Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Beijing

72 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng

Abstract:

Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

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71 Another Beautiful Sounds: Building the Memory of Sound of Peddling in Beijing with Digital Technology

Authors: Dan Wang, Qing Ma, Xiaodan Wang, Tianjiao Qi

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The sound of peddling in Beijing, also called “yo-heave-ho” or “cry of one's ware”, is a unique folk culture and usually found in Beijing hutong. For the civilians in Beijing, sound of peddling is part of their childhood. And for those who love the traditional culture of Beijing, it is an old song singing the local conditions and customs of the ancient city. For example, because of his great appreciation, the British poet Osbert Stewart once put sound of peddling which he had heard in Beijing as a street orchestra performance in the article named "Beijing's sound and color".This research aims to collect and integrate the voice/photo resources and historical materials of sound concerning peddling in Beijing by digital technology in order to protect the intangible cultural heritage and pass on the city memory. With the goal in mind, the next stage is to collect and record all the materials and resources based on the historical documents study and interviews with civilians or performers. Then set up a metadata scheme (which refers to the domestic and international standards such as "Audio Data Processing Standards in the National Library", DC, VRA, and CDWA, etc.) to describe, process and organize the sound of peddling into a database. In order to fully show the traditional culture of sound of peddling in Beijing, web design and GIS technology are utilized to establish a website and plan holding offline exhibitions and events for people to simulate and learn the sound of peddling by using VR/AR technology. All resources are opened to the public and civilians can share the digital memory through not only the offline experiential activities, but also the online interaction. With all the attempts, a multi-media narrative platform has been established to multi-dimensionally record the sound of peddling in old Beijing with text, images, audio, video and so on.

Keywords: sound of peddling, GIS, metadata scheme, VR/AR technology

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70 Language Developmental Trends of Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers in Beijing

Authors: Nga Yui Tong

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Mandarin, the official language of China, is based on the Beijing dialect and is spoken by more than one billion people from all over the world. To investigate the trends of Mandarin acquisition, 192 preschoolers are recruited by stratified random sampling. They are from 4 different districts in Beijing, 2 schools in each district, with 4 age groups, both genders, and 3 children in each stratum. The children are paired up to conduct semi-structured free play for 30 minutes. Their language output is videotaped, transcribed, and coded for the calculation of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Two-way ANOVA showed that the variation of MLU is significantly contributed by age, which is coherent to previous findings of other languages. This first large-scale study to investigate the developmental trend of Mandarin in young children in Beijing provides empirical evidence to the development of standards and curriculum planning for early Mandarin education. Interestingly, the gender effect in the study is insignificant, with boys showing a slightly higher MLU than girls across all age groups and settings, except the 4.5 years same-gender dyads. The societal factors in the Chinese context on parenting and gender bias are worth looking into.

Keywords: Beijing, language development, Mandarin, preschoolers

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69 Recyclable Household Solid Waste Generation and Collection in Beijing, China

Authors: Tingting Liu, Yufeng Wu, Xi Tian, Yu Gong, Tieyong Zuo

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The household solid waste generated by household in Beijing is increasing quickly due to rapid population growth and lifestyle changes. However, there are no rigorous data on the generation and collection of the recyclable household solid wastes. The Beijing city government needs this information to make appropriate policies and plans for waste management. To address this information need, we undertook the first comprehensive study of recyclable household solid waste for Beijing. We carried out a survey of 500 families across sixteen districts in Beijing. We also analyzed the quantities, spatial distribution and categories of collected waste handled by curbside recyclers and permanent recycling centers for 340 of the 9797 city-defined residential areas of Beijing. From our results, we estimate that the total quantity of recyclable household solid waste was 1.8 million tonnes generated by Beijing household in 2013 and 71.6% of that was collected. The main generation categories were waste paper (24.4%), waste glass bottle (23.7%) and waste furniture (14.3%). The recycling rate was varied among different kinds of municipal solid waste. Also based on our study, we estimate there were 22.8 thousand curbside recyclers and 5.7 thousand permanent recycling centers in Beijing. The problems of household solid waste collecting system were inadequacies of authorized collection centers, skewed ratios of curbside recyclers and authorized permanent recycling centers, weak recycling awareness of residents and lack of recycling resources statistics and appraisal system. According to the existing problems, we put forward the suggestions to improve household solid waste management.

Keywords: Municipal waste; Recyclable waste; Waste categories; Waste collection

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68 Digital Memory plus City Cultural Heritage: The Peking Memory Project Experience

Authors: Huiling Feng, Xiaoshuang Jia, Jihong Liang, Li Niu

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and the world's second most populous city proper and most populous capital city. Beijing is a noted historical and cultural whose city history dates back three millennia which is extremely rich in terms of cultural heritage. In 2012, a digital memory project led by Humanistic Beijing Studies Center in Renmin University of China started with the goal to build a total digital collection of knowledge assets about Beijing and represent Beijing memories in new fresh ways. The title of the entire project is ‘Peking Memory Project(PMP)’. The main goal is for safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing, more specifically speaking, from the perspective of historical humanities and public participation, PMP will comprehensively applied digital technologies like digital capture, digital storage, digital process, digital presentation and digital communication to transform different kinds of cultural heritage of Beijing into digital formats that can be stored, re-organized and shared. These digital memories can be interpreted with a new perspective, be organized with a new theme, be presented in a new way and be utilized with a new need. Taking social memory as theoretical basis and digital technologies as tools, PMP is framed with ‘Two Sites and A Repository’. Two sites mean the special website(s) characterized by ‘professional’ and an interactive website characterized by ‘crowdsourcing’. A Repository means the storage pool used for safety long-time preservation of the digital memories. The work of PMP has ultimately helped to highlight the important role in safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing.

