Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: thermochromic

6 Development of a Porous Porcelain Frape with Thermochromic Visualization

Authors: Jose Gois

Abstract:

The paper presents the development of a porous porcelain frappe with thermochromic visualization for port wines, having as a partner the Institute of Vinhos do Douro and Porto. This ceramic frappe is intended to promote the cooling and maintenance of the temperature of port wines through porous ceramic materials, consisting of a porcelain composite with sawdust addition, so as to contain, on the one hand, the similar cooling properties of the terracotta and, on the other, the resistance of materials such as porcelain. The application of the thermochromic element makes it possible to see if the wine is at optimal service temperatures, allowing users to drink the wine in the ideal conditions and contributing to more efficient maintenance of the service.

Keywords: design, frappe, porcelain, porous, thermochromic

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5 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

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4 Syntheses in Polyol Medium of Inorganic Oxides with Various Smart Optical Properties

Authors: Shian Guan, Marie Bourdin, Isabelle Trenque, Younes Messaddeq, Thierry Cardinal, Nicolas Penin, Issam Mjejri, Aline Rougier, Etienne Duguet, Stephane Mornet, Manuel Gaudon

Abstract:

At the interface of the studies performed by 3 Ph.D. students: Shian Guan (2017-2020), Marie Bourdin (2016-2019) and Isabelle Trenque (2012-2015), a single synthesis route: polyol-mediated process, was used with success for the preparation of different inorganic oxides. Both of these inorganic oxides were elaborated for their potential application as smart optical compounds. This synthesis route has allowed us to develop nanoparticles of zinc oxide, vanadium oxide or tungsten oxide. This route is with easy implementation, inexpensive and with large-scale production potentialities and leads to materials of high purity. The obtaining by this route of nanometric particles, however perfectly crystalline, has notably led to the possibility of doping these matrix materials with high doping ion concentrations (high solubility limits). Thus, Al3+ or Ga3+ doped-ZnO powder, with high doping rate in comparison with the literature, exhibits remarkable infrared absorption properties thanks to their high free carrier density. Note also that due to the narrow particle size distribution of the as-prepared nanometric doped-ZnO powder, the original correlation between crystallite size and unit-cell parameters have been established. Also, depending on the annealing atmosphere use to treat vanadium precursors, VO2, V2O3 or V2O5 oxides with thermochromic or electrochromic properties can be obtained without any impurity, despite the versatility of the oxidation state of vanadium. This is of more particular interest on vanadium dioxide, a relatively difficult-to-prepare oxide, whose first-order metal-insulator phase transition is widely explored in the literature for its thermochromic behavior (in smart windows with optimal thermal insulation). Finally, the reducing nature of the polyol solvents ensures the production of oxygen-deficient tungsten oxide, thus conferring to the nano-powders exotic colorimetric properties, as well as optimized photochromic and electrochromic behaviors.

Keywords: inorganic oxides, electrochromic, photochromic, thermochromic

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3 User-Controlled Color-Changing Textiles: From Prototype to Mass Production

Authors: Joshua Kaufman, Felix Tan, Morgan Monroe, Ayman Abouraddy

Abstract:

Textiles and clothing have been a staple of human existence for millennia, yet the basic structure and functionality of textile fibers and yarns has remained unchanged. While color and appearance are essential characteristics of a textile, an advancement in the fabrication of yarns that allows for user-controlled dynamic changes to the color or appearance of a garment has been lacking. Touch-activated and photosensitive pigments have been used in textiles, but these technologies are passive and cannot be controlled by the user. The technology described here allows the owner to control both when and in what pattern the fabric color-change takes place. In addition, the manufacturing process is compatible with mass-producing the user-controlled, color-changing yarns. The yarn fabrication utilizes a fiber spinning system that can produce either monofilament or multifilament yarns. For products requiring a more robust fabric (backpacks, purses, upholstery, etc.), larger-diameter monofilament yarns with a coarser weave are suitable. Such yarns are produced using a thread-coater attachment to encapsulate a 38-40 AWG metal wire inside a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. Conversely, products such as shirts and pants requiring yarns that are more flexible and soft against the skin comprise multifilament yarns of much smaller-diameter individual fibers. Embedding a metal wire in a multifilament fiber spinning process has not been realized to date. This research has required collaboration with Hills, Inc., to design a liquid metal-injection system to be combined with fiber spinning. The new system injects molten tin into each of 19 filaments being spun simultaneously into a single yarn. The resulting yarn contains 19 filaments, each with a tin core surrounded by a polymer sheath impregnated with thermochromic pigment. The color change we demonstrate is distinct from garments containing LEDs that emit light in various colors. The pigment itself changes its optical absorption spectrum to appear a different color. The thermochromic color-change is induced by a temperature change in the inner metal wire within each filament when current is applied from a small battery pack. The temperature necessary to induce the color change is near body temperature and not noticeable by touch. The prototypes already developed either use a simple push button to activate the battery pack or are wirelessly activated via a smart-phone app over Wi-Fi. The app allows the user to choose from different activation patterns of stripes that appear in the fabric continuously. The power requirements are mitigated by a large hysteresis in the activation temperature of the pigment and the temperature at which there is full color return. This was made possible by a collaboration with Chameleon International to develop a new, customized pigment. This technology enables a never-before seen capability: user-controlled, dynamic color and pattern change in large-area woven and sewn textiles and fabrics with wide-ranging applications from clothing and accessories to furniture and fixed-installation housing and business décor. The ability to activate through Wi-Fi opens up possibilities for the textiles to be part of the ‘Internet of Things.’ Furthermore, this technology is scalable to mass-production levels for wide-scale market adoption.

