Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15079

Search results for: water resources management

15079 Optimizing Inanda Dam Using Water Resources Models

Authors: O. I. Nkwonta, B. Dzwairo, J. Adeyemo, A. Jaiyola, N. Sawyerr, F. Otieno

Abstract:

The effective management of water resources is of great importance to ensure the supply of water resources to support changing water requirements over a selected planning horizon and in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Essentially, the purpose of the water resources planning process is to balance the available water resources in a system with the water requirements and losses to which the system is subjected. In such situations, Water resources yield and planning model can be used to solve those difficulties. It has an advantage over other models by managing model runs, developing a representative system network, modelling incremental sub-catchments, creating a variety of standard system features, special modelling features, and run result output options.

Keywords: complex, water resources, planning, cost effective and management

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
15078 Optimising the Reservoir Operation Using Water Resources Yield and Planning Model at Inanda Dam, uMngeni Basin

Authors: O. Nkwonta, B. Dzwairo, F. Otieno, J. Adeyemo

Abstract:

The effective management of water resources is of great importance to ensure the supply of water resources to support changing water requirements over a selected planning horizon and in a sustainable and cost-effective way. Essentially, the purpose of the water resources planning process is to balance the available water resources in a system with the water requirements and losses to which the system is subjected. In such situations, water resources yield and planning model can be used to solve those difficulties. It has an advantage over other models by managing model runs, developing a representative system network, modelling incremental sub-catchments, creating a variety of standard system features, special modelling features, and run result output options.

Keywords: complex, water resources, planning, cost effective, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
15077 Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses

Authors: Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali, Sven Knutsson

Abstract:

Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an area of 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 million inhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from water shortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. The former includes global warming and water resources policies of neighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement of its water resources. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040. To overcome this problem, prudent water management policies are to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

Keywords: Iraq, Tigris River, Euphrates River, water scarcity, water resources management

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
15076 Application of WebGIS-Based Water Environment Capacity Inquiry and Planning System in Water Resources Management

Authors: Tao Ding, Danjia Yan, Jinye Li, Chao Ren, Xinhua Hu

Abstract:

The paper based on the research background of the current situation of water shortage in China and intelligent management of water resources in the information era. And the paper adopts WebGIS technology, combining the mathematical model of water resources management to develop a WebGIS-based water environment capacity inquiry and polluted water emission planning. The research significance of the paper is that it can inquiry the water environment capacity of Jinhua City in real time and plan how to drain polluted water into the river, so as to realize the effective management of water resources. This system makes sewage planning more convenient and faster. For the planning of the discharge enterprise, the decision on the optimal location of the sewage outlet can be achieved through calculation of the Sewage discharge planning model in the river, without the need for site visits. The system can achieve effective management of water resources and has great application value.

Keywords: sewerage planning, water environment capacity, water resources management, WebGIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
15075 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
15074 Legal Basis for Water Resources Management in Brazil: Case Study of the Rio Grande Basin

Authors: Janaína F. Guidolini, Jean P. H. B. Ometto, Angélica Giarolla, Peter M. Toledo, Carlos A. Valera

Abstract:

The water crisis, a major problem of the 21st century, occurs mainly due to poor management. The central issue that should govern the management is the integration of the various aspects that interfere with the use of water resources and their protection, supported by legal basis. A watershed is a unit of water interacting with the physical, biotic, social, economic and cultural variables. The Brazilian law recognized river basin as the territorial management unit. Based on the diagnosis of the current situation of the water resources of the Rio Grande Basin, a discussion informed in the Brazilian legal basis was made to propose measures to fight or mitigate damages and environmental degradation in the Basin. To manage water resources more efficiently, conserve water and optimize their multiple uses, the integration of acquired scientific knowledge and management is essential. Moreover, it is necessary to monitor compliance with environmental legislation.

