Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7134

Search results for: distilled water

7134 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic

Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans

Abstract:

The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.

Keywords: bone mimic, porosity, tap water, distilled water, ultrasonic attenuation

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
7133 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina

Abstract:

Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
7132 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein

Abstract:

Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
7131 Application of Neural Networks to Predict Changing the Diameters of Bubbles in Pool Boiling Distilled Water

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian, D. Ashouri

Abstract:

In this research, the capability of neural networks in modeling and learning complicated and nonlinear relations has been used to develop a model for the prediction of changes in the diameter of bubbles in pool boiling distilled water. The input parameters used in the development of this network include element temperature, heat flux, and retention time of bubbles. The test data obtained from the experiment of the pool boiling of distilled water, and the measurement of the bubbles form on the cylindrical element. The model was developed based on training algorithm, which is typologically of back-propagation type. Considering the correlation coefficient obtained from this model is 0.9633. This shows that this model can be trusted for the simulation and modeling of the size of bubble and thermal transfer of boiling.

Keywords: bubble diameter, heat flux, neural network, training algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
7130 Effect of Different Chemical Concentrations on Control of Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck.) in Vitex (Agnus castus)

Authors: Aliyu B. Mustapha, Poul A. Gida

Abstract:

Pot experiment was conducted at the landscape unit of Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola in 2015 and 2016 to determine the effect of some chemicals namely glyphosate, salt and detergent on Golden dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunk). The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The treatments include the following: glyphosate-T0= (control),(Og a.i/ha-1) T1=35g a.i/ha-1, T2=70g a.i/ha-1, T3=105g a.i/ha-1, T4=140 a.i/ha-1 and T5=175g a.i/ha-1: Salt (T0=control O mole/ha-1 T1=1mole/ha-1 T2=2mole/ha-1, T3=3mole/ha-1 , T4=4mole/ha-1 and T5=5mole/ha-1:washing detergent T0=Og/ha-1(control), T1=30ml detergent +70ml distilled water T2=45ml detergent+65ml distilled water T3=60ml detergent+40ml distilled water, T4=75ml detergent+25ml distilled water and T5=90ml detergent +10mldistilled water, the treatments were replicated three times. Data were collected include: plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and Cuscuta cover score at 3,6,9and 12 weeks after sprouting(WAS). Biomas of Vitex was also collected at the end of the experiment. Data collected were analyzed using software Genstat version 8.0. Results showed that glyphosate gave the least Cuscuta cover score and the tallest Vitex plant. However, detergent mildly controlled Cuscuta, while salt has no effect on Cuscuta campestris indicating that glyphosate could be used in the control of parasitic dodder (Cuscuta campestris) on Vitex plant.

Keywords: chemical, control, dudder, Vitex

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
7129 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Simsir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagöz

Abstract:

Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nano science and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood, was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, ligand, activated carbon, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7128 Analysis of Tannins from Padus asiatica

Authors: Telmen Dashdondov, Selenge Erdenechimeg

Abstract:

Padus asiatica contains large quantities of polyphenolic compounds, and it is one of the most consumed fruits throughout the country. These compounds have the biological activity of the fruit and have long been used in traditional Mongolian medicine for diarrhea, coughs, pneumonia, and gastritis. In this study, we studied the solvents that can be used to make extracts from dried raw fruits; in order to determine the amount of tannin in Padus asiatica, we selected three solvents: distilled water, 20% ethanol, and 40% ethanol, and determined the amount of tannin. As a result, the amount of extract (distilled water) was 11.8%, the amount of extract (20% ethanol) was 15.7%, and the amount of extract (40% ethanol) was 8.2%. Therefore, it was found that tannins are extracted better in 20% ethanol solution.