Keywords: digital memory, cultural heritage, digital technologies, peking memory project

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67 Study on Science and Technology Resources Coordinated Development and Innovation of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region

Authors: Hong Zhang, Runlian Miao, Min Zhang

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Coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is of great importance and has been emphasized by the government in recent years. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region accumulates a large part of S&T resources of the whole country and boasts the most influential achievements. In order to improve innovation capability of the region, universities, research institutions and enterprises from Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei have cooperated in many forms, but technological innovation is not so satisfactory due to unbalanced allocation, poor sharing and low utilization efficiency of S&T resources. Therefore, it’s very necessary to promote resources sharing, optimize their overall layout, and enhance their innovation performance, which can further deepen coordination development of the region. This study focuses on S&T resources with the methods of documents research plus field investigation and qualitative research combing plus quantitive research. It starts from the macro background of promoting coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and arrives at improving regional innovation capability. Firstly, the author makes a literature review on coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and summarizes that coordinated development has been carried forward in the major fields which lay foundation for regional innovation; secondly, analyzes current S&T resources distribution and coordinated innovation by taking key industries as the examples; based on analysis of the status quo of resources sharing and innovation in the region, the author points out problems and obstacles that holdbacks coordinated innovation of the region and at last raises some suggestions to resources sharing and regional innovation. It reaches the conclusion that an efficient management mechanism, market laws, favorable environment, model innovation and incentive measures can help to accelerate resources sharing and regional innovation in the region.

Keywords: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, coordinated development, innovation, S&T resources

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66 Promoting Public Participation in the Digital Memory Project: Experience from My Peking Memory Project(MPMP)

Authors: Xiaoshuang Jia, Huiling Feng, Li Niu, Wei Hai

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Led by Humanistic Beijing Studies Center in Renmin University of China, My Peking Memory Project(MPMP) is a long-time digital memory project under guarantee of public participation to enable the cultural and intellectual memory of Beijing to be collected, organized, preserved and promoted for discovery and research. Taking digital memory as a new way, MPMP is an important part of Peking Memory Project(PMP) which is aimed at using digital technologies to protect and (re)present the cultural heritage in Beijing. The key outcome of MPMP is the co-building of a total digital collection of knowledge assets about Beijing. Institutional memories are central to Beijing’s collection and consist of the official published documentary content of Beijing. These have already fall under the archival collection purview. The advances in information and communication technology and the knowledge form social memory theory have allowed us to collect more comprehensively beyond institutional collections. It is now possible to engage citizens on a large scale to collect private memories through crowdsourcing in digital formats. Private memories go beyond official published content to include personal narratives, some of which are just in people’s minds until they are captured by MPMP. One aim of MPMP is to engage individuals, communities, groups or institutions who have formed memories and content about Beijing, and would like to contribute them. The project hopes to build a culture of remembering and it believes ‘Every Memory Matters’. Digital memory contribution was achieved through the development of the MPMP. In reducing barriers to digital contribution and promoting high public Participation, MPMP has taken explored the harvesting of transcribe service for digital ingestion, mobile platform and some off-line activities like holding social forum. MPMP has also cooperated with the ‘Implementation Plan of Support Plan for Growth of Talents in Renmin University of China’ to get manpower and intellectual support. After six months of operation, now MPMP have more than 2000 memories added and 7 Special Memory Collections now online. The work of MPMP has ultimately helped to highlight the important role in safeguarding the documentary heritage and intellectual memory of Beijing.

Keywords: digital memory, public participation, MPMP, cultural heritage, collection

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65 Comprehensive Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Its Countermeasures: A Case Study of Beijing

Authors: Yike Lamu, Jieyu Tang, Jialin Wu, Jianyun Huang

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With the development of economy and science and technology, the urban heat island effect becomes more and more serious. Taking Beijing city as an example, this paper divides the value of each influence index of heat island intensity and establishes a mathematical model – neural network system based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation index of heat island effect. After data preprocessing, the algorithm of weight of each factor affecting heat island effect is generated, and the data of sex indexes affecting heat island intensity of Shenyang City and Shanghai City, Beijing, and Hangzhou City are input, and the result is automatically output by the neural network system. It is of practical significance to show the intensity of heat island effect by visual method, which is simple, intuitive and can be dynamically monitored.

Keywords: heat island effect, neural network, comprehensive evaluation, visualization

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64 Research on Innovation Service based on Science and Technology Resources in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei

Authors: Runlian Miao, Wei Xie, Hong Zhang

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In China, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei is regarded as a strategically important region because itenjoys highest development in economic development, opening up, innovative capacity and andpopulation. Integrated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region is increasingly emphasized by the government recently years. In 2014, it has ascended to one of the national great development strategies by Chinese central government. In 2015, Coordinated Development Planning Compendium for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region was approved. Such decisions signify Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region would lead innovation-driven economic development in China. As an essential factor to achieve national innovation-driven development and significant part of regional industry chain, the optimization of science and technology resources allocation will exert great influence to regional economic transformation and upgrading and innovation-driven development. However, unbalanced distribution, poor sharing of resources and existence of information isolated islands have contributed to different interior innovation capability, vitality and efficiency, which impeded innovation and growth of the whole region. Under such a background, to integrate and vitalize regional science and technology resources and then establish high-end, fast-responding and precise innovation service system basing on regional resources, would be of great significance for integrated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and even handling of unbalanced and insufficient development problem in China. This research uses the method of literature review and field investigation and applies related theories prevailing home and abroad, centering service path of science and technology resources for innovation. Based on the status quo and problems of regional development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, theoretically, the author proposed to combine regional economics and new economic geography to explore solution to problem of low resource allocation efficiency. Further, the author puts forward to applying digital map into resource management and building a platform for information co-building and sharing. At last, the author presents the thought to establish a specific service mode of ‘science and technology plus digital map plus intelligence research plus platform service’ and suggestion on co-building and sharing mechanism of 3 (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei ) plus 11 (important cities in Hebei Province).