Keywords: conservation of soil and water, environmental laws, river basin, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
15073 Geographical Information System for Sustainable Management of Water Resources

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Nino Machavariani, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Chikhradze, Davit Kartvelishvili

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. In the countries with scarce water resources, they often become a reason of armed conflicts. The peaceful settlement of relations connected with management and water consumption issues within and beyond the frontiers of the country is an important guarantee of the region stability. The said problem is urgent in Georgia as well because of its water objects are located at the borders and the transit run-off that is 12% of the total one. Fresh water resources are the major natural resources of Georgia. Despite of this, water supply of population at its Eastern part is an acute issue. Southeastern part of the country has been selected to carry out the research. This region is notable for deficiency of water resources in the country. The region tends to desertification which aggravates fresh water problem even more and presumably may lead to migration of local population from the area. The purpose of study was creation geographical information system (GIS) of water resources. GIS contains almost all layers of different content (water resources, springs, channels, hydrological stations, population water supply, etc.). The results of work provide an opportunity to identify the resource potential of the mentioned region, control and manage it, carry out monitoring and plan regional economy.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, irrigation, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 569
15072 Calculation of Water Economy Balance for Water Management

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Ana Karalashvili, George Geladze, Nana Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia is rich in water resources, but there are disbalance between the eastern and western parts of the country. The goal of the study is to integrate the recent mechanisms compatible with European standards into Georgian water resources management system on the basis of GIS. Moreover, to draw up water economy balance for the purpose of proper determination of water consumption priorities that will be an exchange ratio of water resources and water consumption of the concrete territory. For study region was choose south-eastern part of country, Kvemo kartli Region. This is typical agrarian region, tends to the desertification. The water supply of the region was assessed on the basis of water economy balance, which was first time calculated for this region.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, sustainable management, water management

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
15071 Water Resources Crisis in Saudi Arabia, Challenges and Possible Management Options: An Analytic Review

Authors: A. A. Ghanim

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is heading towards a severe and rapidly expanding water crisis, which can have negative impacts on the country’s environment and economy. Of the total water consumption in KSA, the agricultural sector accounts for nearly 87% of the total water use and, therefore, any attempt that overlooks this sector will not help in improving the sustainability of the country’s water resources. KSA Vision 2030 gives priority of water use in the agriculture sector for the regions that have natural renewable water resources. It means that there is little concern for making reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes in any region in general and in water-scarce regions in particular. The use of treated wastewater is very limited in Saudi Arabia, but it has very considerable potential for future expansion due its numerous beneficial uses. This study reviews the current situation of water resources in Saudi Arabia, providing more highlights on agriculture and wastewater reuse. The reviewed study is proposing some corrective measures for development and better management of water resources in the Kingdom. Suggestions also include consideration of treated water as an alternative source for irrigation in some regions of the country. The study concluded that a sustainable solution for the water crisis in KSA requires implementation of multiple measures in an integrated manner. The integrated solution plan should focus on two main directions: first, improving the current management practices of the existing water resources; second, developing new water supplies from both conventional and non-conventional sources.

Keywords: Saudia Arabia, water resources, water crises, wastewater reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
15070 Assessment of Water Resources and Inculcation of Controlled Water Consumption System

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Vajha Neidze, Nana Kvirkvelia, Tamar Chichinadze

Abstract:

Deficiency of fresh water is a vital global problem today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia has signed the association agreement with Euro Union last year where the priority spheres of cooperation are the management of water resources, development of trans-boundary approach to the problem and active participation in the “Euro Union water initiative” component of “the East Europe, Caucasus and the Central Asia”. Fresh water resources are the main natural wealth of Georgia. According to the average water layer height, Georgia is behind such European countries only as Norway, Switzerland and Austria. The annual average water provision of Georgia is 4-8 times higher than in its neighbor countries Armenia and Azerbaijan. Despite abundant water resources in Georgia, there is considerable discrepancy between their volume and use in some regions because of the uneven territorial distribution. In the East Georgia, water supply of the territory and population is four times less than in the West Georgia.

Keywords: GIS, water consumption, water management, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
15069 Importance of Determining the Water Needs of Crops in the Management of Water Resources in the Province of Djelfa

Authors: Imessaoudene Y., Mouhouche B., Sengouga A., Kadir M.