Keywords: Padus asiatica, tannin, diarrhea, Mongolian medicinal plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
7127 Investigation of Type and Concentration Effects of Solvent on Chemical Properties of Saffron Edible Extract

Authors: Sharareh Mohseni

Abstract:

Purpose: The objective of this study was to find a suitable solvent to produce saffron edible extract with improved chemical properties. Design/methodology/approach: Dried and pulverized stigmas of C. sativus L. (10g) was extracted with 300 ml of solvents including: distillated water (DW), ethanol/DW, methanol/DW, propylene glycol/DW, heptan/DW, and hexan/DW, for 3 days at 25°C and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm. Then the extracts were evaporated using rotary evaporator at 40°C. The fiber and solvent-free extracts were then analyzed by UV spectrophotometer to detect saffron quality parameters including crocin, picrocrocin and safranal. Findings: Distilled water/ethanol mixture as the extraction solvent, caused larger amounts of the plant constituents to diffuse out to the extract compared to other treatments and also control. Polar solvents including distilled water, ethanol, and propylene glycol (except methanol) were more effective in extracting crocin, picrocrocin, and saffranal than non-polar solvents. Social implications: Due to an enhancement of color and flavor, saffron extract is economical compared to natural saffron. Saffron Extract saves on preparation time and reduces the amount of saffron required for imparting the same flavor, as compared to dry saffron. Liquid extract is easier to use and standardize in food preparations compared to dry stamens and can be dosed precisely compared to natural saffron. Originality/value: No research had been done on production of saffron edible extract using the solvent studied in this survey. The novelty of this research is high and the results can be used industrially.

Keywords: Crocus sativus L., saffron extract, solvent extraction, distilled water

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
7126 The Applications of Zero Water Discharge (ZWD) Systems for Environmental Management

Authors: Walter W. Loo

Abstract:

China declared the “zero discharge rules which leave no toxics into our living environment and deliver blue sky, green land and clean water to many generations to come”. The achievement of ZWD will provide conservation of water, soil and energy and provide drastic increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP). Our society’s engine needs a major tune up; it is sputtering. ZWD is achieved in world’s space stations – no toxic air emission and the water is totally recycled and solid wastes all come back to earth. This is all done with solar power. These are all achieved under extreme temperature, pressure and zero gravity in space. ZWD can be achieved on earth under much less fluctuations in temperature, pressure and normal gravity environment. ZWD systems are not expensive and will have multiple beneficial returns on investment which are both financially and environmentally acceptable. The paper will include successful case histories since the mid-1970s. ZWD discharge can be applied to the following types of projects: nuclear and coal fire power plants with a closed loop system that will eliminate thermal water discharge; residential communities with wastewater treatment sump and recycle the water use as a secondary water supply; waste water treatment Plants with complete water recycling including water distillation to produce distilled water by very economical 24-hours solar power plant. Landfill remediation is based on neutralization of landfilled gas odor and preventing anaerobic leachate formation. It is an aerobic condition which will render landfill gas emission explosion proof. Desert development is the development of recovering soil moisture from soil and completing a closed loop water cycle by solar energy within and underneath an enclosed greenhouse. Salt-alkali land development can be achieved by solar distillation of salty shallow water into distilled water. The distilled water can be used for soil washing and irrigation and complete a closed loop water cycle with energy and water conservation. Heavy metals remediation can be achieved by precipitation of dissolved toxic metals below the plant or vegetation root zone by solar electricity without pumping and treating. Soil and groundwater remediation - abandoned refineries, chemical and pesticide factories can be remediated by in-situ electrobiochemical and bioventing treatment method without pumping or excavation. Toxic organic chemicals are oxidized into carbon dioxide and heavy metals precipitated below plant and vegetation root zone. New water sources: low temperature distilled water can be recycled for repeated use within a greenhouse environment by solar distillation; nano bubble water can be made from the distilled water with nano bubbles of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from air (fertilizer water) and also eliminate the use of pesticides because the nano oxygen will break the insect growth chain in the larvae state. Three dimensional high yield greenhouses can be constructed by complete water recycling using the vadose zone soil as a filter with no farming wastewater discharge.

