Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: chemokines

16 Cytokine Changes of Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Aromatase Inhibitor-Induced Arthralgia in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

Authors: Chao Hsing Yeh, Wei Chun Lin


Background: Current management of aromatase inhibitor-induced arthralgia (AIA) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors (PBCS) has limited effect. Method: In this prospective randomized clinical trial (RCT), a 4-week APA treatment was used to manage AIA. Twenty PBCS participated. After baseline data was collected, participants were waited for a month before they receive APA at a convenient time once a week for 4 weeks. Blood samples from participants in both groups were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. The primary outcomes included: pain intensity, pain interference, stiffness, and physical function. Results: After the 4-week APA treatment, the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines display a trend of mean percentage reduction (i.e., -22% in IL-1α, -4% in IL-1β, -1% in IL-2, -3% in IL-6, -19% in IL-12, -9% in Eotaxin, and -2% in MCP-1). The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and IL-13 (i.e., 5% in IL-10 and 29% in IL-13) increased from pre- to post-APA treatment. Significant positive correlation of percentage mean change was observed between symptom severity and eotaxin (ρ = 0.56; p < 0.01) & MCP-1 (ρ = 0.65; p < 0.01). Interference and chemokines (eotaxin & MIP-1) also shows positive correlation (ρ = 0.48; p < 0.01 & ρ = 0.39; p < 0.05). Another positive correlation was found between worst pain and chemokines (eotaxin, ρ = 0.48; p < 0.01 & MIP-1, ρ = 0.39; p < 0.05). Additionally, interference also shows positive correlation among IL-1α (ρ = 0.36; p < 0.05) and IL-β (ρ = 0.33; p < 0.05). Conclusion: These findings suggest that APA intervention may inhibit inflammation of AIA patients and chemokine could be one of the key factors of AIA symptom improvement.

Keywords: acupressure, cytokine, pain management, breast cancer survivors

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15 Regulation of the Regeneration of Epidermal Langerhans Cells by Stress Hormone

Authors: Junichi Hosoi


Epidermal Langerhans cells reside in upper layer of epidermis and play a role in immune surveillance. The finding of the close association of nerve endings to Langerhans cells triggered the research on systemic regulation of Langerhans cells. They disappear from epidermis after exposure to environmental and internal stimuli and reappear about a week later. Myeloid progenitor cells are assumed to be one of the sources of Langerhans cells. We examined the effects of cortisol on the reappearance of Langerhans cells in vitro. Cord-blood derived CD34-positive cells were cultured in the medium supplemented with stem cell factor/Flt3 ligand/granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor/tumor necrosis factor alpha/bone morphologic protein 7/transforming growth factor beta in the presence or absence of cortisol. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for CD1a (cluster differentiation 1a), a marker of Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, and CD39 (cluster differentiation factor 39), extracellular adenosine triphosphatase. Both CD1a-positive cells and CD39-positive cells were decreased by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 35% and 22% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). Differentiated Langerhans cells are attracted to epidermis by chemokines that are secreted from keratinocytes. Epidermal keratinocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of cortisol and analyzed for the expression of CCL2 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 2) and CCL20 (C-C motif chemokine ligand 20), which are typical attractants of Langerhans cells, by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression of both chemokines, CCL2 and CCL20, were suppressed by treatment with cortisol (suppression by 38% and 48% compared to no stress hormone, respectively). We examined the possible regulation of the suppression by cortisol with plant extracts. The extracts of Ganoderma lucidum and Iris protected the suppression of the differentiation to CD39-positive cells and also the suppression of the gene expression of LC-chemoattractants. These results suggest that cortisol, which is either systemic or locally produced, blocks the supply of epidermal Langerhans cells at 2 steps, differentiation from the precursor and attraction to epidermis. The suppression is possibly blocked by some plant extracts.