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to determine the virtual water of main crops grown in the province of Djelfa and water use efficiency (W.U.E.), Which is essential to approach the application and better integration with the offer in the region. In the case of agricultural production, virtual water is the volume of water evapo-transpired by crops. It depends on particular on the expertise of its producers and its global production area, warm and dry climates induce higher consumption. At the scale of the province, the determination of the quantities of virtual water is done by calculating the unit water requirements related to water irrigated hectare and total rainfall over the crop using the Cropwat 8.0 F.A.O. software. Quantifying the volume of agricultural virtual water of crops practiced in the study area demonstrates the quantitative importance of these volumes of water in terms of available water resources in the province, so the advantages which can be the concept of virtual water as an analysis tool and decision support for the management and distribution of water in scarcity situation.

Keywords: virtual water, water use efficiency, water requirements, Djelfa

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
15068 The Role of Bridging Stakeholder in Water Management: Examining Social Networks in Working Groups and Co-Management

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani

Abstract:

Comprehensive water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social sustainability of water resources for future generations. Integrated water management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers and decision makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach according to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of water resources. Therefore, social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental base decisions. The linkage of diverse sets of actors and knowledge systems across management levels and institutional boundaries often poses one of the greatest challenges in adaptive water management. Bridging stakeholder can facilitate interactions among actors in management settings by lowering the transaction costs of collaboration. This research examines how network connections between group members affect in co- management. Cohesive network structures allow groups to more effectively achieve their goals and objectives Strong; centralized leadership is a better predictor of working group success in achieving goals and objectives. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on between centrality index have a key and bridging actor in recognition of cooperative management of water resources in Darbandsar village and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition to organization and implementation of sustainable management of water resources and water security.

Keywords: co-management, water management, social network, bridging stakeholder, darbandsar village

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
15067 Some Aspects of Water Resources Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions, Case Study of Western Iran

Authors: Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

Abstract:

Water resource management is of global significance as it plays a key role in the socioeconomic development of all nations. On account of the fact that Iran is situated in a highly pressurized belt in the world, precipitation is limited, so that the average annual precipitation in the country is about 250 mm, only about one third to one quarter of the world average for rainfall. Karkheh basin is located in the semiarid and arid regions of Western Iran, an area with severe water scarcity. 70 % of rainfall is directly evaporated. The potential annual evaporation of the southern and northern regions is 3,600 mm 1,800 mm, respectively. In this paper, Some aspects of water resources management for this region, the specifications of the Karkheh reservoir dam & hydroelectric power plant as the biggest dam in history of Iran with total volume of reservoir 7.3 Bm3 are illustrated. Also the situation of water availability in the basin, surface and groundwater potential are considered.

Keywords: Iran, water availability, water resources, Zagros

Procedia PDF Downloads 551
15066 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community

Authors: Aishath Shakeela

Abstract:

At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.

Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
15065 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi

Abstract:

As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
15064 Strategic Management for Corporate Social Responsibility in Colombian Industries: A Typology of CSR

Authors: Iris Maria Velez Osorio

Abstract:

There has been in the last decade a concern about the environment, particularly about clean and enough water for human consumption but, some enterprises had some trouble to understand the limited resources in the environment. This research tries to understand how some industries are better oriented to the preservation of the environment through investment for strategic management of scarce resources and try in the best way possible, the contaminants. It was made an industry classification since four different group of theories for Corporate Social Responsibility agree with variables of: investment in environmental care, water protection, and residues treatment finding different levels of commitment with CSR.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, environment, strategic management, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
15063 Validation of SWAT Model for Prediction of Water Yield and Water Balance: Case Study of Upstream Catchment of Jebba Dam in Nigeria

Authors: Adeniyi G. Adeogun, Bolaji F. Sule, Adebayo W. Salami, Michael O. Daramola

Abstract:

Estimation of water yield and water balance in a river catchment is critical to the sustainable management of water resources at watershed level in any country. Therefore, in the present study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) interfaced with Geographical Information System (GIS) was applied as a tool to predict water balance and water yield of a catchment area in Nigeria. The catchment area, which was 12,992km2, is located upstream Jebba hydropower dam in North central part of Nigeria. In this study, data on the observed flow were collected and compared with simulated flow using SWAT. The correlation between the two data sets was evaluated using statistical measures, such as, Nasch-Sucliffe Efficiency (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). The model output shows a good agreement between the observed flow and simulated flow as indicated by NSE and R2, which were greater than 0.7 for both calibration and validation period. A total of 42,733 mm of water was predicted by the calibrated model as the water yield potential of the basin for a simulation period 1985 to 2010. This interesting performance obtained with SWAT model suggests that SWAT model could be a promising tool to predict water balance and water yield in sustainable management of water resources. In addition, SWAT could be applied to other water resources in other basins in Nigeria as a decision support tool for sustainable water management in Nigeria.