Keywords: greenhouses, no discharge, remediation of soil and water, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
7125 Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foam for Imitation Wood Blown by Distilled Water and Cyclopentane

Authors: Ratchanon Boonachathong, Bordin Kaewnok, Suksun Amornraksa

Abstract:

Rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF) used for imitation wood is typically prepared by using 1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) as a blowing agent. However, this chemical is a hydrofluorocarbon which severely causes ozone depletion to the atmosphere. In this work, a more environmental-friendly RPUF was prepared by using distilled water and cyclopentane (CP) as alternative blowing agent. Several properties of the prepared RPUF were investigated and measured such as density (kg/m³), surface hardness (shore D), and glass transition temperature (°C). It was found that when the amount of the blowing agents decreased, the foam density is increased as well as the surface hardness and glass transition temperature. The results showed that the proper amount of water and cylopentane blowing agent is around 0.3–1.2% and 0.5-1.3% respectively. And the new RPUF produced has a good potential to substitute for a conventional RPUF.

Keywords: blowing agent, cyclopentane co-blown, imitation wood, rigid polyurethane foam, surface hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
7124 Toxicity of Cry1ac Bacillus thuringiensis against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) on Artificial Diet under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Tahammal Hussain, Khuram Zia, Mumammad Jalal Arif, Megha Parajulee, Abdul Hakeem

Abstract:

The Bioassay on neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) were conducted against Bacillus thuringiensis proteins Cry1Ac. Cry1Ac was incorporated into an artificial diet and was serially diluted with distilled water and then mixed with diet at an appropriate temperature of diet. Toxins incorporated prepared diet was poured into Petri-dishes. For controls, distilled water was mixed with the diet. Five toxin doses 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 ug / ml and one control were used for each instars of H. armigera 20 larvae were used in each replication and each treatment is replicated four times. LC50 of Cry1Ac against neonate, 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of H. armigera were 0.34, 0.81 and 1.46 ug / ml. So Cry1Ac is more effective against neonate larvae of H .armigera as compared to 2nd and 3rd instar larvae under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: B. thuringiensis, Cry1Ac, H. armigera, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
7123 Chemical Mechanical Polishing Wastewater Treatment through Membrane Distillation

Authors: Imtisal-e-Noor, Andrew Martin, Olli Dahl

Abstract:

Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) has developed as a chosen planarization technique in nano-electronics industries for fabrication of the integrated circuits (ICs). These CMP processes release a huge amount of wastewater that contains oxides of nano-particles (silica, alumina, and ceria) and oxalic acid. Since, this wastewater has high solid content (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity (NTU); therefore, in order to fulfill the environmental regulations, it needs to be treated up to the local and international standards. The present study proposed a unique CMP wastewater treatment method called Membrane Distillation (MD). MD is a non-isothermal membrane separation process, which allows only volatiles, i.e., water vapors to permeate through the membrane and provides 100% contaminants rejection. The performance of the MD technology is analyzed in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, TS, COD, and residual oxide concentration in permeate/distilled water while considering different operating conditions (temperature, flow rate, and time). The results present that high-quality permeate has been recovered after removing 99% of the oxide particles and oxalic acid. The distilled water depicts turbidity < 1 NTU, TOC < 3 mg/L, TS < 50 mg/L, and COD < 100 mg/L. These findings clearly show that the MD treated water can be reused further in industrial processes or allowable to discharge in any water body under the stringent environmental regulations.

Keywords: chemical mechanical polishing, environmental regulations, membrane distillation, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
7122 Effect of Water Hardness and Free Residual Chlorine on Black Tea Brew

Authors: P. Murugesan, G. Venkateswaran, V. A. Shanmuga Selvan

Abstract:

Water used for brewing tea plays a major role in the quality of tea. Water with higher hardness gives very dark coloured brew. This study was conducted to determine the effect of water hardness and free residual chlorine on the quality of black tea liquor. Theaflavin (TF) and Thearubigin (TR) levels are lower in comparison with the tea brewed in distilled water. At the same time, there is an increase in High Polymerized Substance (HPS) and Total Liquor Colour (TLC). While water with higher hardness has a negative impact on tea brew, water with high concentration of free residual chlorine did not affect the quality of tea brew.