Keywords: activation, appearance, color, manufacturing

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2 Keto-Enol Tautomerism of Salicylideneaniline Substituted

Authors: Rihana Hadjeb, Djamel Barkat

Abstract:

Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxybenzaldehyde has attracted a great interest not only for its promising applications towards linear and non-linear optical properties, biological activity and technological applications but also used as model compounds for the theory of hydrogen bonding. Due to its intramolecular hydrogen bonding, depending on the position of proton in the hydrogen bond o-hydroxy salicylidene Schiff bases exhibit two tautomeric forms, enol-imine (E-form) and keto-enamine (K-form) both in solution and in crystalline state. A zwitterionic structure also appears due to a proton transfer in enol – imine and keto – amine tautomer. These classes of compounds also exhibit thermochromic and photochromic behavior. We undertook in this study the synthesis of ten compounds of hydroxy Schiff bases from the condensation of salicylic aldehyde and aniline substituted in the ortho, meta and para by the methyl, chloro and nitro groups. To study the keto-enol equilibrium of the compounds; UV-VIS spectra were studied in different polarity solvents. The compounds were in tautomeric equilibrium (enol imine O–H•••N, keto-amine O•••H–N forms). For some derivatives of salicylideneanilines the keto-amine form was observed in both ethanol and dioxane. IR results showed that all Schiff bases studied favor the enol-imine form over the keto form.

Keywords: salicylideneaniline, tautomerism, keto-enol equilibrium, UV-VIS spectroscopy, solvent effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1 Recycling of Spent Mo-Co Catalyst for the Recovery of Molybdenum Using Cyphos IL 104

Authors: Harshit Mahandra, Rashmi Singh, Bina Gupta

Abstract:

Molybdenum is widely used in thermocouples, anticathode of X-ray tubes and in the production of alloys of steels. Molybdenum compounds are extensively used as a catalyst in petroleum-refining industries for hydrodesulphurization. Activity of the catalysts decreases gradually with time and are dumped as hazardous waste due to contamination with toxic materials during the process. These spent catalysts can serve as a secondary source for metal recovery and help to sort out environmental and economical issues. In present study, extraction and separation of molybdenum from a Mo-Co spent catalyst leach liquor containing 0.870 g L⁻¹ Mo, 0.341 g L⁻¹ Co, 0.422 ×10⁻¹ g L⁻¹ Fe and 0.508 g L⁻¹ Al in 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl has been investigated using solvent extraction technique. The extracted molybdenum has been finally recovered as molybdenum trioxide. Leaching conditions used were- 3 mol L⁻¹ HCl, 90°C temperature, solid to liquid ratio (w/v) of 1.25% and reaction time of 60 minutes. 96.45% molybdenum was leached under these conditions. For the extraction of molybdenum from leach liquor, Cyphos IL 104 [trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinate] in toluene was used as an extractant. Around 91% molybdenum was extracted with 0.02 mol L⁻¹ Cyphos IL 104, and 75% of molybdenum was stripped from the loaded organic phase with 2 mol L⁻¹ HNO₃ at A/O=1/1. McCabe Thiele diagrams were drawn to determine the number of stages required for the extraction and stripping of molybdenum. According to McCabe Thiele plots, two stages are required for both extraction and stripping of molybdenum at A/O=1/1 which were also confirmed by countercurrent simulation studies. Around 98% molybdenum was extracted in two countercurrent extraction stages with no co-extraction of cobalt and aluminum. Iron was removed from the loaded organic phase by scrubbing with 0.01 mol L⁻¹ HCl. Quantitative recovery of molybdenum is achieved in three countercurrent stripping stages at A/O=1/1. Trioxide of molybdenum was obtained from strip solution and was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM and EDX techniques. Molybdenum trioxide due to its distinctive electrochromic, thermochromic and photochromic properties is used as a smart material for sensors, lubricants, and Li-ion batteries. Molybdenum trioxide finds application in various processes such as methanol oxidation, metathesis, propane oxidation and in hydrodesulphurization. It can also be used as a precursor for the synthesis of MoS₂ and MoSe₂.

Keywords: Cyphos IL 104, molybdenum, spent Mo-Co catalyst, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 80