Keywords: GIS, modeling, sensitivity analysis, SWAT, water yield, watershed level

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
15062 Fuzzy Neuro Approach for Integrated Water Management System

Authors: Stuti Modi, Aditi Kambli

Abstract:

This paper addresses the need for intelligent water management and distribution system in smart cities to ensure optimal consumption and distribution of water for drinking and sanitation purposes. Water being a limited resource in cities require an effective system for collection, storage and distribution. In this paper, applications of two mostly widely used particular types of data-driven models, namely artificial neural networks (ANN) and fuzzy logic-based models, to modelling in the water resources management field are considered. The objective of this paper is to review the principles of various types and architectures of neural network and fuzzy adaptive systems and their applications to integrated water resources management. Final goal of the review is to expose and formulate progressive direction of their applicability and further research of the AI-related and data-driven techniques application and to demonstrate applicability of the neural networks, fuzzy systems and other machine learning techniques in the practical issues of the regional water management. Apart from this the paper will deal with water storage, using ANN to find optimum reservoir level and predicting peak daily demands.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuzzy systems, peak daily demand prediction, water management and distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
15061 Social Network Analysis, Social Power in Water Co-Management (Case Study: Iran, Shemiranat, Jirood Village)

Authors: Fariba Ebrahimi, Mehdi Ghorbani, Ali Salajegheh

Abstract:

Comprehensively water management considers economic, environmental, technical and social and also sustainability of water resources for future generations. Grassland management implies cooperative approach and involves all stakeholders and also introduces issues to managers, decision and policy makers. Solving these issues needs integrated and system approach. According to the recognition of actors or key persons in necessary to apply cooperative management of Water. Therefore, based on stakeholder analysis and social network analysis can be used to demonstrate the most effective actors for environmental decisions. In this research, social powers according are specified to social network approach at Water utilizers’ level of Natural in Jirood catchment of Latian basin. In this paper, utilizers of water resources were recognized using field trips and then, trust and collaboration matrix produced using questionnaires. In the next step, degree centrality index were Examined. Finally, geometric position of each actor was illustrated in the network. The results of the research based on centrality index have a key role in recognition of cooperative management of Water in Jirood and also will help managers and planners of water in the case of recognition of social powers in order to organization and implementation of sustainable management of Water.

Keywords: social network analysis, water co-management, social power, centrality index, local stakeholders network, Jirood catchment

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
15060 An Overview of Water Governance and Management in the Philippines: Some Key Findings

Authors: Sahara Piang Brahim

Abstract:

This paper looks at the current state of water governance in the Philippines. It is mainly descriptive and relies on an analysis of secondary data gathered during the author’s fieldwork as well as those found in available scholarly literature, legal and government policy documents, reports and publicly available information on the official websites of government agencies and departments. This paper finds that despite the Philippines having relatively abundant water resources due to its topographical characteristics, it is facing a number of water-related problems, including the availability of water supply in light of growing water demand, increasing population and urbanization as well as climate change. Another key finding is that the sheer number of agencies, which have overlapping legal mandates and functions in relation to water governance and management, make coordination, planning and data collection difficult especially since they are neither vertically nor horizontally integrated. These findings have obvious implications for water policy and governance in the country. This study also finds that 'predict and control' characterizes the government’s approach to water resources management and allocation. This paper argues that taking such an approach and the existing institutional context into account is quite relevant not only in terms of making sense of how decision-making and policymaking take place but also when contemplating the kinds of alternative governance arrangements that could address water-related issues and challenges and that might work 'best' in the Philippines.