Keywords: Langerhans cell, stress, CD39, chemokine

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14 Ancelim: Health System Restoration Protocol for Cancer Patients

Authors: Mark Berry


A number of studies have identified several factors involved in the malignant progression of cancer cells. The Primary modulator in driving inflammation to these transformed cells has been identified as the transcription factor known as nuclear factor-κB. This essential regulator of inflammation and the development of cancer, combined with a microenvironment of inflammation and signaling molecules, plays a major role in the malignant progression of cancer, and this progression is the result of the mutagenic predisposition of persistent substances that combat infection at tumor sites and other areas of chronic inflammation. Inflammation-induced tumors, and their inflammatory cells and regulators may be the primary source of metastasis of tumor cells through angiogenesis. Previous research on cytokines and chemokines, including their downstream targets, has been the focus of the cancer/inflammation connection. The identification of the biological mechanisms of other proteins vital to the inflammation cascade and their interactions are crucial to novel and effective therapeutic protocols for the treatment of inflammation-induced cancers. The Ancelim HSRP Protocol is just such a therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: ancelim, cancer, inflammation, tumor

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13 Non-Signaling Chemokine Receptor CCRL1 and Its Active Counterpart CCR7 in Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yiding Qu, Svetlana V. Komarova


Chemokines acting through their cognate chemokine receptors guide the directional migration of the cell along the chemokine gradient. Several chemokine receptors were recently identified as non-signaling (decoy), based on their ability to bind the chemokine but produce no measurable signal in the cell. The function of these decoy receptors is not well understood. We examined the expression of a decoy receptor CCRL1 and a signaling receptor that binds to the same ligands, CCR7, in prostate cancer using publically available microarray data ( The expression of both CCRL1 and CCR7 increased in an approximately half of prostate carcinoma samples and the majority of metastatic cancer samples compared to normal prostate. Moreover, the expression of CCRL1 positively correlated with the expression of CCR7. These data suggest that CCR7 and CCRL1 can be used as clinical markers for the early detection of transformation from carcinoma to metastatic cancer. In addition, these data support our hypothesis that the non-signaling chemokine receptors actively stimulate cell migration.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cell migration, decoy receptor, meta-analysis, prostate cancer

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12 Lipoic Acid Accelerates Wound Healing by Diminishing Pro-Inflammatory Markers and Chemokine Expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis Mouse Model

Authors: Khairy M. A. Zoheir


One of the most severe complications of Rheumatoid arthritis is delayed recovery. lipoic acid possesses antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the effects of lipoic acid was investigated on the key mediators of Rheumatoid arthritis, namely, CD4+CD25+ T cell subsets, GITR expressing cells, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, T-helper-17 (Th17) cells, and pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α)] through flow-cytometry and qPCR analyses. Lipoic acid treated mice showed a significant decrease in the Rheumatoid arthritis, the frequency of GITR-expressing cells, and Th1 cytokines (IL-17A, TNF-αand Interferon- γ (IFN-γ) compared with positive and negative controlled mice. Lipoic acid treatment also down regulated the mRNA expression of the inflammatory mediators compared with the Rheumatoid arthritis mouse model and untreated mice. The number of Tregs also found to be significantly upregulated in lipoic acid treated mice. Our results were confirmed by the histopathological examination. This study showed the beneficial role of lipoic acid in promoting a well-balanced tool for therapy Rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: lipoic acid, chemokines, inflammatory, rheumatoid arthritis

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11 The Role of Leukocyte-Derived IL-10 on Postoperative ileus and Intestinal Macrophage Differentiation in Mice

Authors: Kathy Stein, Mariola Lysson, Anja Schmidt, Beatrix Schumak, Sabine Specht, Hicham Bouabe, Jürgen Heesemann, Axel Roers, Joerg C. Kalff, Sven Wehner


Objective: Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. Monocyte infiltration is a hallmark of POI. The polarization of macrophages/monocytes in this process is not well understood. We aimed to investigate if and how M2 macrophage/monocyte differentiation is involved in POI pathogenesis. Design: POI was induced by intestinal manipulation (IM). C57Bl/6, CCR2-/-, IL-10 reporter (ITIB), IL-10-/- and LysMcre/IL-10fl/fl mice underwent IM. At various points in time leukocyte influx, gene and protein expression of cytokines, chemokines and M2 differentiation markers and intestinal motility were analyzed. Results: IM induced the postoperative expression of the M2 markers Arginase-1 and YM-1, predominantly in F4/80+Ly6C+ monocytes. Gene expression analyses indicated an IL-10-dependent, IL-4-independent M2 polarization of these monocytes. IL-10 dependency of M2 differentiation was confirmed in IL-10 deficient mice. Leukocytes, in the order of infiltrating monocytes, neutrophils, and resident macrophages were the main IL-10 producers during POI. IL-10 producing monocytes as well as M2 marker expression were almost absent in CCR2-deficient mice. However, postoperative IL-10 expression was not altered in CCR2-/- mice. The loss of M2 polarized monocytes neither protected CCR2-/- mice from nor affected resolution of POI. In contrast, IL-10 deficiency reduced postoperative neutrophil numbers and ameliorated POI. IL-10Ra expression was strongly induced in neutrophils but not in monocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that IL-10 counteracts POI resolution by activating IL-10Ra-expressing neutrophils in the late phase of disease while IL-10-dependent M2 differentiation is not pivotal to POI manifestation and resolution.