Keywords: Theaflavin, Thearubigin, high polymerised substance, total liquor colour, hardness, residual chlorine

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
7121 Enhancement Performance of Desalination System Using Humidification and Dehumidification Processes

Authors: Zeinab Syed Abdel Rehim

Abstract:

Water shortage is considered as one of the huge problems the world encounter now. Water desalination is considered as one of the more suitable methods governments can use to substitute the increased need for potable water. The humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination is viewed as a promising technique for small capacity production plants. The process has several attraction features which include the use of sustainable energy sources, low technology, and low-temperature dehumidification. A pilot experimental set-up plant was constructed with the conventional HVAC components such as air blower that supplies air to an air duct inside which air preheater, steam injector and cooling coil of a small refrigeration unit are placed. The present work evaluates the characteristics of humidification-dehumidification process for water desalination as a function of air flow rate, total power input and air inlet temperature in order to study the optimum conditions required to produce distilled water.

Keywords: condensation, dehumidification, evaporation, humidification, water desalination

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
7120 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
7119 Durability Study of Pultruded CFRP Plates under Sustained Bending in Distilled Water and Seawater Immersions: Effects on the Visco-Elastic Properties

Authors: Innocent Kafodya, Guijun Xian

Abstract:

This paper presents effects of distilled water, seawater and sustained bending strains of 30% and 50% ultimate strain at room temperature, on the durability of unidirectional pultruded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates. In this study, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to investigate the synergic effects of the immersions and bending strains on the visco-elastic properties of (CFRP) such as storage modulus, tan delta and glass transition temperature. The study reveals that the storage modulus and glass transition temperature increase while tan delta peak decreases in the initial stage of both immersions due to the progression of curing. The storage modulus and Tg subsequently decrease and tan delta increases due to the matrix plasticization. The blister induced damages in the unstrained seawater samples enhance water uptake and cause more serious degradation of Tg and storage modulus than in water immersion. Increasing sustained bending decreases Tg and storage modulus in a long run for both immersions due to resin matrix cracking and debonding. The combined effects of immersions and strains are not clearly reflected due to the statistical effects of DMA sample sizes and competing processes of molecular reorientation and postcuring.

Keywords: pultruded CFRP plate, bending strain, glass transition temperature, storage modulus, tan delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7118 Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still

Authors: Piyush Pal, Rahul Dev

Abstract:

Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and its development. Contaminated water leads to several health problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water. The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills, Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10 September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found 3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.

Keywords: contaminated water, conventional solar still, modified solar still, wick

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
7117 Improvement of Water Distillation Plant by Using Statistical Process Control System

Authors: Qasim Kriri, Harsh B. Desai

Abstract:

Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is portrayed by difficulties and accomplishments. One of the fundamental difficulties is water shortage. With a specific end goal to beat water shortage, significant ventures have been attempted in sea water desalination, water circulation, sewerage, and wastewater treatment. The motivation behind Statistical Process Control (SPC) is to decide whether the execution of a procedure is keeping up an acceptable quality level [AQL]. SPC is an analytical decision-making method. A fundamental apparatus in the SPC is the Control Charts, which follow the inconstancy in the estimations of the item quality attributes. By utilizing the suitable outline, administration can decide whether changes should be made with a specific end goal to keep the procedure in charge. The two most important quality factors in the distilled water which were taken into consideration were pH (Potential of Hydrogen) and TDS (Total Dissolved Solids). There were three stages at which the quality checks were done. The stages were as follows: (1) Water at the source, (2) water after chemical treatment & (3) water which is sent for packing. The upper specification limit, central limit and lower specification limit are taken as per Saudi water standards. The procedure capacity to accomplish the particulars set for the quality attributes of Berain water Factory chose to be focused by the proposed SPC system.

Keywords: acceptable quality level, statistical quality control, control charts, process charts

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
7116 Characterization of Nanoemulsion Incorporating Crude Cocoa Polyphenol

Authors: Suzannah Sharif, Aznie Aida Ahmad, Maznah Ismail

Abstract:

Cocoa bean is the raw material for products such as cocoa powder and chocolate. Cocoa bean contains polyphenol which has been shown in several clinical studies to confer beneficial health effects. However studies showed that cocoa polyphenol absorption in the human intestinal tracts are very low. Therefore nanoemulsion may be one way to increase the bioavailability of cocoa polyphenol. This study aim to characterize nanoemulsion incorporating crude cocoa polyphenol produced using high energy technique. Cocoa polyphenol was extracted from fresh freeze-dried cocoa beans from Malaysia. The particle distribution, particle size, and zeta potential were determined. The emulsion was also analysed using transmission electron microscope to visualize the particles. Solubilization study was conducted by titrating the nanoemulsion into distilled water or 1% surfactant solution. Result showed that the nanoemulsion contains particle which have narrow size distribution. The particles size average at 112nm with zeta potential of -45mV. The nanoemulsions behave differently in distilled water and surfactant solution.

