Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1759

Search results for: waste tyres

1759 A Practical Technique of Airless Tyres’ Mold Manufacturing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Mohamed A. Hashem

Abstract:

Dissimilar to pneumatic tyres, airless tyres or flat-proof tyres (also known as tweel) is designed to have poly-composite compound treaded around a hub of flexible spokes. The main advantage of this design is its robustness as airless tyres are impossible to deflate or to blowout at highway speeds like conventional tyres so the driver does not have to be restless about having a spare tire. A summary of the study on manufacturing of airless tyres’ mold is given. Moreover, we have proposed some advantages and disadvantages of using tweel tyres.

Keywords: airless tyres, tweel, non-pneumatic tyres, manufacturing

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1758 Plasma Gasification as a Sustainable Way for Energy Recovery from Scrap Tyre

Authors: Gloria James, S. K. Nema, T. S. Anantha Singh, P. Vadivel Murugan

Abstract:

The usage of tyre has increased enormously in day to day life. The used tyre and rubber products pose major threat to the environment. Conventional thermal techniques such as low temperature pyrolysis and incineration produce high molecular organic compounds (condensed and collected as aromatic oil) and carbon soot particles. Plasma gasification technique can dispose tyre waste and generate combustible gases and avoid the formation of high molecular aromatic compounds. These gases generated in plasma gasification process can be used to generate electricity or as fuel wherever required. Although many experiments have been done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres, very little work has been done on plasma gasification of tyres. In this work plasma gasification of waste tyres have been conducted in a fixed bed reactor having graphite electrodes and direct current (DC) arc plasma system. The output of this work has been compared with the previous work done on plasma pyrolysis of tyres by different authors. The aim of this work is to compare different process based on gas generation, efficiency of the process and explore the most effective option for energy recovery from waste tyres.

Keywords: plasma, gasification, syngas, tyre waste

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1757 Minimize Wear and Tear in Y12 Aircraft Tyres

Authors: N. D. Hiripitiya, H. V. H. De Soysa, H. S. U. Thrimavithana, B. R. Epitawala, K. A. D. D. Kuruppu, D. J. K. Lokupathirage

Abstract:

This research was related to identify the reasons which lead for early wear and tear of aircraft tyres. Further this research focused to rectify those issues in tyres with some modifications. The aircraft tyres of Y12 aircraft was selected for the study as due to Y12 aircraft fly frequently. Self-structured questionnaire was prepared and it was distributed among Y12 aircraft technicians. Based on their feedback several issues were identified related to tyre wear and tear. One of the reasons was uneven tyre wearing. But it could rectify after interchanging the tyre sides after completion of 50 landings. Several modifications were done in order to rectify all the identified issues. Several devices were constructed in order to enhance the life time of the Y12 aircraft tyre. Mechanical properties were measured for the worn-out tyres. The properties were compared with the control tyre sample. It was found that there was an average increment of tensile strength by 38.14 % of control tyre, when compared with the worn-out tyres which were completed 50 number of landings. The suggested modifications are in the process of implementation. It is confident that above mentioned solutions will lead to increase the life span of tyres in Y12 aircraft.

Keywords: aircraft, devices, enhance life span, modifications for tyre wear

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1756 A Novel Approach for Energy Utilisation in a Pyrolysis Plant

Authors: S. Murugan, Bohumil Horak

Abstract:

Pyrolysis is one of the possible technologies to derive energy from waste organic substances. In recent years, pilot level and demonstrated plants have been installed in few countries. The heat energy lost during the process is not effectively utilized resulting in less savings of energy and money. This paper proposes a novel approach to integrate a combined heat and power unit(CHP) and reduce the primary energy consumption in a tyre pyrolysis pilot plant. The proposal primarily uses the micro combined heat and power concept that will help to produce both heat and power in the process.