Keywords: interleukin-10, macrophages, neutrophils, postoperative ileus

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10 In Vitro Effect of Cobalt(II) Chloride (CoCl₂)-Induced Hypoxia on Cytokine Production by Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Radoslav Stojchevski, Leonid Poretsky, Dimiter Avtanski


Proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in cancer initiation and progression by mediating the intracellular communication between the cancer cells and tumor microenvironment. Increased tumor growth causing reduced oxygen concentration and oxygen pressure commonly result in hypoxia. Mechanistically, hypoxia is characterized by stabilization and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) followed by propagation of molecular pathway cascade involving multiple downstream targets. Cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl₂) is commonly used to mimic hypoxia in experimental conditions since it directly induces the expression of HIF-1α. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects and the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates the cytokine secretory profile of breast cancer cells. As a model for this study, we used several breast cancer cell lines bearing various molecular characteristics and metastatic potential (MDA-MB-231 (clauding low, ER-/PR-/HER²⁻), MCF-7 (luminal A, ER⁺/PR⁺/HER²⁻), and BT-474 (liminal B, ER⁺/PR⁺/HER²⁺)). We demonstrated that breast cancer cells secrete numerous cytokines and cytokine ligands, including interleukins, chemokines, and growth factors. Treatment with CoCl₂significantly modulated the breast cancer cells' cytokine expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These effects were mediated via activation of several signaling pathways (JNK/SAPK1, NF-κB, STAT5A/B, and Erk/MAPK1/2). Taken together, the present data define some of the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia affects the breast cancer cells' cytokine secretory profile, thus contributing to the development of novel therapies for metastatic breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, cytokines, cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl₂), hypoxia

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9 Dietary N-6/N-3 PUFA Ratios Affect the Homeostasis of CD4+ T Cells in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

Authors: Cyoung-Huei Huang, Chiu-Li Yeh, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh


This study evaluated the effect of different dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on modulating helper T (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. There were 3 control and 3 colitis groups in this study. Mice were fed for 24 d with an AIN-93G diet either with soybean oil (S), a mixture of soybean oil and low fish oil content (LF) or high fish oil content (HF). The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in the LF diet was 4:1, and that in the HF diet was 2:1. The control groups drank distilled water while colitis groups provided 2% DSS in drinking water during day 15-19. All mice drank distilled water from day 20-24 for recovery and sacrificed on day 25. The results showed that colitis resulted in higher Th1, Th2, and Th17 and lower Treg percentages in the blood. Also, plasma haptoglobin and proinflammatory chemokines were elevated in colon lavage fluid. Colitic groups with fish oil had lower inflammatory mediators in the plasma and colon lavage fluid. Further, the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in the blood were lower, whereas Treg cell percentages were higher than those in the soybean oil group. The colitis group with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 2:1 had more pronounce effects than ratio 4:1. These results suggest that diets with an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2:1 or 4:1 regulate the Th/Treg balance and attenuate inflammatory mediator production in colitis. Compared to the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 4:1, the ratio of 2:1 was more effective in reducing inflammatory reactions in DSS-induced colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, helper T lymphocyte, regulatory T lymphocyte

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8 Microglia Activity and Induction of Mechanical Allodynia after Mincle Receptor Ligand Injection in Rat Spinal Cord