Keywords: cocoa, nanoemulsion, cocoa polyphenol, solubilisation study

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7115 Morphological and Elements Constituent Effects of Allelopathic Activity

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen

Abstract:

Allelopathy is a complex phenomenon that depends on the concentration of allelochemicals. It has both inhibitory and stimulatory effects, which may be decided by concentration of allelochemicals present in extraction. In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peperina, and Coriandrum sativum water extract prepared by grinding fresh leaves of the medicinal plants in distilled water and three concentrations were taken from the crude extracts (100%, 50% and 25% in addition to 0% as control), and were tested for their effects on seed germination and some growth parameters of Zea mays. The experiment was conducted in sterilized Petri dishes under the natural laboratory conditions at temperature of 25°C, with a 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (control, 0%). In maize, germination percentage was suppressed when plants was treated with 100% extracts, however, 50% and 25% of M. peprina increased germination percentage by 4 times more than the control. Moreover, 50% and 25% extracts of M. peperina and 50% of C. sativum increased maize radicle and plumule length by 3 to 4 times that of the control. Results of plumule fresh and dry weights revealed that concentrations of water extracts of 100% and 50% M. peperina, E. sativa 100% and E. sativa 50% reported almost similar plumule fresh weight as in control plants. The most interesting finding is the reduction in harmful salts and TDS which could be a good factor in saline soils of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Zea mays, Eruca sativa, Mentha peperina, Coriandrum sativum, medicinal plants, allelochemicals, aqueous extract

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
7114 Enhanced Performance of Supercapacitor Based on Boric Acid Doped Polyvinyl Alcohol-H₂SO₄ Gel Polymer Electrolyte System

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Banu Karaman, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan

Abstract:

Recently, Proton Conducting Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have drawn much attention in supercapacitor applications due to their physical and electrochemical characteristics and stability conditions for low temperatures. In this research, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE has been used for electric-double layer capacitor (EDLCs) application, in which electrospun free-standing carbon nanofibers are used as electrodes. Introduced PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE behaves as both separator and the electrolyte in the supercapacitor. Symmetric Swagelok cells including GPEs were assembled via using two electrode arrangements and the electrochemical properties were searched. Electrochemical performance studies demonstrated that PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE had a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 134 F g-1 and showed great capacitance retention (%100) after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 GPE yielded an energy density of 67 Wh kg-1 with a corresponding power density of 1000 W kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. PVA-H2SO4 based polymer electrolyte was produced according to following procedure; Firstly, 1 g of commercial PVA was dissolved in distilled water at 90°C and stirred until getting transparent solution. This was followed by addition of the diluted H2SO4 (1 g of H2SO4 in a distilled water) to the solution to obtain PVA-H2SO4. PVA-H2SO4-H3BO3 based polymer electrolyte was produced by dissolving H3BO3 in hot distilled water and then inserted into the PVA-H2SO4 solution. The mole fraction was arranged to ¼ of the PVA repeating unit. After the stirring 2 h at RT, gel polymer electrolytes were obtained. The final electrolytes for supercapacitor testing included 20% of water in weight. Several blending combinations of PVA/H2SO4 and H3BO3 were studied to observe the optimized combination in terms of conductivity as well as electrolyte stability. As the amount of boric acid increased in the matrix, excess sulfuric acid was excluded due to cross linking, especially at lower solvent content. This resulted in the reduction of proton conductivity. Therefore, the mole fraction of H3BO3 was chosen as ¼ of PVA repeating unit. Within this optimized limits, the polymer electrolytes showed better conductivities as well as stability.