Keywords: Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, science and technology resources, innovation service, digital platform

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63 Beijing Xicheng District Housing Price Econometric Analysis: “Multi-School Zoning”Policy

Authors: Haoxue Cui, Sirui Zhang, Shanshan Gao, Weiyi Zhang, Lantian Wang, Xuanwen Zheng

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The 2020 "multi-school zoning" policy makes students ineligible for direct attendance in their district. To study whether the housing price trend of the school district is affected by the policy, This paper studies housing prices based on the school district division in Xicheng District, Beijing. In this paper, we collected housing prices and the basic situation of communities from "Anjuke", which were divided into two periods of 15 months before and after the 731 policy in the Xicheng District, Beijing. Then we used DID model and time fixed effect to investigate the DIFFERENTIAL statistics, that is, the overall net impact of the policy. The results show that the coefficient is negative at a certain statistical level. It indicates that the housing prices of school districts in the Xicheng district decreased after the "multi-school zoning" policy, which shows that the policy has effectively reduced the housing price of school districts in the Xicheng District and laid a foundation for the "double reduction" policy in 2022.

Keywords: “multi-school zoning”policy, DID, time fixed effect, housing prices

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62 Represent Light and Shade of Old Beijing: Construction of Historical Picture Display Platform Based on Geographic Information System (GIS)

Authors: Li Niu, Jihong Liang, Lichao Liu, Huidi Chen

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With the drawing of ancient palace painter, the layout of Beijing famous architect and the lens under photographers, a series of pictures which described whether emperors or ordinary people, whether gardens or Hutongs, whether historical events or life scenarios has emerged into our society. These precious resources are scattered around and preserved in different places Such as organizations like archives and libraries, along with individuals. The research combined decentralized photographic resources with Geographic Information System (GIS), focusing on the figure, event, time and location of the pictures to map them with geographic information in webpage and to display them productively. In order to meet the demand of reality, we designed a metadata description proposal, which is referred to DC and VRA standards. Another essential procedure is to formulate a four-tier classification system to correspond with the metadata proposals. As for visualization, we used Photo Waterfall and Time Line to display our resources in front end. Last but not the least, leading the Web 2.0 trend, the research developed an artistic, friendly, expandable, universal and user involvement platform to show the historical and culture precipitation of Beijing.

Keywords: historical picture, geographic information system, display platform, four-tier classification system

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61 Evaluating the Rationality of Airport Design from the Perspective of Passenger Experience: An Example of Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport

Authors: Yan Li, Yujiang Gao

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Passengers are the main users of the airport. Whether the travel experience of passengers in the airport is comfortable or not is an important indicator for evaluating the reasonableness of airport design. Taking the Terminal 3 of Beijing Capital International Airport as an example, this paper analyzes the airport’s solution to the problem of passengers’ inconvenience caused by lost directions, excessive congestion, and excessively long streamlines during passenger use. First of all, by using the method of analyzing the design of architectural function streamlines, the design of interior spaces of buildings, and the interrelationship between interior design and passenger experience, it was first concluded that the airport is capable of performing the two major problems of easy disorientation and excessive congestion. Later, by using the method of analyzing architectural function streamlines and collecting passenger experience evaluations, it was concluded that the airport could not solve the inconvenience caused by excessively long streamlines to passengers. Finally came to the conclusion that the airport design meets the demand in terms of the overall design of the passenger experience, but the boarding line is still relatively long and some fly in the ointment.

Keywords: passengers’ experience, terminal 3 of Beijing capital international airport, lost directions, excessive congestion, excessively long streamlines

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60 Revitalization Strategy of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Rural Areas Organized by Production-Living-Ecology Spatial Network at Township Level

Authors: Liuhui Zhu, Peng Zeng

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The rural revitalization strategy means to take the country and the city on the same level, and achieve urban-rural integration and comprehensive development of rural areas. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei rural areas have always been the weak links in the region, with prominently uneven development between urban and rural areas. The rural areas need to join the overall regional synergy. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and problems of rural development in the region from the perspective of production-living-ecology space, the paper proposes the township as the basic unit for rural revitalization according to the overall requirements of the rural revitalization strategy. The basic unit helps to realize resource arrangement, functional organization, and collaborative governance organized by the production-living-ecology spatial network. The paper summarizes the planning strategies for the basic unit. Through spatial cognition and spatial reconstruction, the three space is networked through the base, nodes, and connections to improve the comprehensive value of rural areas and achieve the multiple goals of rural revitalization.