Authors: Jihoon Yang, Jeong II Choi


Mincle is expressed in macrophages and is members of immunoreceptors induced after exposure to various stimuli and stresses. Mincle receptor activation promotes the production of these substances by increasing the transcription of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Cytokines, which play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of such inflammatory pain diseases, have a significant effect on sensory neurons in addition to their enhancement and inhibitory effects on immune and inflammatory cells as mediators of cell interaction. Glial cells in the central nervous system play a critical role in development and maintenance of chronic pain states. Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and belong to a group of mononuclear phagocytes. In the central nervous system, mincle receptor is present in neurons and glial cells of the brain.This study was performed to identify the Mincle receptor in the spinal cord and to investigate the effect of Mincle receptor activation on nociception and the changes of microglia. Materials and Methods: C-type lectins(Mincle) was identified in spinal cord of Male Sprague–Dawley rats. Then, mincle receptor ligand (TDB), via an intrathecal catheter. Mechanical allodynia was measured using von Frey test to evaluate the effect of intrathecal injection of TDB. Result: The present investigation shows that the intrathecal administration of TDB in the rat produces a reliable and quantifiable mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, The mechanical hyperalgesia after TDB injection gradually developed over time and remained until 10 days. Mincle receptor is identified in the spinal cord, mainly expressed in neuronal cells, but not in microglia or astrocyte. These results suggest that activation of mincle receptor pathway in neurons plays an important role in inducing activation of microglia and inducing mechanical allodynia.

Keywords: mincle, spinal cord, pain, microglia

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7 Update on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), Types, Origin, Molecular Pathogenesis, and Biomarkers

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddick


Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to the lack of highly sensitive and specific screening tools for detection of early-stage disease. The OSE provides the progenitor cells for 90% of human ovarian cancers. Recent morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies have led to the development of a new paradigm for the pathogenesis and origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on a ualistic model of carcinogenesis that divides EOC into two broad categories designated Types I and II which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, CTNNB1, PTEN PIK3CA, ARID1A, and PPPR1A, which target specific cell signaling pathways. Type 1 tumors rarely harbor TP53. type I tumors are relatively genetically stable and typically display a variety of somatic sequence mutations that include KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, PIK3CA CTNNB1 (the gene encoding beta catenin), ARID1A and PPP2R1A but very rarely TP53 . The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that the tumorigenic potential of CSCs is confined to a very small subset of tumor cells and is defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate leading to the formation of a tumor mass. Potential protein biomarker miRNA, are promising biomarkers as they are remarkably stable to allow isolation and analysis from tissues and from blood in which they can be found as free circulating nucleic acids and in mononuclear cells. Recently, genomic anaylsis have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer namely, FGF18 which plays an active role in controlling migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes update information on epithelial ovarian cancers and point out to the most recent ongoing research.

Keywords: epithelial ovarian cancers, somatic sequence mutations, cancer stem cell (CSC), potential protein, biomarker, genomic analysis, FGF18 biomarker

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6 Antioxidant Status in Synovial Fluid from Osteoarthritis Patients: A Pilot Study in Indian Demography

Authors: S. Koppikar, P. Kulkarni, D. Ingale , N. Wagh, S. Deshpande, A. Mahajan, A. Harsulkar


Crucial role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the progression Osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis has been endorsed several times though its exact mechanism remains unclear. Oxidative stress is known to instigate classical stress factors such as cytokines, chemokines and ROS, which hampers cartilage remodelling process and ultimately results in worsening the disease. Synovial fluid (SF) is a biological communicator between cartilage and synovium that accumulates redox and biochemical signalling mediators. The present work attempts to measure several oxidative stress markers in the synovial fluid obtained from knee OA patients with varying degree of disease severity. Thirty OA and five Meniscal-tear (MT) patients were graded using Kellgren-Lawrence scale and assessed for Nitric oxide (NO), Nitrate-Nitrite (NN), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels for comparison. Out of various oxidative markers studied, NO and SOD showed significant difference between moderate and severe OA (p= 0.007 and p= 0.08, respectively), whereas CAT demonstrated significant difference between MT and mild group (p= 0.07). Interestingly, NN revealed statistically positive correlation with OA severity (p= 0.001 and p= 0.003). MDA, a lipid peroxidation by-product was estimated maximum in early OA when compared to MT (p= 0.06). However, FRAP did not show any correlation with OA severity or MT control. NO is an essential bio-regulatory molecule essential for several physiological processes, and inflammatory conditions. However, due to its short life, exact estimation of NO becomes difficult. NO and its measurable stable products are still it is considered as one of the important biomarker of oxidative damage. Levels of NO and nitrite-nitrate in SF of patients with OA indicated its involvement in the disease progression. When SF groups were compared, a significant correlation among moderate, mild and MT groups was established. To summarize, present data illustrated higher levels of NO, SOD, CAT, DPPH and MDA in early OA in comparison with MT, as a control group. NN had emerged as a prognostic bio marker in knee OA patients, which may act as futuristic targets in OA treatment.