Keywords: electrical double layer capacitor, energy density, gel polymer electrolyte, ultracapacitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
7113 Phytoremediation of Cr from Tannery Effluent by Vetiver Grass

Authors: Mingizem Gashaw Seid

Abstract:

Phytoremediation of chromium metal by vetiver grass was investigated in hydroponic system. The removal efficiency for organic load, nutrient and chromium were evaluated as a function of concentration of waste effluent (40 and 50% dilution with distilled water). Under this conditions 64.49-94.06 % of chromium was removed. This shows vetiver grass has potential for accumulation of chromium metal from tannery waste water stream.

Keywords: chromium, phytoremediation, tannery effluent, vetiver grass

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7112 Evaluation of the Effects of Some Medicinal Plants Extracts on Seed

Authors: Areej Ali Baeshen, Hanaa Kamal Galal, Batoul Mohamed Abdullatif

Abstract:

In the present study, the allelopathic effects of Eruca sativa, Mentha peprinta, and Coriandrum sativum aqueous extracts, prepared by 25 gm and 50 gm of fresh leaves dissolved in 100 ml of double distilled water in addition to the crude extract (100%). The final concentrations were 100 %, 50%, 25% and 0% as control. The extracts were tested for their allelopathic effects on seed germination and other growth parameters of Phaseolous vulgaris. Laboratory experiments were conducted in sterilizes Petri dishes with 5 and 10 day time interval for seed germination and 24 h, 48 h and 72 h for radicle length on an average of 25°C. The effects of different concentrations of aqueous extract were compared to distilled water (0%). 25% and 50% aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum caused a pronounced inhibitory effect on seed germination and the tested growth parameters of the receptor plant. The inhibitory effect was proportional to the concentration of the extract. Mentha peprinta extracts, on the other hand, caused an increase in germination percentage and other growth parameters in Phaseolous vulgaris. Hence, it could be concluded that the aqueous extracts of Eruca sativa and Coriandrum sativum might contain water-soluble allelochemicals, which could inhibit the seed germination and reduce radicle length of Phaseolous vulgaris. Mentha peprinta has beneficial allelopathic effects on the receptor plant.

Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Eruca sativa, Mentha peperinta, Coriandrum sativum, medicinal plants, seed germination

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
7111 Preparation of Biodiesel by Three Step Method Followed Purification by Various Silica Sources

Authors: Chanchal Mewar, Shikha Gangil, Yashwant Parihar, Virendra Dhakar, Bharat Modhera

Abstract:

Biodiesel was prepared from Karanja oil by three step methods: saponification, acidification and esterification. In first step, saponification was done in presence of methanol and KOH or NaOH with Karanja oil. During second step acidification, various acids such as H3PO4, HCl, H2SO4 were used as acid catalyst. In third step, esterification followed by purification was done with various silica sources as Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel. It was found that there was no significant change in density, kinematic viscosity, iodine number, acid value, saponification number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number after purification by these adsorbents. The objective of this research is the comparison among different adsorbents which were used for the purification of biodiesel. Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel were used as adsorbents for the removal of glycerin from biodiesel and evaluate the effectiveness of biodiesel purity. Furthermore, this study compared the results of distilled water washing also. It was observed that Ludox, fumed silica gel and distilled water produced yield about 93%, 91% and 83% respectively. Highest yield was obtained with Ludox at 100 oC temperature using H3PO4 as acid catalyst and NaOH as base catalyst with methanol, (3:1) alcohol to oil molar ratio in 90 min.

Keywords: biodiesel, three step method, purification, silica sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
7110 BSYJ Promoting Homing and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells at the Retina of Age-Related Macular Degeneration Model Mice Induced by Sodium Iodate

Authors: Lina Liang, Kai Xu, Jing Zhang

Abstract:

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major leading cause of visual impairment and blindness with no cure currently established. Cell replacement is discussed as a potential therapy for AMD. Besides intravitreal injection and subretinal injection, intravenous administration has been explored as an alternative route. This study is to observe the effect of BSYJ, a traditional Chinese medicine on the homing and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells transplanted via tail vein injection in an age-related macular degeneration mouse model. Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were injected with 40 mg/kg NaIO₃ to induce age-related macular degeneration model. At the second day after NaIO₃ injection, 1×10⁷ GFP labeled bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GFP-MSCs) were transplanted via tali vein injection into the experimental mice. Then the mice were randomly divided into two groups, gavaged with either BSYJ solution (BSYJ group, n=12) or distilled water (DW group, n=12). 12 age-matched healthy C57BL/6J mice were fed regularly as normal control. At day 7, day 14, and day 28 after treatment, retina flat mounting was used to detect the homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to determine the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results: At 7, 14, 28 days after treatment, the numbers of GFP-MSCs detected by retina flatmount were 10.2 ± 2.5, 14.5 ± 3.4 and 18.7 ± 5.8, respectively in the distilled water group, while 15.7 ± 3.8, 32.3 ± 3.5 and 77.3 ± 6.4 in BSYJ group, the differences between the two groups were significant (p < 0.05). At 28 days after treatment, it was shown by double staining immunofluorescence that there were more GFP positive cells in the retina of BSYJ group than that of the DW group, but none of the cells expressed RPE specific genes such as RPE65 and CRALBP, or photoreceptor genes such as recoverin and rhodopsin either in BSYJ group or DW group. However, GFAP positive cells were found among the cells labeled with GFP, and the double labeling cells were much more in the BSYJ group than the distilled water group. Conclusion: BSYJ could promote homing of mesenchymal stem cells at the retina of age-related macular degeneration model mice induced by NaIO₃, and the differentiation towards to glial cells. Acknowledgement: National Natural Foundation of China (No: 81473736, 81674033,81973912).

Keywords: BSYJ, differentiation, homing, mesenchymal stem cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
7109 Effect of Particles Size and Volume Fraction Concentration on the Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Al2O3 Nanofluids Measured Using Transient Hot–Wire Laser Beam Deflection Technique

Authors: W. Mahmood Mat Yunus, Faris Mohammed Ali, Zainal Abidin Talib

Abstract:

In this study we present new data for the thermal conductivity enhancement in four nanofluids containing 11, 25, 50, 63 nm diameter aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles in distilled water. The nanofluids were prepared using single step method (i.e. by dispersing nanoparticle directly in base fluid) which was gathered in ultrasonic device for approximately 7 hours. The transient hot-wire laser beam displacement technique was used to measure the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the prepared nanofluids. The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were obtained by fitting the experimental data to the numerical data simulated for aluminum oxide in distilled water. The results show that the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids increases in non-linear behavior as the particle size increases. While, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids was observed increasing linearly with concentration as the volume fraction concentration increases. We believe that the interfacial layer between solid/fluid is the main factor for the enhancement of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of Al2O3 nanofluids in the present work.

Keywords: transient hot wire-laser beam technique, Al2O3 nanofluid, particle size, volume fraction concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
7108 Investigation the Photocatalytic Properties of Fe3O4-ZnO Nanocomposites Prepared by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Atena Naeimi, Mehri-Sadat Ekrami-Kakhki

Abstract:

Fe3O4 is one of the important magnetic oxides with spinel structure; it has exhibited unique electric and magnetic properties based on the electron transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. Fe3O4 have received considerable attention in various areas such as cancer therapy, drug targeting, enzyme immobilization catalysis, magnetic cell separation, magnetic refrigeration systems and super-paramagnetic materials. Fe3O4–ZnO nanostructures were synthesized via a surfactant-free ultrasonic reaction at room temperatures. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, time, and power on the size and morphology of the product was investigated. Alternating gradient force magnetometer shows that Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. For preparation of nanocomposite 1 g of Fe3O4 nanostructures were dispersed in 100 mL of distilled water. 0.25 g of Zn (NO3)2 and 20 mL of NH3 solution 1 M were then slowly added to the solution under ultrasonic irradiation. The product was centrifuged, washed with distilled water and dried in the air. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe3O4–ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated using the degradation of a methyl orange aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. As time increased, more and more methyl orange was adsorbed on the nanoparticles catalyst, until the absorption peak vanish. The methyl orange concentration decreased rapidly with increasing UV-irradiation time.