Keywords: rural revitalization, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, township level, production-living-ecology spatial network

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59 Distributional and Developmental Analysis of PM2.5 in Beijing, China

Authors: Alexander K. Guo

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PM2.5 poses a large threat to people’s health and the environment and is an issue of large concern in Beijing, brought to the attention of the government by the media. In addition, both the United States Embassy in Beijing and the government of China have increased monitoring of PM2.5 in recent years, and have made real-time data available to the public. This report utilizes hourly historical data (2008-2016) from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing for the first time. The first objective was to attempt to fit probability distributions to the data to better predict a number of days exceeding the standard, and the second was to uncover any yearly, seasonal, monthly, daily, and hourly patterns and trends that may arise to better understand of air control policy. In these data, 66,650 hours and 2687 days provided valid data. Lognormal, gamma, and Weibull distributions were fit to the data through an estimation of parameters. The Chi-squared test was employed to compare the actual data with the fitted distributions. The data were used to uncover trends, patterns, and improvements in PM2.5 concentration over the period of time with valid data in addition to specific periods of time that received large amounts of media attention, analyzed to gain a better understanding of causes of air pollution. The data show a clear indication that Beijing’s air quality is unhealthy, with an average of 94.07µg/m3 across all 66,650 hours with valid data. It was found that no distribution fit the entire dataset of all 2687 days well, but each of the three above distribution types was optimal in at least one of the yearly data sets, with the lognormal distribution found to fit recent years better. An improvement in air quality beginning in 2014 was discovered, with the first five months of 2016 reporting an average PM2.5 concentration that is 23.8% lower than the average of the same period in all years, perhaps the result of various new pollution-control policies. It was also found that the winter and fall months contained more days in both good and extremely polluted categories, leading to a higher average but a comparable median in these months. Additionally, the evening hours, especially in the winter, reported much higher PM2.5 concentrations than the afternoon hours, possibly due to the prohibition of trucks in the city in the daytime and the increased use of coal for heating in the colder months when residents are home in the evening. Lastly, through analysis of special intervals that attracted media attention for either unnaturally good or bad air quality, the government’s temporary pollution control measures, such as more intensive road-space rationing and factory closures, are shown to be effective. In summary, air quality in Beijing is improving steadily and do follow standard probability distributions to an extent, but still needs improvement. Analysis will be updated when new data become available.

Keywords: Beijing, distribution, patterns, pm2.5, trends

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58 Urban Compactness and Sustainability: Beijing Experience

Authors: Xilu Liu, Ameen Farooq

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Beijing has several compact residential housing settings in many of its urban districts. The study in this paper reveals that urban compactness, as predictor of density, may carry an altogether different meaning in the developing world when compared to the U.S for achieving objectives of urban sustainability. Recent urban design studies in the U.S are debating for compact and mixed-use higher density housing to achieve sustainable and energy efficient living environments. While the concept of urban compactness is widely accepted as an approach in modern architectural and urban design fields, this belief may not directly carry well into all areas within cities of developing countries. Beijing’s technology-driven economy, with its historic and rich cultural heritage and a highly speculated real-estate market, extends its urban boundaries into multiple compact urban settings of varying scales and densities. The accelerated pace of migration from the countryside for better opportunities has led to unsustainable and uncontrolled buildups in order to meet the growing population demand within and outside of the urban center. This unwarranted compactness in certain urban zones has produced an unhealthy physical density with serious environmental and ecological challenging basic living conditions. In addition, crowding, traffic congestion, pollution and limited housing surrounding this compactness is a threat to public health. Several residential blocks in close proximity to each other were found quite compacted, or ill-planned, with residential sites due to lack of proper planning in Beijing. Most of them at first sight appear to be compact and dense but further analytical studies revealed that what appear to be dense actually are not as dense as to make a good case that could serve as the corner stone of sustainability and energy efficiency. This study considered several factors including floor area ratio (FAR), ground coverage (GSI), open space ratio (OSR) as indicators in analyzing urban compactness as a predictor of density. The findings suggest that these measures, influencing the density of residential sites under study, were much smaller in density than expected given their compact adjacencies. Further analysis revealed that several residential housing appear to support the notion of density in its compact layout but are actually compacted due to unregulated planning marred by lack of proper urban design standards, policies and guidelines specific to their urban context and condition.

Keywords: Beijing, density, sustainability, urban compactness

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57 Comparative Study of Mutations Associated with Second Line Drug Resistance and Genetic Background of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains

Authors: Syed Beenish Rufai, Sarman Singh

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Background: Performance of Genotype MTBDRsl (Hain Life science GmbH Germany) for detection of mutations associated with second-line drug resistance is well known. However, less evidence regarding the association of mutations and genetic background of strains is known which, in the future, is essential for clinical management of anti-tuberculosis drugs in those settings where the probability of particular genotype is predominant. Material and Methods: During this retrospective study, a total of 259 MDR-TB isolates obtained from pulmonary TB patients were tested for second-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) using Genotype MTBDRsl VER 1.0 and compared with BACTEC MGIT-960 as a reference standard. All isolates were further characterized using spoligotyping. The spoligo patterns obtained were compared and analyzed using SITVIT_WEB. Results: Of total 259 MDR-TB isolates which were screened for second-line DST by Genotype MTBDRsl, mutations were found to be associated with gyrA, rrs and emb genes in 82 (31.6%), 2 (0.8%) and 90 (34.7%) isolates respectively. 16 (6.1%) isolates detected mutations associated with both FQ as well as to AG/CP drugs (XDR-TB). No mutations were detected in 159 (61.4%) isolates for corresponding gyrA and rrs genes. Genotype MTBDRsl showed a concordance of 96.4% for detection of sensitive isolates in comparison with second-line DST by BACTEC MGIT-960 and 94.1%, 93.5%, 60.5% and 50% for detection of XDR-TB, FQ, EMB, and AMK/CAP respectively. D94G was the most prevalent mutation found among (38 (46.4%)) OFXR isolates (37 FQ mono-resistant and 1 XDR-TB) followed by A90V (23 (28.1%)) (17 FQ mono-resistant and 6 XDR-TB). Among AG/CP resistant isolates A1401G was the most frequent mutation observed among (11 (61.1%)) isolates (2 AG/CP mono-resistant isolates and 9 XDR-TB isolates) followed by WT+A1401G (6 (33.3%)) and G1484T (1 (5.5%)) respectively. On spoligotyping analysis, Beijing strain (46%) was found to be the most predominant strain among pre-XDR and XDR TB isolates followed by CAS (30%), X (6%), Unique (5%), EAI and T each of 4%, Manu (3%) and Ural (2%) respectively. Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with D94G (47.3%) and A90V mutations by (47.3%) and 34.8% followed by CAS strain by (31.6%) and 30.4% respectively. However, among AG/CP resistant isolates, only Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with A1401G and WT+A1401G mutations by 54.5% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: Beijing strain was found to be strongly associated with the most prevalent mutations among pre-XDR and XDR TB isolates. Acknowledgments: Study was supported with Grant by All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi reference No. P-2012/12452.