Keywords: Philippines, water governance, water issues, water policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
15059 Outcome-Based Water Resources Management in the Gash River Basin, Eastern Sudan

Authors: Muna Mohamed Omer Mirghani

Abstract:

This paper responds to one of the key national development strategies and a typical challenge in the Gash Basin as well as in different parts of Sudan, namely managing water scarcity in view of climate change impacts in minor water systems sustaining over 50% of the Sudan population. While now focusing on the Gash river basin, the ultimate aim is to replicate the same approach in similar water systems in central and west Sudan. The key objective of the paper is the identification of outcome-based water governance interventions in Gash Basin, guided by the global Sustainable Development Goal six (SDG 6 on water and sanitation) and the Sudan water resource policy framework. The paper concluded that improved water resources management of the Gash Basin is a prerequisite for ensuring desired policy outcomes of groundwater use and flood risk management purposes. Analysis of various water governance dimensions in the Gash indicated that the operationalization of a Basin-level institutional reform is critically focused on informed actors and adapted practices through knowledge and technologies along with the technical data and capacity needed to make that. Adapting the devolved Institutional structure at state level is recommended to strengthen the Gash basin regulatory function and improve compliance of groundwater users.

Keywords: water governance, Gash Basin, integrated groundwater management, Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
15058 The Impact of Water Resources on Economic and Social Development in Kuwait

Authors: Obaid Alotaibi

Abstract:

The geographical location of the State of Kuwait contributed significantly to the suffering of Kuwait in the past, due to the scarcity of natural water resources and the inability of the State's financial resources to provide other water resources to meet the needs of the population. The problem of water scarcity in Kuwait remained until the beginning of the second half of the twentieth century, as the country's economic conditions revived with the emergence and export of oil; which was clearly reflected in the steady growth of the population. To cope with this population, increase, it was necessary to expand the various development programs to include all sectors of the state. The process of development and urbanization could not start without finding solutions to the problem of water shortage in Kuwait. The only option for officials to meet the needs of the population and the different sectors of water development is the desalination of seawater. This process necessitated the establishment of six desalination plants along the coast of Kuwait and extended freshwater arteries to reach everywhere on the land. However, this does not mean that the problem of water shortage has been completely solved. The desalination plants are not meeting the country's future water needs, especially considering the increasing population growth. These stations are nearing completion and they need to be replaced, renovation and maintenance, require significant expenses. Therefore, it was necessary for scientific research to address the issue of water in Kuwait, whether in the field of development of existing resources or in the field of rationalization of consumption and protection of available resources. The study focused on how to address the increasing demand for water resulting from population increase, the impact of water on economic and social development, the prospects of water resources in Kuwait and its ability to meet the needs of the country by 2030.

Keywords: economic, development, Kuwait, social, water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
15057 Water Education in the Middle East: Case Study of Iran and Turkey

Authors: Seyedeh Zahra Seyed Sharifi, M. R. M. Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Due to increase of population and healthy food demand, management and conservation of water resources have become one of the main concerns of governments, scientists and economists. In recent years, Iran has exposed to water scarcity as a result of which its rivers, lakes and wetlands have dried up or are in the drying process. Therefore, water crisis has become the most important environmental issue in the country. Under these circumstances, increasing public awareness by promoting their culture as well as public collaboration to protect water resources could only be possible by making courses to reflect water importance. This could be approached by school and high-school students to learn optimum use of water resources. This study initially focuses on the current position of water courses in levels of school and high-school educations in Iran and Turkey and then deals with the challenges to be faced for the promotion of the system. The course titles and number of pages related to water in all primary and secondary textbooks of the education system of Iran and Turkey were determined using content analysis method and the results were presented. The results indicate that primary and secondary textbooks in both countries must focus on water shortage and water protection and teach children the optimum use of water in order to promote water protection.