Keywords: pyrolysis, waste tyres, waste plastics, biomass, waste heat

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1755 Production of Bricks Using Mill Waste and Tyre Crumbs at a Low Temperature by Alkali-Activation

Authors: Zipeng Zhang, Yat C. Wong, Arul Arulrajah

Abstract:

Since automobiles became widely popular around the early 20th century, end-of-life tyres have been one of the major types of waste humans encounter. Every minute, there are considerable quantities of tyres being disposed of around the world. Most end-of-life tyres are simply landfilled or simply stockpiled, other than recycling. To address the potential issues caused by tyre waste, incorporating it into construction materials can be a possibility. This research investigated the viability of manufacturing bricks using mill waste and tyre crumb by alkali-activation at a relatively low temperature. The mill waste was extracted from a brick factory located in Melbourne, Australia, and the tyre crumbs were supplied by a local recycling company. As the main precursor, the mill waste was activated by the alkaline solution, which was comprised of sodium hydroxide (8m) and sodium silicate (liquid). The introduction ratio of alkaline solution (relative to the solid weight) and the weight ratio between sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate was fixed at 20 wt.% and 1:1, respectively. The tyre crumb was introduced to substitute part of the mill waste at four ratios by weight, namely 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The mixture of mill waste and tyre crumbs were firstly dry-mixed for 2 min to ensure the homogeneity, followed by a 2.5-min wet mixing after adding the solution. The ready mixture subsequently was press-moulded into blocks with the size of 109 mm in length, 112.5 mm in width and 76 mm in height. The blocks were cured at 50°C with 95% relative humidity for 2 days, followed by a 110°C oven-curing for 1 day. All the samples were then placed under the ambient environment until the age of 7 and 28 days for testing. A series of tests were conducted to evaluate the linear shrinkage, compressive strength and water absorption of the samples. In addition, the microstructure of the samples was examined via the scanning electron microscope (SEM) test. The results showed the highest compressive strength was 17.6 MPa, found in the 28-day-old group using 5 wt.% tyre crumbs. Such strength has been able to satisfy the requirement of ASTM C67. However, the increasing addition of tyre crumb weakened the compressive strength of samples. Apart from the strength, the linear shrinkage and water absorption of all the groups can meet the requirements of the standard. It is worth noting that the use of tyre crumbs tended to decrease the shrinkage and even caused expansion when the tyre content was over 15 wt.%. The research also found that there was a significant reduction in compressive strength for the samples after water absorption tests. In conclusion, the tyre crumbs have the potential to be used as a filler material in brick manufacturing, but more research needs to be done to tackle the durability problem in the future.

Keywords: bricks, mill waste, tyre crumbs, waste recycling

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1754 Geo-Engineering Properties of Lime Stabilized Expansive Soil with Shredded Waste Tyre

Authors: Upasana Pattnaik, Akshaya Kumar Sabat

Abstract:

The compaction properties, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), soaked California bearing ratio (CBR), hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure of lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes have been discussed in this paper. Shredded waste tyres, passing 4.75 mm Indian Standard (IS) sieve and retained on 75µ IS sieve have been used in the experimental programme. First of all expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes were prepared by adding shredded waste tyre from 0 to 20% at an increment of 5%.Standard Proctor compaction, UCS and soaked CBR tests were conducted on these mixes. The optimum percentage of shredded waste tyre found out was 10%.In the second phase of the experiment, lime was added to sample having optimum percentage of expansive soil and shredded waste tyre from 2 to 6% at an increment of 1%.Compaction, UCS, soaked CBR, hydraulic conductivity, and swelling pressure tests were conducted on lime stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mixes. The optimum percentage of lime for stabilization was found out to be 5%.At the optimum percentage of lime the stabilized expansive soil-shredded waste tyre mix had increased strength, reduced hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure.

Keywords: expansive soil, hydraulic conductivity, lime, shredded waste tyre, soaked california bearing ratio

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1753 Strategies for E-Waste Management: A Literature Review

Authors: Linh Thi Truc Doan, Yousef Amer, Sang-Heon Lee, Phan Nguyen Ky Phuc

Abstract:

During the last few decades, with the high-speed upgrade of electronic products, electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the fastest growing wastes of the waste stream. In this context, more efforts and concerns have already been placed on the treatment and management of this waste. To mitigate their negative influences on the environment and society, it is necessary to establish appropriate strategies for e-waste management. Hence, this paper aims to review and analysis some useful strategies which have been applied in several countries to handle e-waste. Future perspectives on e-waste management are also suggested. The key findings found that, to manage e-waste successfully, it is necessary to establish effective reverse supply chains for e-waste, and raise public awareness towards the detrimental impacts of e-waste. The result of the research provides valuable insights to governments, policymakers in establishing e-waste management in a safe and sustainable manner.

