples, at different temperatures for certain periods. The degradation of the analyzed samples was mainly observed by modifications in molar mass.

Keywords: thermal degradation, hyaluronic acid, BSA, SEC-MALLS

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3 Acanthopanax koreanum and Major Ingredient, Impressic Acid, Possess Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Down-Regulating Capacity and Protect Cartilage Destruction

Authors: Hyun Lim, Dong Sook Min, Han Eul Yun, Kil Tae Kim, Ya Nan Sun, Young Ho Kim, Hyun Pyo Kim


Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 has an important role for degrading cartilage materials under inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Since the 70% ethanol extract of Acanthopanax koreanum inhibited MMP-13 expression in IL-1β-treated human chondrocyte cell line, SW1353, two major constituents including acanthoic acid and impressic acid were initially isolated from the same plant materials and their MMP-13 down-regulating capacity was examined. In IL-1β-treated SW1353 cells, acanthoic acid and impressic acid significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited MMP-13 expression at 10 – 100 μM and 0.5 – 10 μM, respectively. The potent one, impressic acid, was found to inhibit MMP-13 expression by blocking the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1/-2 (STAT-1/-2) and activation of c-Jun and c-Fos among cellular signaling pathway involved, but did not affect the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB). Further, impressic acid was also found to inhibit the expression of MMP-13 mRNA (47.7% inhibition at 10 μM), the glycosaminoglycan release (42.2% reduction at 10 μM) and proteoglycan loss in IL-1-treated rabbit cartilage explants culture. For a further study, 21 impressic acid derivatives were isolated from the same plant materials and their suppressive activities against MMP-13 expression were examined. Among the derivatives, 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23-oxo,28-oic acid, (20R)-3α-hydroxy-29-dimethoxylupan-23,28-dioic acid, acankoreoside F and acantrifoside A clearly down-regulated MMP-13 expression, but impressic acid being most potent. All these results suggest that impressic acid, 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23-oxo,28-oic acid, (20R)-3α-hydroxy-29-dimethoxylupan-23,28-dioic acid, acankoreoside F, acantrifoside A and A. koreanum may have a potential for therapeutic agents to prevent cartilage degradation possibly by inhibiting matrix protein degradation.

Keywords: acanthoic acid, Acanthopanax koreanum, cartilage, impressic acid, matrix metalloproteinase

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2 Development of PCL/Chitosan Core-Shell Electrospun Structures

Authors: Hilal T. Sasmazel, Seda Surucu


Skin tissue engineering is a promising field for the treatment of skin defects using scaffolds. This approach involves the use of living cells and biomaterials to restore, maintain, or regenerate tissues and organs in the body by providing; (i) larger surface area for cell attachment, (ii) proper porosity for cell colonization and cell to cell interaction, and (iii) 3-dimensionality at macroscopic scale. Recent studies on this area mainly focus on fabrication of scaffolds that can closely mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) for creation of tissue specific niche-like environment at the subcellular scale. Scaffolds designed as ECM-like architectures incorporating into the host with minimal scarring/pain and facilitate angiogenesis. This study is related to combining of synthetic PCL and natural chitosan polymers to form 3D PCL/Chitosan core-shell structures for skin tissue engineering applications. Amongst the polymers used in tissue engineering, natural polymer chitosan and synthetic polymer poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are widely preferred in the literature. Chitosan has been among researchers for a very long time because of its superior biocompatibility and structural resemblance to the glycosaminoglycan of bone tissue. However, the low mechanical flexibility and limited biodegradability properties reveals the necessity of using this polymer in a composite structure. On the other hand, PCL is a versatile polymer due to its low melting point (60°C), ease of processability, degradability with non-enzymatic processes (hydrolysis) and good mechanical properties. Nevertheless, there are also several disadvantages of PCL such as its hydrophobic structure, limited bio-interaction and susceptibility to bacterial biodegradation. Therefore, it became crucial to use both of these polymers together as a hybrid material in order to overcome the disadvantages of both polymers and combine advantages of those. The scaffolds here were fabricated by using electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Additionally, gas permeability test, mechanical test, thickness measurement and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests were performed for all type of scaffolds (PCL, chitosan and PCL/chitosan core-shell). By using ImageJ launcher software program (USA) from SEM photographs the average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated as 0.717±0.198 µm for PCL, 0.660±0.070 µm for chitosan and 0.412±0.339 µm for PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. Additionally, the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decrease of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan structures respectively, compare to PCL/chitosan core-shell structures. TEM images proved that homogenous and continuous bead free core-shell fibers were obtained. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. Measured average gas permeability value of produced PCL/chitosan core-shell structure was determined 2315±3.4 In the future, cell-material interactions of those developed PCL/chitosan core-shell structures will be carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line. Standard MTT assay and microscopic imaging methods will be used for the investigation of the cell attachment, proliferation and growth capacities of the developed materials.