Keywords: educational system, environmental awareness, Iran, Turkey, water crisis

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
15056 A Review on Applications of Evolutionary Algorithms to Reservoir Operation for Hydropower Production

Authors: Nkechi Neboh, Josiah Adeyemo, Abimbola Enitan, Oludayo Olugbara

Abstract:

Evolutionary algorithms are techniques extensively used in the planning and management of water resources and systems. It is useful in finding optimal solutions to water resources problems considering the complexities involved in the analysis. River basin management is an essential area that involves the management of upstream, river inflow and outflow including downstream aspects of a reservoir. Water as a scarce resource is needed by human and the environment for survival and its management involve a lot of complexities. Management of this scarce resource is necessary for proper distribution to competing users in a river basin. This presents a lot of complexities involving many constraints and conflicting objectives. Evolutionary algorithms are very useful in solving this kind of complex problems with ease. Evolutionary algorithms are easy to use, fast and robust with many other advantages. Many applications of evolutionary algorithms, which are population based search algorithm, are discussed. Different methodologies involved in the modeling and simulation of water management problems in river basins are explained. It was found from this work that different evolutionary algorithms are suitable for different problems. Therefore, appropriate algorithms are suggested for different methodologies and applications based on results of previous studies reviewed. It is concluded that evolutionary algorithms, with wide applications in water resources management, are viable and easy algorithms for most of the applications. The results suggested that evolutionary algorithms, applied in the right application areas, can suggest superior solutions for river basin management especially in reservoir operations, irrigation planning and management, stream flow forecasting and real-time applications. The future directions in this work are suggested. This study will assist decision makers and stakeholders on the best evolutionary algorithm to use in varied optimization issues in water resources management.

Keywords: evolutionary algorithm, multi-objective, reservoir operation, river basin management

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
15055 Investigating the Behavior of Water Shortage Indices for Performance Evaluation of a Water Resources System

Authors: Frederick N. F. Chou, Nguyen Thi Thuy Linh

Abstract:

The impact of water shortages has been increasingly severe as a consequence of population growth, urbanization, economic development, and climate change. The need for improvements in reliable water supply systems is urgent with the increasing living standards of regions. In this study, a suitable shortage index capable of multi-aspect description - frequency, magnitude, and duration - is adopted to more accurately describe the characteristics of a shortage situation. The values of the index were determined to cope with the increasing need for reliability. There are four reservoirs in series located on the Be River of the Dong Nai River Basin in Southern Vietnam. The primary purpose of the three upstream reservoirs is hydropower generation while the primary purpose of the fourth is water supply. A compromise between hydropower generation and water supply can be negotiated for these four reservoirs to reduce the severity of water shortages. A generalized water allocation model was applied to simulate the water supply, and hydropower generation of various management alternatives and the system’s reliability was evaluated using the adopted multiple shortage indices. Modifying management policies of water resources using data-based indexes can improve the reliability of water supply.

Keywords: cascade reservoirs, hydropower, shortage index, water supply

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
15054 Evaluating the Impact of Future Scenarios on Water Availability and Demand Based on Stakeholders Prioritized Water Management Options in the Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia

Authors: Adey Nigatu Mersha, Ilyas Masih, Charlotte de Fraiture, Tena Alamirew

Abstract:

Conflicts over water are increasing mainly as a result of water scarcity in response to higher water demand and climatic variability. There is often not enough water to meet all demands for different uses. Thus, decisions have to be made as to how the available resources can be managed and utilized. Correspondingly water allocation goals, practically national water policy goals, need to be revised accordingly as the pressure on water increases from time to time. A case study is conducted in the Upper Awash Basin, Ethiopia, to assess and evaluate prioritized comprehensive water demand management options based on the framework of integrated water resources management in account of stakeholders’ knowledge and preferences as well as practical prominence within the Upper Awash Basin. Two categories of alternative management options based on policy analysis and stakeholders' consultation were evaluated against the business-as-usual scenario by using WEAP21 model as an analytical tool. Strong effects on future (unmet) demands are observed with major socio-economic assumptions and forthcoming water development plans. Water management within the basin will get more complex with further abstraction which may lead to an irreversible damage to the ecosystem. It is further confirmed through this particular study that efforts to maintain users’ preferences alone cannot insure economically viable and environmentally sound development and vice versa. There is always a tradeoff between these factors. Hence, all of these facets must be analyzed separately, related with each other in equal footing, and ultimately taken up in decision making in order for the whole system to function properly.