Keywords: e-waste, e-waste management, life cycle assessment, recycling regulations

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1752 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

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1751 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

Abstract:

Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

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1750 Urgent Need for E -Waste Management in Mongolia

Authors: Enkhjargal Bat-Ochir

Abstract:

The global market of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increasing rapidly while the lifespan of these products has become increasingly shorter. So, e-waste is becoming the world’s fastest growing waste stream. E-waste is a huge problem when it’s not properly disposed of, as these devices contain substances that are harmful to the environment and to human health as they contaminate the land, water, and air. This paper tends to highlight e-waste problem and harmful effects and can grasp the extent of the problem and take the necessary measures to solve it in Mongolia and to improve standards and human health.

Keywords: e -waste, recycle, electrical, Mongolia

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1749 Solid Waste Management Policy Implementation in Imus, Cavite

Authors: Michael John S. Maceda

Abstract:

Waste has been a global concern aggravated by climate change. In the case of Imus, Cavite which in the past has little or no regard to waste experienced heavy flooding during August 19, 2013. This event led to a full blown implementation of Municipal Solid Waste Management integrating participation and the use of low-cost technology to reduce the amount of waste generated. The methodology employed by the city of Imus, provided a benchmark in the province of Cavite. Reducing the amount of waste generated and Solid Waste Management Cost.

Keywords: SWM, IMUS, composting, policy

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1748 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu

Abstract:

Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.

Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power density

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1747 The Potential for Recycling Household Wastes Generated from the Residential Areas of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife

Authors: Asaolu Olugbenga Stephen, Afolabi Olusegun Temitope

Abstract:

Lack of proper solid waste management is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and degradation in many cities, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to estimate the quantity of waste generated per capita per day, determine the composition and identify the potentials for recycling of waste generated. Characterization of wastes from selected households in the residential areas was done for over a 7 day period. The weight of each sorted category of waste was recorded in a structured database that calculated the proportion of each waste component. The results indicated that 85.4% of the sampled waste characterized was found to be recyclable; with an estimated average waste generated of 1.82kg/capita/day. The various solid waste fractions were organic (64.6%), plastics (15.6%), metals (9.2%), glass materials (1.6%) and unclassified (8.9%). It was concluded from this study that a large proportion of the waste generated from OAU campus residential area was recyclable and that there is a need to enact policy on waste recycling within the university campus.

Keywords: recycling, household wastes, residential, solid waste management

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1746 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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1745 Sustainable Textiles: Innovation through Waste

Authors: Ananya Mitra Pramanik, Anjali Agrawal

Abstract:

This paper traces the waste produced by the textile industry and evaluates the need for this waste to be reused or repurposed. From ancient times the textile industry has been a prominent part of all the economies of the world. It is famous for traditional as well as mill made fabrics. However the beauty and utility radiated by the textiles are juxtaposed by the piling amount of waste that the whole life cycle of a textile production and disposal entails. Waste happens in stages in a textile life cycle. It can be broadly categorised as pre-consumer and post-consumer waste. This research suggests suitable processes and techniques for channelizing post-industrial waste. It explores the scope of textile waste as a raw material for innovation and design. It discusses the role of designers in using waste to create useful and appealing designs. The paper examines the need of designers to create novel ideas to reuse textiles. This paper is based on secondary research. Most of the information used is taken from books and journals. The DEFRA report 2009 is also consulted for comprehensive data on textile waste percentage.

Keywords: designers, repurposing, textiles, waste

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1744 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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1743 Industrial-Waste Management in Developing Countries: The Case of Algeria

Authors: L. Sefouhi, M. Djebabra

Abstract:

Industrial operations have been accompanied by a problem: industrial waste which may be toxic, ignitable, corrosive or reactive. If improperly managed, this waste can pose dangerous health and environmental consequences. The industrial waste management becomes a real problem for them. The oil industry is an important sector in Algeria, from exploration to development and marketing of hydrocarbons. For this sector, industrial wastes pose a big problem. The aim of the present study is to present in a systematic way the subject of industrial waste from the point-of-view of definitions in engineering and legislation. This analysis is necessary, as many different approaches and we will attempt to diagnose the current management of industrial waste, namely an inventory of deposits and methods of sorting, packing, storage, and a description of the different disposal routes. Thus, a proposal for a reasoned and responsible management of waste by avoiding a shift towards future expenses related to the disposal of such waste, and prevents pollution they cause to the environment.