Keywords: chitosan, coaxial electrospinning, core-shell, PCL, tissue scaffold

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1 The Role of a Biphasic Implant Based on a Bioactive Silk Fibroin for Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Lizeth Fuentes-Mera, Vanessa Perez-Silos, Nidia K. Moncada-Saucedo, Alejandro Garcia-Ruiz, Alberto Camacho, Jorge Lara-Arias, Ivan Marino-Martinez, Victor Romero-Diaz, Adolfo Soto-Dominguez, Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha, Hang Lin, Victor Pena-Martinez


Biphasic scaffolds in cartilage tissue engineering have been designed to influence not only the recapitulation of the osteochondral architecture but also to take advantage of the healing ability of bone to promote the implant integration with the surrounding tissue and then bone restoration and cartilage regeneration. This study reports the development and characterization of a biphasic scaffold based on the assembly of a cartilage phase constituted by fibroin biofunctionalized with bovine cartilage matrix; cellularized with differentiated pre-chondrocytes from adipose tissue stem cells (autologous) and well attached to a bone phase (bone bovine decellularized) to mimic the structure of the nature of native tissue and to promote the cartilage regeneration in a model of joint damage in pigs. Biphasic scaffolds were assembled by fibroin crystallization with methanol. The histological and ultrastructural architectures were evaluated by optical and scanning electron microscopy respectively. Mechanical tests were conducted to evaluate Young's modulus of the implant. For the biological evaluation, pre-chondrocytes were loaded onto the scaffolds and cellular adhesion, proliferation, and gene expression analysis of cartilage extracellular matrix components was performed. The scaffolds that were cellularized and matured for 10 days were implanted into critical 3 mm in diameter and 9-mm in depth osteochondral defects in a porcine model (n=4). Three treatments were applied per knee: Group 1: monophasic cellular scaffold (MS) (single chondral phase), group 2: biphasic scaffold, cellularized only in the chondral phase (BS1), group 3: BS cellularized in both bone and chondral phases (BS2). Simultaneously, a control without treatment was evaluated. After 4 weeks of surgery, integration and regeneration tissues were analyzed by x-rays, histology and immunohistochemistry evaluation. The mechanical assessment showed that the acellular biphasic composites exhibited Young's modulus of 805.01 kPa similar to native cartilage (400-800 kPa). In vitro biological studies revealed the chondroinductive ability of the biphasic implant, evidenced by an increase in sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) and type II collagen, both secreted by the chondrocytes cultured on the scaffold during 28 days. No evidence of adverse or inflammatory reactions was observed in the in vivo trial; however, In group 1, the defects were not reconstructed. In group 2 and 3 a good integration of the implant with the surrounding tissue was observed. Defects in group 2 were fulfilled by hyaline cartilage and normal bone. Group 3 defects showed fibrous repair tissue. In conclusion; our findings demonstrated the efficacy of biphasic and bioactive scaffold based on silk fibroin, which entwined chondroinductive features and biomechanical capability with appropriate integration with the surrounding tissue, representing a promising alternative for osteochondral tissue-engineering applications.

Keywords: biphasic scaffold, extracellular cartilage matrix, silk fibroin, osteochondral tissue engineering

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