Keywords: water demand, water availability, WEAP21, scenarios

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
15053 Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources of Greater Zab and Lesser Zab Basins, Iraq, Using Soil and Water Assessment Tool Model

Authors: Nahlah Abbas, Saleh A. Wasimi, Nadhir Al-Ansari

Abstract:

The Greater Zab and Lesser Zab are the major tributaries of Tigris River contributing the largest flow volumes into the river. The impacts of climate change on water resources in these basins have not been well addressed. To gain a better understanding of the effects of climate change on water resources of the study area in near future (2049-2069) as well as in distant future (2080-2099), Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied. The model was first calibrated for the period from 1979 to 2004 to test its suitability in describing the hydrological processes in the basins. The SWAT model showed a good performance in simulating streamflow. The calibrated model was then used to evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. Six general circulation models (GCMs) from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) under three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 8.5 for periods of 2049-2069 and 2080-2099 were used to project the climate change impacts on these basins. The results demonstrated a significant decline in water resources availability in the future.

Keywords: Tigris River, climate change, water resources, SWAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
15052 The Use of Water Resources Yield Model at Kleinfontein Dam

Authors: Lungile Maliba, O. I. Nkwonta, E Onyari

Abstract:

Water resources development and management are regarded as crucial for poverty reduction in many developing countries and sustainable economic growth such as South Africa. The contribution of large hydraulic infrastructure and management of it, particularly reservoirs, to development remains controversial. This controversy stems from the fact that from a historical point of view construction of reservoirs has brought fewer benefits than envisaged and has resulted in significant environmental and social costs. A further complexity in reservoir management is the variety of stakeholders involved, all with different objectives, including domestic and industrial water use, flood control, irrigation and hydropower generation. The objective was to evaluate technical adaptation options for kleinfontein Dam’s current operating rule curves. To achieve this objective, the current operating rules curves being used in the sub-basin were analysed. An objective methodology was implemented in other to get the operating rules with regards to the target storage curves. These were derived using the Water Resources Yield/Planning Model (WRY/PM), with the aim of maximising of releases to demand zones. The result showed that the system is over allocated and in addition the demands exceed the long-term yield that is available for the system. It was concluded that the current operating rules in the system do not produce the optimum operation such as target storage curves to avoid supply failures in the system.

Keywords: infrastructure, Kleinfontein dam, operating rule curve, water resources yield and planning model

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
15051 Crop Price Variation and Water Saving Technologies in Iran

Authors: Saeed Yazdani, Shahrbanoo Bagheri, Sepideh Nikravesh

Abstract:

Considering the importance and scarcity of water resources, the efficient management of water resources is of great importance. Adoption of modern irrigation technology is considered to be a key of increasing the efficiency of water used in agriculture. Policy makers have implemented several ways to induce the adoption of new irrigation technology. The empirical studies show that farmers are reluctant to utilize the use of new irrigation methods. This study aims to assess factors affecting on farmer’s decision on the application of water saving technologies with emphasize on crop price variation and water sources. A Logit model was employed to examine the impact of different variables on use of water saving technology. The required data gathered from a sample of 204 farmers in the year 2012. The results indicate that different variables such as crop price variability, water supply source, high-value crops, farm size, income, education, membership in cooperatives have a positive effect and variables such as age and number of plots have a negative impact on the probability of adopting modern water saving technologies.

Keywords: irrigation, water, water saving technology, scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
15050 The Influence of Conservation Measures, Limiting Soil Degradation, on the Quality of Surface Water Resources

Authors: V. Sobotková, B. Šarapatka, M. Dumbrovský, J. Uhrová, M. Bednář

Abstract:

The paper deals with the influence of implemented conservation measures on the quality of surface water resources. Recently, a new process of complex land consolidation in the Czech Republic has provided a unique opportunity to improve the quality of the environment and sustainability of crop production by means of better soil and water conservation. The most important degradation factor in our study area in the Hubenov drinking water reservoir catchment basin was water erosion together with loss of organic matter. Hubenov Reservoir water resources were monitored for twenty years (1990–2010) to collect water quality data for nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3-), total P, and undissolved substances. Results obtained from measurements taken before and after land consolidation indicated a decrease in the linear trend of N-NO3- and total P concentrations, this was achieved through implementation of conservation measures limiting soil degradation in the Hubenov reservoir catchment area.

Keywords: complex land consolidation, degradation, land use, soil and water conservation, surface water resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 247