Keywords: tuberculosis, line probe assay, XDR TB, drug susceptibility

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56 “Protection” or “Destruction”: Taking the Cultural Heritage Protection of the Grand Canal in Huaxian and Xunxian Sections of Henan Province as Example

Authors: Yue Sun, Yuan Wang

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The Grand Canal of China has been in use for more than two thousand years. It runs through the central and eastern regions of China and communicates with the five major river systems of Haihe River, Yellow River, Huaihe River, Yangtze River and Qiantang River from north to south. It is a complex, systematic and comprehensive water conservancy project in the period of agricultural civilization and includes the three parts of the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, the Sui and Tang Dynasties Canal and the Eastern Zhejiang Canal. It covers eight provinces and cities including Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Henan and Anhui. The Grand Canal is an important channel connecting the Central Plains and the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, and it is also an important waterway trade channel. Nowadays, although the Grand Canal no longer bears the burden of communicating water transportation between the north and the south, the site of the Grand Canal is still a “historical museum” of the lifestyle of people who lived on the canal from the Ming and Qing Dynasties to the Republic of China. By means of literature reading and field investigation, this paper compares the different protection strategies of the Grand Canal in the region between the ancient villages of Huaxian and Xunxian, which witness the vicissitudes of canal water transport, to explore whether the protective renovation of historical and cultural routes is “protection” or “destruction”, and puts forward some protection suggestions.

Keywords: The Grand Canal, heritage conservation, cultural route, ancient villages, strategies

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55 Red Dawn in the Desert: A World-Systems Analysis of the Maritime Silk Road Initiative

Authors: Toufic Sarieddine

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The current debate on the hegemonic impact of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is of two opposing strands: Resilient and absolute US hegemony on the one hand and various models of multipolar hegemony such as bifurcation on the other. Bifurcation theories illustrate an unprecedented division of hegemonic functions between China and the US, whereby Beijing becomes the world’s economic hegemon, leaving Washington the world’s military hegemon and security guarantor. While consensus points to China being the main driver of unipolarity’s rupturing, the debate among bifurcationists is on the location of the first rupture. In this regard, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has seen increasing Chinese foreign direct investment in recent years while that to other regions has declined, ranking it second in 2018 as part of the financing for the Maritime Silk Road Initiative (MSRI). China has also become the top trade partner of 11 states in the MENA region, as well as its top source of machine imports, surpassing the US and achieving an overall trade surplus almost double that of Washington’s. These are among other features outlined in world-systems analysis (WSA) literature which correspond with the emergence of a new hegemon. WSA is further utilized to gauge other facets of China’s increasing involvement in MENA and assess whether bifurcation is unfolding therein. These features of hegemony include the adoption of China’s modi operandi, economic dominance in production, trade, and finance, military capacity, cultural hegemony in ideology, education, and language, and the promotion of a general interest around which to rally potential peripheries (MENA states in this case). China’s modi operandi has seen some adoption with regards to support against the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, oil bonds denominated in the yuan, and financial institutions such as the Shanghai Gold Exchange enjoying increasing Arab patronage. However, recent elections in Qatar, as well as liberal reforms in Saudi Arabia, demonstrate Washington’s stronger normative influence. Meanwhile, Washington’s economic dominance is challenged by China’s sizable machine exports, increasing overall imports, and widening trade surplus, but retains some clout via dominant arms and transport exports, as well as free-trade deals across the region. Militarily, Washington bests Beijing’s arms exports, has a dominant and well-established presence in the region, and successfully blocked Beijing’s attempt to penetrate through the UAE. Culturally, Beijing enjoys higher favorability in Arab public opinion, and its broadcast networks have found some resonance with Arab audiences. In education, the West remains MENA students’ preferred destination. Further, while Mandarin has become increasingly available in schools across MENA, its usage and availability still lag far behind English. Finally, Beijing’s general interest in infrastructure provision and prioritizing economic development over social justice and democracy provides an avenue for increased incorporation between Beijing and the MENA region. The overall analysis shows solid progress towards bifurcation in MENA.

Keywords: belt and road initiative, hegemony, Middle East and North Africa, world-systems analysis

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54 Analyzing the Perception of Students and Faculty Members on Social Media Use in Academic Activities: A Case Study of Beijing Normal University

Authors: Mcjerry A. Bekoe, Emile Uwamahoro

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Social media has become the order of the day, in particular among the youth. It is widely used both formally and informally in the university communities with varied definitions both in the academic circles and in the public domain. In simple terms, it is a media upon which social interactions are carried. In this work social media denote mobile phones, and web-base applications use by students and institutions to construct, partake, and distribute both existing and new information in a digital setting through internet communication. The basic aim of conducting this study was to analyze the perception of students and faculty members Beijing Normal University on social media use in the academic setting and to contribute to the understanding of how university students use social media, the advantages and disadvantages of social media in education. The study was qualitative and employed open-ended interview questions developed to seek students’ perception of the effects of social media and administered based on purposive sampling. Document analysis was also done because of triangulation to ensure validity and reliability. The results show there are positive and negative impacts of social media use depending on how one uses it. Social media have the capability to become a priceless asset to aid their educational communication.