Keywords: industrial waste, environment, management, pollution, risks

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1742 Municipal Solid Waste Generation Trend in the Metropolitan Cities of the Muslim World

Authors: Farzaneh Fakheri Raof, Abdolkhalegh vadian

Abstract:

One of the most important environmental issues in developing countries is municipal solid waste management. In this context, knowledge of the quantity and composition of solid waste provides the basic information for the optimal management of solid waste. Many studies have been conducted to investigate the impact of economic, social and cultural factors on generation trend of solid waste, however, few of these have addressed the role of religion in the matter. The present study is a field investigation on generation trend of solid waste in Mashhad, a metropolitan city in northeastern Iran. Accordingly, the religious rituals, quantity and composition of municipal solid waste were considered as independent and dependent variables, respectively. For this purpose, the quantity of the solid waste was initially determined. Afterwards, they were classified into 12 groups using the relevant standard methods. The results showed that the production rate of the municipal solid waste was 1,507 tons per day. Composing 65.2% of the whole; the organic materials constitute the largest share of the total municipal solid waste in Mashhad. The obtained results also revealed that there is a positive relationship between waste generation and the months of religious ceremonies so that the greatest amount of waste generated in the city was reported from Ramadan (as a religious month) in a way that it was significantly different from other months.

Keywords: Mashhad, municipal solid waste, religious months, waste composition, organic waste

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1741 Gender Perception on Food Waste within the Household and Community: Case Study in Bandung City, Indonesia

Authors: Gumilar Hadiningrat, Stewart Barr, Jo Little

Abstract:

In Indonesia, the majority of those who manage food waste are women. It is Indonesian culture that women act as household managers. Therefore, women as household managers hold an important role in reducing food waste within households. Meanwhile, in the community, women’s organisations are some of the most active organisations dealing with food waste. Food waste has an increasing profile and is the subject of much global attention and have economic, social and environmental impacts. Reducing food waste will improve future food availability in the context of global population growth and increasing resource scarcity. The aim of this research is to investigate women’s experience and understanding of dealing with food waste in the household and in the community. The research will use an inductive approach using in-depth qualitative methods. In terms of data collection, two methods will be used - questionnaire and interviews. All in all, it could be claimed that women, both within the household and the community in Indonesia, hold an important role in dealing with food waste.

Keywords: community waste management, food waste, gender, household waste, waste management

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1740 Modelling and Simulation of Bioethanol Production from Food Waste Using CHEMCAD Software

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Noluzuko Monakali, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

On a global scale, there is an alarming generation of food waste. Food waste is generated across the food supply chain. Worldwide urbanization, as well as global economic growth, have contributed to this amount of food waste the environment is receiving. Food waste normally ends on illegal dumping sites when not properly disposed, or disposed to landfills. This results in environmental pollution due to inadequate waste management practices. Food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable; hence, it can be utilized for the production of bioethanol, a type of biofuel. In so doing, alternative energy will be created, and the volumes of food waste will be reduced in the process. This results in food waste being seen as a precious commodity in energy generation instead of a pollutant. The main aim of the project was to simulate a biorefinery, using a software called CHEMCAD 7.12. The resulting purity of the ethanol from the simulation was 98.9%, with the feed ratio of 1: 2 for food waste and water. This was achieved by integrating necessary unit operations and optimisation of their operating conditions.

Keywords: fermentation, bioethanol, food waste, hydrolysis, simulation, modelling

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1739 Medical Waste Management in Nigeria: A Case Study

Authors: Y. Y. Babanyara, D. B. Ibrahim, T. Garba

Abstract:

Proper management of medical waste is a crucial issue for maintaining human health and the environment. The waste generated in the hospitals has the potential for spreading infections and causing diseases. The study is aimed at assessing the medical waste management practices in Nigeria. Three instruments, questionnaire administration, in-depth interview and observation method for data collection were adopted in the study. The results revealed that the hospital does not quantify medical waste. Segregation of medical wastes is not conducted according to definite rules and standards. Wheeled trolleys are used for on-site transportation of waste from the points of production to the temporary storage area. Offsite transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by a private waste management company. Small pickups are mainly used to transport waste daily to an off-site area for treatment and disposal. The main treatment method used in the final disposal of infectious waste is incineration. Non-infectious waste is disposed off using land disposal method. The study showed that the hospital does not have a policy and plan in place for managing medical waste. The study revealed number of problems the hospital faces in terms of medical waste management, including; lack of necessary rules, regulations and instructions on the different aspects of collections and disposal of waste, failure to quantify the waste generated in reliable records, lack of use of coloured bags by limiting the bags to only one colour for all waste, the absence of a dedicated waste manager, and no committee responsible for monitoring the management of medical waste. Recommendations are given with the aim of improving medical waste management in the hospital.

Keywords: medical waste, treatment, disposal, public health

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1738 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali

Abstract:

The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

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1737 Current Status and a Forecasting Model of Community Household Waste Generation: A Case Study on Ward 24 (Nirala), Khulna, Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Nazmul Haque, Mahinur Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of the research is to determine the quantity of household waste generated and forecast the future condition of Ward No 24 (Nirala). For performing that, three core issues are focused: (i) the capacity and service area of the dumping stations; (ii) the present waste generation amount per capita per day; (iii) the responsibility of the local authority in the household waste collection. This research relied on field survey-based data collection from all stakeholders and GIS-based secondary analysis of waste collection points and their coverage. However, these studies are mostly based on the inherent forecasting approaches, cannot predict the amount of waste correctly. The findings of this study suggest that Nirala is a formal residential area introducing a better approach to the waste collection - self-controlled and collection system. Here, a forecasting model proposed for waste generation as Y = -2250387 + 1146.1 * X, where X = year.

Keywords: eco-friendly environment, household waste, linear regression, waste management

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1736 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site

Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi

Abstract:

The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.

Keywords: construction-waste, effective management, reduce, reuse

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1735 Polymer in Electronic Waste: An Analysis

Authors: Anis A. Ansari, Aftab A. Ansari

Abstract:

Electronic waste is inundating the traditional solid-waste-disposal facilities, which are inadequately designed to handle and manage such type of new wastes. Since electronic waste contains mostly hazardous and even toxic materials, the seriousness of its effects on human health and the environment cannot be ignored in present scenario. Waste from the electronic industry is increasing exponentially day by day. From the last 20 years, we are continuously generating huge quantities of e-waste such as obsolete computers and other discarded electronic components, mainly due to evolution of newer technologies as a result of constant efforts in research and development in this sector. Polymers, one of the major constituents in almost every electronic waste, such as computers, printers, electronic equipment, entertainment devices, mobile phones, television sets etc., are if properly recycled can create a new business opportunity. This would not only create potential market for polymers to improve economy but also the priceless land used as dumping sites of electronic waste, can be utilized for other productive purposes.

Keywords: polymer recycling, electronic waste, hazardous materials, electronic components

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1734 Analysis of Solid Waste Management Practices and the Implications for Human Health and the Environment: A Case Study of Kayamandi Informal Settlement

Authors: Peter Iyobosa Asemota

Abstract:

This study on solid waste management practices addressed aspects of environmental and health impacts resulting from poor management of solid waste. The study was occasioned by the observed rate and volume of illegal and indiscriminate dumping of solid waste materials especially in informal settlements. The main focus of this study was to establish the impact of waste management practices on human health and the environment. The study, therefore, presents a critical analysis of the state of solid waste management in the study area and the implications for human health and the environment. The study was carried out in Kayamandi informal settlement within Stellenbosch municipality. The sustainable management of solid waste is very important in order to minimize the environmental and public health risks associated with improper solid waste management. There is no denying the fact that the problems of waste management will become critical as time goes on because of improper and inefficient waste management practices. Towns and cities exhibit the burdens of waste management which is a characteristics feature of most African cities. The study critically assess the implementation of waste management practices by the residents of the informal settlement; identify the factors affecting management issues in the operation of solid waste management system by the municipality; identify factors militating against the implementation of waste management policies and legislation. Furthermore, a waste assessment study was carried out to assess the generation; composition of the waste stream and also determine the attitudes and behavior of the residents with regard to waste management practices. Findings from the study revealed that Kayamandi is not different from other informal settlements with regards to waste management. People are of the opinion that solid waste management is the sole responsibility of municipal authorities and as such, the government should be responsible for bearing the cost of solid waste management.