Keywords: antioxidant, knee osteoarthritis, oxidative stress, synovial fluid

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5 Study of the Combinatorial Impact of Substrate Properties on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration Using Microfluidics

Authors: Nishanth Venugopal Menon, Chuah Yon Jin, Samantha Phey, Wu Yingnan, Zhang Ying, Vincent Chan, Kang Yuejun


Cell Migration is a vital phenomenon that the cells undergo in various physiological processes like wound healing, disease progression, embryogenesis, etc. Cell migration depends primarily on the chemical and physical cues available in the cellular environment. The chemical cue involves the chemokines secreted and gradients generated in the environment while physical cues indicate the impact of matrix properties like nanotopography and stiffness on the cells. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been shown to have a role wound healing in vivo and its migration to the site of the wound has been shown to have a therapeutic effect. In the field of stem cell based tissue regeneration of bones and cartilage, one approach has been to introduce scaffold laden with MSCs into the site of injury to enable tissue regeneration. In this work, we have studied the combinatorial impact of the substrate physical properties on MSC migration. A microfluidic in vitro model was created to perform the migration studies. The microfluidic model used is a three compartment device consisting of two cell seeding compartments and one migration compartment. Four different PDMS substrates with varying substrate roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity were created. Its surface roughness and stiffness was measured using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) while its hydrphobicity was measured from the water contact angle using an optical tensiometer. These PDMS substrates are sealed to the microfluidic chip following which the MSCs are seeded and the cell migration is studied over the period of a week. Cell migration was quantified using fluorescence imaging of the cytoskeleton (F-actin) to find out the area covered by the cells inside the migration compartment. The impact of adhesion proteins on cell migration was also quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR). These results suggested that the optimal substrate for cell migration would be one with an intermediate level of roughness, stiffness and hydrophobicity. A higher or lower value of these properties affected cell migration negatively. These observations have helped us in understanding that different substrate properties need to be considered in tandem, especially while designing scaffolds for tissue regeneration as cell migration is normally impacted by the combinatorial impact of the matrix. These observations may lead us to scaffold optimization in future tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: cell migration, microfluidics, in vitro model, stem cell migration, scaffold, substrate properties

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4 Clinical and Chemokine Profile in Leprosy Patients During Multidrug Therapy (MDT) and Their Healthy Contacts: A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Rohit Kothari


Background: Leprosyis a chronic granulomatous diseasecaused by Mycobacterium leprae (M. Lepra). Reactions may interrupt its usual chronic course.Type-1 (T1R)and type-2 lepra reaction(T2R) are acute events and signifytype-IV and type-III hypersensitivity responses, respectively. Various chemokines like CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 may be increased during the course of leprosy or during reactions and may serve as markers of early diagnosis, response to therapy, and prognosis. Objective: To find correlation of CCL3, 5, 11, and CCL24 in leprosy patients on multidrug therapy and their family contacts after ruling out active disease during leprosy treatment and during periods of lepra reactions. Methodology: This randomized control trial was conducted in 50 clinico-histopathologically diagnosed cases of leprosy in a tertiary care hospital in Bengaluru, India. 50 of their family contacts were adequately examined and investigated should the need be to rule out active disease. The two study-groups comprised of leprosy cases, and the age, sex, and area of residence matched healthy contactswho were given single-dose rifampicin prophylaxis, respectively. Blood samples were taken at baseline, six months, and after one yearin both the groups (on completion of MDT in leprosy cases)and also during periods of reaction if occurred in leprosy cases. Results: Our study found that at baseline, CCL5, 11, and 24 were higher in leprosy cases as compared to the healthy contacts, and the difference was statistically significant.CCL3 was also found to be higherat baseline in leprosy cases, however, the difference was not statistically significant. At six months and one year, the levels of CCL 5, 11, and 24 reduced, and the difference was statistically significant in leprosy cases, whereas it remained almost static in all the healthy contacts. Twenty patients of leprosy developed lepra reaction during the course of one year, and during reaction, the increase in CCL11 and 24 was statistically significant from baseline, whereas CCL3 and 5 did not rise significantly. One of the healthy contacts developed signs of leprosy in the form of hypopigmented numb patch and was clinico-histopathologically, and CCL11 and 24 were found to be higher with a statistically significant difference from the baseline values. Conclusion: CCL5, 11, and 24 are sensitive markers of diagnosing leprosy, response to MDT, and prognosis and are not increased in healthy contacts. CCL11 and 24 are sensitive markers of lepra reactions and may serve as one of the early diagnostic modalities for identifying lepra reaction and also leprosy in healthy contacts. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate these biomarkers in leprosy cases and their healthy contacts with a follow-up of upto one year with one of them developing the disease, and the same was confirmed based on these biomarkers as well.