Keywords: nanocomposite, ultrasonic, paramagnetic, photocatalytic

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
7107 Dietary N-6/N-3 PUFA Ratios Affect the Homeostasis of CD4+ T Cells in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

Authors: Cyoung-Huei Huang, Chiu-Li Yeh, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effect of different dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on modulating helper T (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. There were 3 control and 3 colitis groups in this study. Mice were fed for 24 d with an AIN-93G diet either with soybean oil (S), a mixture of soybean oil and low fish oil content (LF) or high fish oil content (HF). The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in the LF diet was 4:1, and that in the HF diet was 2:1. The control groups drank distilled water while colitis groups provided 2% DSS in drinking water during day 15-19. All mice drank distilled water from day 20-24 for recovery and sacrificed on day 25. The results showed that colitis resulted in higher Th1, Th2, and Th17 and lower Treg percentages in the blood. Also, plasma haptoglobin and proinflammatory chemokines were elevated in colon lavage fluid. Colitic groups with fish oil had lower inflammatory mediators in the plasma and colon lavage fluid. Further, the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in the blood were lower, whereas Treg cell percentages were higher than those in the soybean oil group. The colitis group with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 2:1 had more pronounce effects than ratio 4:1. These results suggest that diets with an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2:1 or 4:1 regulate the Th/Treg balance and attenuate inflammatory mediator production in colitis. Compared to the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 4:1, the ratio of 2:1 was more effective in reducing inflammatory reactions in DSS-induced colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, helper T lymphocyte, regulatory T lymphocyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
7106 Persistent Toxicity of Imidacloprid to Aphis gossypii Glover and Amarasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on Okra

Authors: M. A. Pawar, C. S. Patil

Abstract:

Investigations were carried out to evaluate the persistent toxicity of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dimethoate to Aphis gossypii and Amrasca biguttula biguttula under laboratory condition during 2012. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications in the glass house of department of Entomology M. P. K. V. Rahuri. Okra plants were raised in glass house following all recommended agronomic practices. The 21 days old plants were used for assessing the effect of insecticides on aphids and jassids. The insecticides were diluted with distilled water to make desired concentrations and used for foliar application. The insecticides included in the study were imidacloprid 17.8 SL, imidacloprid 70 WG, thiamethoxam 25 WG and dimethoate 30 EC. Untreated check was maintained by spraying with distilled water. The mortality of aphids and jassids on treated leaf were recorded at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 21, and 25 days after spray till zero per cent mortality observed for each treatment. Treated leaves from the glasshouse were brought to laboratory and were put in tube with moist cotton swab at the bottom of leaf and sucking apparatus was fit to the tube. Ten jassids were sucked in each tube from the plants in the field. Evaluated insecticides differed in their persistence and index of persistence toxicity against both insects of different treatments. Recommended dose of imidacloprid (25 g a.i/ha) persisted for 21 days against both aphids and jassids. However dimethoate, a conventional insecticide persisted for 11 days.

Keywords: Amrasca biguttula biguttula, Aphis gossypii, imidacloprid, persistent toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
7105 The Effect of High-Pressure Processing on the Inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Different Concentration of Manuka Honey and Its Relation with ° Brix

Authors: Noor Akhmazillah Fauzi, Mohammed Mehdi Farid, Filipa V. Silva

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to investigate if different concentration of Manuka honey (as a model food) has a major influence on the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (as the testing microorganism) after subjecting it to HPP. Honey samples with different sugar concentrations (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 °Brix) were prepared aseptically using sterilized distilled water. No dilution of honey was made for the 80 °Brix sample. For the 0 °Brix sample (control), sterilized distilled water was used. Thermal treatment at 55 °C for 10 min (conventionally applied in honey pasteurisation in industry) was carried out for comparison purpose. S. cerevisiae cell numbers in honey samples were established before and after each HPP and thermal treatment. The number of surviving cells was determined after a proper dilution of the untreated and treated samples by the viable plate count method. S. cerevisiae cells, in different honey concentrations (0 to 80 °Brix), subjected to 600 MPa (at ambient temperature) showed an increasing resistance to inactivation with °Brix. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) between cell reduction and °Brix was found. Cell reduction in high pressure-treated samples varied linearly with °Brix (R2 > 0.9), confirming that the baroprotective effect of the food is due to sugar content. This study has practical implications in establishing efficient process design for commercial manufacturing of high sugar food products and on the potential use of HPP for such products.

Keywords: high pressure processing, honey, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, °Brix

Procedia PDF Downloads 279