Keywords: academics, high education, interactions, social media

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53 A History of Taiwan’s Secret Nuclear Program

Authors: Hsiao-ting Lin

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This paper analyzes the history of Taiwan’s secret program to develop its nuclear weapons during the Cold War. In July 1971, US President Richard Nixon shocked the world when he announced that his national security adviser Henry Kissinger had made a secret trip to China and that he himself had accepted an invitation to travel to Beijing. This huge breakthrough in the US-PRC relationship was followed by Taipei’s loss of political legitimacy and international credibility as a result of its UN debacle in the fall that year. Confronted with the Nixon White House’s opening to the PRC, leaders in Taiwan felt being betrayed and abandoned, and they were obliged to take countermeasures for the sake of national interest and regime survival. Taipei’s endeavor to create an effective nuclear program, including the possible development of nuclear weapons capabilities, fully demonstrates the government’s resolution to pursue its own national policy, even if such a policy was guaranteed to undermine its relations with the United States. With hindsight, Taiwan’s attempt to develop its own nuclear weapons did not succeed in sabotaging the warming of US-PRC relations. Worse, it was forced to come to a full stop when, in early 1988, the US government pressured Taipei to close related facilities and programs on the island. However, Taiwan’s abortive attempt to develop its nuclear capability did influence Washington’s and Beijing’s handling of their new relationship. There did develop recognition of a common American and PRC interest in avoiding a nuclearized Taiwan. From this perspective, Beijing’s interests would best be served by allowing the island to remain under loose and relatively benign American influence. As for the top leaders on Taiwan, such a policy choice demonstrated how they perceived the shifting dynamics of international politics in the 1960s and 1970s and how they struggled to break free and pursue their own independent national policy within the rigid framework of the US-Taiwan alliance during the Cold War.

Keywords: taiwan, richard nixon, nuclear program, chiang Kai-shek, chiang ching-kuo

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52 Study on the Characteristics of Chinese Urban Network Space from the Perspective of Innovative Collaboration

Authors: Wei Wang, Yilun Xu

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With the development of knowledge economy era, deepening the mechanism of cooperation and adhering to sharing and win-win cooperation has become new direction of urban development nowadays. In recent years, innovative collaborations between cities are becoming more and more frequent, whose influence on urban network space has aroused many scholars' attention. Taking 46 cities in China as the research object, the paper builds the connectivity of innovative network between cities and the linkages of urban external innovation using patent cooperation data among cities, and explores urban network space in China by the application of GIS, which is a beneficial exploration to the study of social network space in China in the era of information network. The result shows that the urban innovative network space and geographical entity space exist differences, and the linkages of external innovation are not entirely related to the city innovative capacity and the level of economy development. However, urban innovative network space and geographical entity space are similar in hierarchical clustering. They have both formed Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta three metropolitan areas and Beijing-Shenzhen-Shanghai-Hangzhou four core cities, which lead the development of innovative network space in China.

Keywords: innovative collaboration, urban network space, the connectivity of innovative network, the linkages of external innovation

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51 Regional Barriers and Opportunities for Developing Innovation Networks in the New Media Industry: A Comparison between Beijing and Bangalore Regional Innovation Systems

Authors: Cristina Chaminade, Mandar Kulkarni, Balaji Parthasarathy, Monica Plechero

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The characteristics of a regional innovation system (RIS) and the specificity of the knowledge base of an industry may contribute to create peculiar paths for innovation and development of firms’ geographic extended innovation networks. However, the relative empirical evidence in emerging economies remains underexplored. The paper aims to fill the research gap by means of some recent qualitative research conducted in 2016 in Beijing (China) and Bangalore (India). It analyzes cases studies of firms in the new media industry, a sector that merges different IT competences with competences from other knowledge domains and that is emerging in those RIS. The results show that while in Beijing the new media sector results to be more in line with the existing institutional setting and governmental goals aimed at targeting specific social aspects and social problems of the population, in Bangalore it remains a more spontaneous firms-led process. In Beijing what matters for the development of innovation networks is the governmental setting and the national and regional strategies to promote science and technology in this sector, internet and mass innovation. The peculiarities of recent governmental policies aligned to the domestic goals may provide good possibilities for start-ups to develop innovation networks. However, due to the specificities of those policies targeting the Chinese market, networking outside the domestic market are not so promoted. Moreover, while some institutional peculiarities, such as a culture of collaboration in the region, may be favorable for local networking, regulations related to Internet censorship may limit the use of global networks particularly when based on virtual spaces. Mainly firms with already some foreign experiences and contact take advantage of global networks. In Bangalore, the role of government in pushing networking for the new media industry at the present stage is quite absent at all geographical levels. Indeed there is no particular strategic planning or prioritizing in the region toward the new media industry, albeit one industrial organization has emerged to represent the animation industry interests. This results in a lack of initiatives for sustaining the integration of complementary knowledge into the local portfolio of IT specialization. Firms actually involved in the new media industry face institutional constrains related to a poor level of local trust and cooperation, something that does not allow for full exploitation of local linkages. Moreover, knowledge-provider organizations in Bangalore remain still a solid base for the IT domain, but not for other domains. Initiatives to link to international networks seem therefore more the result of individual entrepreneurial actions aimed at acquiring complementary knowledge and competencies from different domains and exploiting potentiality in different markets. From those cases, it emerges that role of government, soft institutions and organizations in the two RIS differ substantially in the creation of barriers and opportunities for the development of innovation networks and their specific aim.