Keywords: chemokine profile, healthy contacts, leprosy, lepra reactions

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3 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed


Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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2 Clinical Presentation and Immune Response to Intramammary Infection of Holstein-Friesian Heifers with Isolates from Two Staphylococcus aureus Lineages

Authors: Dagmara A. Niedziela, Mark P. Murphy, Orla M. Keane, Finola C. Leonard


Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequent cause of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis in Ireland. Mastitis caused by S. aureus is often chronic and tends to recur after antibiotic treatment. This may be due to several virulence factors, including attributes that enable the bacterium to internalize into bovine mammary epithelial cells, where it may evade antibiotic treatment, or evade the host immune response. Four bovine-adapted lineages (CC71, CC97, CC151 and ST136) were identified among a collection of Irish S. aureus mastitis isolates. Genotypic variation of mastitis-causing strains may contribute to different presentations of the disease, including differences in milk somatic cell count (SCC), the main method of mastitis detection. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of bacterial strain and lineage on host immune response, by employing cell culture methods in vitro as well as an in vivo infection model. Twelve bovine adapted S. aureus strains were examined for internalization into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) and their ability to induce an immune response from bMEC (using qPCR and ELISA). In vitro studies found differences in a variety of virulence traits between the lineages. Strains from lineages CC97 and CC71 internalized more efficiently into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) than CC151 and ST136. CC97 strains also induced immune genes in bMEC more strongly than strains from the other 3 lineages. One strain each of CC151 and CC97 that differed in their ability to cause an immune response in bMEC were selected on the basis of the above in vitro experiments. Fourteen first-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were purchased from 2 farms on the basis of low SCC (less than 50 000 cells/ml) and infection free status. Seven cows were infected with 1.73 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC97 strain (Group 1) and another seven with 5.83 x 102 c.f.u. of the CC151 strain (Group 2). The contralateral quarter of each cow was inoculated with PBS (vehicle). Clinical signs of infection (temperature, milk and udder appearance, milk yield) were monitored for 30 days. Blood and milk samples were taken to determine bacterial counts in milk, SCC, white blood cell populations and cytokines. Differences in disease presentation in vivo between groups were observed, with two animals from Group 2 developing clinical mastitis and requiring antibiotic treatment, while one animal from Group 1 did not develop an infection for the duration of the study. Fever (temperature > 39.5⁰C) was observed in 3 animals from Group 2 and in none from Group 1. Significant differences in SCC and bacterial load between groups were observed in the initial stages of infection (week 1). Data is also being collected on cytokines and chemokines secreted during the course of infection. The results of this study suggest that a strain from lineage CC151 may cause more severe clinical mastitis, while a strain from lineage CC97 may cause mild, subclinical mastitis. Diversity between strains of S. aureus may therefore influence the clinical presentation of mastitis, which in turn may influence disease detection and treatment needs.

Keywords: Bovine mastitis, host immune response, host-pathogen interactions, Staphylococcus aureus

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1 Glycyrrhizic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Bovine Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte, Invasion through Suppression of TLR4/NF-κB-Mediated Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression

Authors: Hosein Maghsoudi


Rheumatois arthritis (RA) is progressive inflammatory autoimmune diseases that primarily affect the joints, characterized by synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration, deformed and painful joints, which can lead tissue destruction, functional disability systemic complications, and early dead and socioeconomic costs. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, but genetic and environmental factors are contributory and the prognosis is guarded. However, advances in understanding the pathogenesis of the disease have fostered the development of new therapeutics, with improved outcomes. The current treatment strategy, which reflects this progress, is to initiate aggressive therapy soon after diagnosis and to escalate the therapy, guided by an assessment of disease activity, in pursuit of clinical remission. The pathobiology of RA is multifaceted and involves T cells, B cells, fibroblast-like synoviocyte (FLSc) and the complex interaction of many pro-inflammatory cytokine. Novel biologic agents that target tumor necrosis or interlukin (IL)-1 and Il-6, in addition T- and B-cells inhibitors, have resulted in favorable clinical outcomes in patients with RA. Despite this, at least 30% of RA patients are résistance to available therapies, suggesting novel mediators should be identified that can target other disease-specific pathway or cell lineage. Among the inflammatory cell population that might participated in RA pathogenesis, FLSc are crucial in initiaing and driving RA in concert of cartilage and bone by secreting metalloproteinase (MMPs) into the synovial fluid and by direct invasion into extracellular matrix (ECM), further exacerbating joint damage. Invasion of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSc) is critical in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid-arthritis. The metalloproteinase (MMPs) and activator of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor- κB pthway play a critical role in RA-FLS invasion induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The present study aimed to explore the anti-invasion activity of Glycyrrhizic Acid as a pharmacologically safe phytochemical agent with potent anti-inflammatory properties on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling pathways in Bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte ex- vitro, on LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion as well as MMP expression and explored the upstream signal transduction. Results showed that Glycyrrhizic Acid suppressed LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion by inhibition MMP-9 expression and activity. In addition our results revealed that Glycyrrhizic Acid inhibited the transcriptional activity of MMP-9 by suppression the nbinding activity of NF- κB in the MMP-9 promoter pathway. The extract of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) has been widely used for many centuries in the traditional Chinese medicine as native anti-allergic agent. Glycyrrhizin (GL), a triterpenoidsaponin, extracted from the roots of licorice is the most effective compound for inflammation and allergic diseases in human body. The biological and pharmacological studies revealed that GL possesses many pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and liver protective effects, and the biological effects, such as induction of cytokines (interferon-γ and IL-12), chemokines as well as extrathymic T and anti-type 2 T cells. GL is known in the traditional Chinese medicine for its anti-inflammatory effect, which is originally described by Finney in 1959. The mechanism of the GL-induced anti-inflammatory effect is based on different pathways of the GL-induced selective inhibition of the prostaglandin E2 production, the CK-II- mediated activation of both GL-binding lipoxygenas (gbLOX; 17) and PLA2, an anti-thrombin action of GL and production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS; GL exerts liver protection properties by inhibiting PLA2 or by the hydroxyl radical trapping action, leading to the lowering of serum alanine and aspartate transaminase levels. The present study was undertaken to examine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory properties GL on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha signalling pathways in bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte ex-vivo, on LPS-stimulated bovine FLS migration and invasion as well as MMP expression and explored the upstream signal transduction. Our results clearly showed that treatment of bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte with GL suppressed LPS-induced cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, it revealed that GL inhibited the transcription activity of MMP-9 by suppressing the binding activity of NF-κB in the MM-9 promoter. MMP-9 is an important ECM-degrading enzyme and overexpression of MMPs in important of RA-FLSs. LPS can stimulate bovine FLS to secret MMPs, and this induction is regulated at the transcription and translational levels. In this study, LPS treatment of bovine FLS caused an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. The increase in MMP-9 expression and secretion was inhibited by ex- vitro. Furthermore, these effects were mimicked by MMP-9 siRNA. These result therefore indicate the the inhibition of LPS-induced bovine FLS invasion by GL occurs primarily by inhibiting MMP-9 expression and activity. Next we analyzed the functional significance of NF-κB transcription of MMP-9 activation in Bovine FLSs. Results from EMSA showed that GL suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB binding to the MMP-9 promotor, as NF-κB regulates transcriptional activation of multiple inflammatory cytokines, we predicted that GL might target NF-κB to suppress MMP-9 transcription by LPS. Myeloid differentiation-factor 88 (MyD88) and TIR-domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) are critical proteins in the LPS-induced NF-κB and apoptotic signaling pathways, GL inhibited the expression of TLR4 and MYD88. These results demonstrated that GL suppress LPS-induced MMP-9 expression through the inhibition of the induced TLR4/NFκB signaling pathway. Taken together, our results provide evidence that GL exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition LPS-induced bovine FLSs migration and invasion, and the mechanisms may involve the suppression of TLR4/NFκB –mediated MMP-9 expression. Although further work is needed to clarify the complicated mechanism of GL-induced anti-invasion of bovine FLSs, GL might be used as a further anti-invasion drug with therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disease such as RA.

Keywords: glycyrrhizic acid, bovine fibroblast-like synoviocyte, tlr4/nf-κb, metalloproteinase-9

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