Keywords: environment, waste, waste composition, waste stream, policy, waste categories, sanitary landfill, waste collection, integrated solid waste management

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1733 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 3: Volume Reduction and Stabilization of Solid Waste

Authors: Masaumi Nakahara, Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

In the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, three types of experimental research, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, and nuclear fuel cycle technology, have been carried out at the Chemical Processing Facility. The facility has generated high level radioactive liquid and solid wastes in hot cells. The high level radioactive solid waste is divided into three main categories, a flammable waste, a non-flammable waste, and a solid reagent waste. A plastic product is categorized into the flammable waste and molten with a heating mantle. The non-flammable waste is cut with a band saw machine for reducing the volume. Among the solid reagent waste, a used adsorbent after the experiments is heated, and an extractant is decomposed for its stabilization. All high level radioactive solid wastes in the hot cells are packed in a high level radioactive solid waste can. The high level radioactive solid waste can is transported to the 2nd High Active Solid Waste Storage in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency.

Keywords: high level radioactive solid waste, advanced reactor fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear fuel cycle technology

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1732 Sintered Phosphate Cement for HLW Encapsulation

Authors: S. M. M. Nelwamondo, W. C. M. H. Meyer, H. Krieg

Abstract:

The presence of volatile radionuclides in high level waste (HLW) in the nuclear industry limits the use of high temperature encapsulation technologies (glass and ceramic). Chemically bonded phosphate cement (CBPC) matrixes can be used for encapsulation of low level waste. This waste form is however not suitable for high level waste due to the radiolysis of water in these matrixes. In this research, the sintering behavior of the magnesium potassium phosphate cement waste forms was investigated. The addition of sintering aids resulted in the sintering of these phosphate cement matrixes into dense monoliths containing no water. Experimental evidence will be presented that this waste form can now be considered as a waste form for volatile radionuclides and high level waste as radiation studies indicated no chemical phase transition or physical degradation of this waste form.

Keywords: chemically bonded phosphate cements, HLW encapsulation, thermal stability, radiation stability

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1731 Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential in Hawassa University, Ethiopia

Authors: Hunachew Beyene Mengesha, Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw

Abstract:

Owing to the dramatic expansion of universities in Ethiopia, understanding the composition and nature of solid waste at the source of generation plays an important role in designing a program for an integrated waste management program. In this study, we report the quantity, quality and recycling potential of the waste generated in the three campuses of the Hawassa University, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 3.5 tons of waste was generated per day in the three campuses of the university. More than 95% of the waste constituents were with potential to be recovered. It was a lesson from the study that there was no source reduction, recycling, composting, proper land filling or incineration practices in-place. The considerably high waste generation associated with the expansion of educational programs in the university appears worthwhile requiring implementation of programs for an integrated solid waste management to minimize health risk to humans and reduce environmental implications as a result of improper handling and disposal of wastes.

Keywords: Hawassa University, integrated solid waste management, solid waste generation, energy management, waste management

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1730 Integrated Waste-to-Energy Approach: An Overview

Authors: Tsietsi J. Pilusa, Tumisang G. Seodigeng

Abstract:

This study evaluates the benefits of advanced waste management practices in unlocking waste-to-energy opportunities within the solid waste industry. The key drivers of sustainable waste management practices, specifically with respect to packaging waste-to-energy technology options are discussed. The success of a waste-to-energy system depends significantly on the appropriateness of available technologies, including those that are well established as well as those that are less so. There are hard and soft interventions to be considered when packaging an integrated waste treatment solution. Technology compatibility with variation in feedstock (waste) quality and quantities remains a key factor. These factors influence the technology reliability in terms of production efficiencies and product consistency, which in turn, drives the supply and demand network. Waste treatment technologies rely on the waste material as feedstock; the feedstock varies in quality and quantities depending on several factors; hence, the technology fails, as a result. It is critical to design an advanced waste treatment technology in an integrated approach to minimize the possibility of technology failure due to unpredictable feedstock quality, quantities, conversion efficiencies, and inconsistent product yield or quality. An integrated waste-to-energy approach offers a secure system design that considers sustainable waste management practices.

Keywords: emerging markets, evaluation tool, interventions, waste treatment technologies

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