Keywords: regional innovation system, emerging economies, innovation network, institutions, organizations, Bangalore, Beijing

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50 China's New "Pivots" in the Indian Ocean: Towards "String of Pearls" Strategy 2.0

Authors: Mike Chia-Yu Huang

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China’s port facility construction projects in the Indian Ocean (IO) region, Gwadar Port and Djibouti Port projects in particular, have led to a heated debate among both Chinese and Western strategists over whether the country has literally been carrying out its “string of pearls” strategy, an alleged Chinese plan to challenge America’s military predominance in South Asia. Even though the Chinese government repeatedly denied the existence of such a strategy and highlighted the civilian/commercial nature of its port projects, it has significantly enhanced its strategic cooperation with littoral countries in the IO region since the “One Belt One Road” initiative was introduced by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. Whether China does have a plan to expand its sphere of military influence westward concerns the balance of power in the IO region. If the answer is positive, the security environment there will be changed drastically. This paper argues that rather than simply copying the U.S. model of developing overseas military bases along the IO periphery, Beijing has been deliberating a more sophisticated plan for its physical presence there: creating a new set of “overseas strategic pivots.” These “pivots,” semi-military and semi-commercial in nature, are designed to help Beijing sustain its anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden and serve as forward stations for the transportation of China’s imported energy and merchandise. They can support the Chinese Navy’s operations overseas but are not supposed to undertake face-to-face combat missions. This upgraded Chinese scheme can be identified as “string of pearls” strategy 2.0. Moreover, it is expected to help China deepen its roots in the IO region, implying that Beijing has to a large extent scratched its old diplomatic philosophy which highlighted the merits of non-interference and nonalignment. While a full-scale maritime confrontation between China and the U.S.-India security alliance is unlikely to be witnessed in the near future, an ambitious Chinese plan to step into the global maritime domain has been evidently shown.

Keywords: Chinese navy, Djibouti, Gwadar, Indian Ocean, string of pearls strategy

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49 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin

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Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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48 High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth from Geostationary Satellite Using Sara Algorithm

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Zhongfeng Qiu

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Aerosols, suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in the earth energy budget, climate change, degradation of atmospheric visibility, urban air quality, and human health. To fully understand aerosol effects, retrieval of aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) at high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Therefore, in the present study, hourly AOD observations at 500 m resolution were retrieved from the geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) using the simplified aerosol retrieval algorithm (SARA) over the urban area of Beijing for the year 2016. The SARA requires top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, solar and sensor geometry information and surface reflectance observations to retrieve an accurate AOD. For validation of the GOCI retrieved AOD, AOD measurements were obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) version 3 level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality assured) data. The errors and uncertainties were reported using the root mean square error (RMSE), relative percent mean error (RPME), and the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15AOD). Results showed that the high spatiotemporal GOCI AOD observations were well correlated with the AERONET AOD measurements with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.92, RMSE of 0.07, and RPME of 5%, and 90% of the observations were within the EE. The results suggested that the SARA is robust and has the ability to retrieve high-resolution spatiotemporal AOD observations over the urban area using the geostationary satellite.

Keywords: AEORNET, AOD, SARA, GOCI, Beijing

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47 A Novel Hybrid Deep Learning Architecture for Predicting Acute Kidney Injury Using Patient Record Data and Ultrasound Kidney Images

Authors: Sophia Shi

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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the sudden onset of kidney damage in which the kidneys cannot filter waste from the blood, requiring emergency hospitalization. AKI patient mortality rate is high in the ICU and is virtually impossible for doctors to predict because it is so unexpected. Currently, there is no hybrid model predicting AKI that takes advantage of two types of data. De-identified patient data from the MIMIC-III database and de-identified kidney images and corresponding patient records from the Beijing Hospital of the Ministry of Health were collected. Using data features including serum creatinine among others, two numeric models using MIMIC and Beijing Hospital data were built, and with the hospital ultrasounds, an image-only model was built. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) were used, VGG and Resnet for numeric data and Resnet for image data, and they were combined into a hybrid model by concatenating feature maps of both types of models to create a new input. This input enters another CNN block and then two fully connected layers, ending in a binary output after running through Softmax and additional code. The hybrid model successfully predicted AKI and the highest AUROC of the model was 0.953, achieving an accuracy of 90% and F1-score of 0.91. This model can be implemented into urgent clinical settings such as the ICU and aid doctors by assessing the risk of AKI shortly after the patient’s admission to the ICU, so that doctors can take preventative measures and diminish mortality risks and severe kidney damage.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury, Convolutional neural network, Hybrid deep learning, Patient record data, ResNet, Ultrasound kidney images, VGG

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46 Analysis of Underground Logistics Transportation Technology and Planning Research: Based on Xiong'an New Area, China

Authors: Xia Luo, Cheng Zeng

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Under the promotion of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council in 2017, Xiong'an New Area is the third crucial new area in China established after Shenzhen and Shanghai. Its constructions' significance lies in mitigating Beijing's non-capital functions and exploring a new mode of optimizing development in densely populated and economically intensive areas. For this purpose, developing underground logistics can assume the role of goods distribution in the capital, relieve the road transport pressure in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration, adjust and optimize the urban layout and spatial structure of it. Firstly, the construction planning of Xiong'an New Area and underground logistics development are summarized, especially the development status abroad, the development trend, and bottlenecks of underground logistics in China. This paper explores the technicality, feasibility, and necessity of four modes of transportation. There are pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) technology, the CargoCap technology, cable hauled mule, and automatic guided vehicle (AGV). The above technical parameters and characteristics are introduced to relevant experts or scholars. Through establishing an indicator system, carrying out a questionnaire survey with the Delphi method, the final suggestion is obtained: China should develop logistics vehicles similar to CargoCap, adopting rail mode and driverless mode. Based on China's temporal and spatial logistics demand and the geographical pattern of Xiong'an New Area, the construction scale, technical parameters, node location, and other vital parameters of underground logistics are planned. In this way, we hope to speed up the new area's construction and the logistics industry's innovation.

Keywords: the Xiong'an new area, underground logistics, contrastive analysis, CargoCap, logistics planning

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45 China-Pakistan Nexus and Its Implication for India

Authors: Riddhi Chopra

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While China’s friendship with a number of countries has waxed and waned over the decades, Sino-Pak relationship is said to have withstood the vicissitudes of larger international politics as well as changes in regional and domestic currents. Pakistan, one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China, thus providing China with a corridor into the energy rich Muslim states which was reciprocated with a continual stream of no-strings-attached military hardware and defense-related assistance from Beijing. The joint enmity towards India also provided the initial thrust to a burgeoning Sino-Pak friendship. This paper intends to provide a profound analysis of the strategic relation between China-Pakistan and examine India as a determining factor. The Pakistan-China strategic relationship has been conventionally viewed by India as a zero sum game, wherein any gains accrued by Pakistan or China through their partnership is seen as a direct detriment to the evolution of India-Pakistan or India-China relation. The paper evaluates various factors which were crucial for the synthesis of such a strong relation and presents a comprehensive study of the various policies and programs that have been undertaken by the two countries to tie India to South Asia and reduce its sphere of influence. The geographic dynamics is said to breed a natural coalition, dominating the strategic ambitions of both Beijing and Islamabad hence directing their relationship. In addition to the obvious geopolitical factors, there are several dense collaborations between the two nations knitting a relatively close partnership. Moreover, an attempt has been made to assess the irritants in China-Pak relations and the initiatives taken by the two to further strengthen it. Current trends in diplomatic, economic and defense cooperation – along with the staunch affinity rooted in history and consistent geo-strategic interests – points to a strong and strengthening relationship, significant in directing India’s foreign and security policies. This paper seeks to analyze the changing power dynamics of the China-Pak nexus with external actors such as US and India with an ulterior motive of their own and predict the change in power dynamics between the four countries.

Keywords: China, Pakistan, India, strategy

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44 Biological Control of Woolly Apple Aphid, Eriosoma Lanigerum (Hausmann) in the Nursery Production of Spruce

Authors: Snezana Rajkovic, Miroslava Markovic, Ljubinko Rakonjac, Aleksandar Lucic, Radoslav Rajkovic

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Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) is a widely distributed pest of apple trees, especially where its parasites have been killed by insecticides. It can also be found on pear, hawthorn, mountain ash, and elm trees. Relatively small to medium-sized aphids, characterized by a reddish-brown body, a blood-red stain when crushed and a fluffy, flocculent wax covering. Specialized dermal glands produce the characteristic fluffy or powdery wax, which gives E. lanigerum its characteristic 'woolly' appearance. Also, woolly apple aphid is a problemm in nursery production of spure.The experiments were carried out in the nursery “Nevade” in Gornji Milanovac, "Srbijasume" on the spruce seedlings, aged 2 years. In this study, organic insecticide King Bo, aqueous solution (a. i. oxymatrine 0.2% + psoralen 0.4%), manufacturer Beijing Kingbo Biotech Co. Ltd., Beijing, China. extracted from plants and used as pesticides in nursery production were investigated. King Bo, bioinsecticide is manufactured from refined natural herbal extract several wild medicinal plants, such as Sophora flavescens Ait, Veratrum nigrum L, A. Carmichael, etc. Oxymatrine 2.4 SL is a stomach poison that has antifeeding and repellent action. This substance stimulates development and growth in a host plant and also controls the appearance of downy mildew.The trials were set according to instructions of methods-monitoring of changes in the number of larvae and adults compared to before treatment. The treatment plan was made according to fully randomized block design. The experiment was conducted in four repetitions. The basic plot had the area of 25 m2. Phytotoxicity was estimated by PP methods 1/135 (2), the intensity of infection according to Towsend-Heuberger, the efficiency by Abbott, the analysis of variance with Ducan test and PP/181 (2).

Keywords: bioinsecticide, efficacy, nurssery production, woolly apple aphid

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43 Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Daptomycin

Authors: Ji-Chan Jang

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Tuberculosis is still major health problem because there is an increase of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of the disease. Therefore, the most urgent clinical need is to discover potent agents and develop novel drug combination capable of reducing the duration of MDR and XDR tuberculosis therapy. Three reference strains H37Rv, CDC1551, W-Beijing GC1237 and six clinical isolates of MDRTB were tested to daptomycin in the range of 0.013 to 256 mg/L. Daptomycin is resistant to all tested M. tuberculosis strains not only laboratory strains but also clinical MDR strains that were isolated at different source. Daptomycin will not be an antibiotic of choice for treating infection of Gram positive atypical slowly growing M. tuberculosis.

Keywords: tuberculosis, daptomycin, resistance, Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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