Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7247

Search results for: cooling rate

7247 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir


A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, cold room, cooling rate, dDates, numerical simulation, k-ω (SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
7246 Optimization Analysis of Controlled Cooling Process for H-Shape Steam Beams

Authors: Jiin-Yuh Jang, Yu-Feng Gan


In order to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the steel, the cooling rate, and the temperature distribution must be controlled in the cooling process. A three-dimensional numerical model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient distribution of H-beam in the controlled cooling process was performed in order to obtain the uniform temperature distribution and minimize the maximum stress and the maximum deformation after the controlled cooling. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method was used as an optimizer to optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution. The numerical results showed that, for the case of air cooling 5 seconds followed by water cooling 6 seconds with uniform the heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate is 15.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is 85℃, the maximum the stress is 125 MPa, and the maximum deformation is 1.280 mm. After optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution in control cooling process with the same cooling time, the cooling rate is increased to 20.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is decreased to 52℃, the maximum stress is decreased to 82MPa and the maximum deformation is decreased to 1.167mm.

Keywords: controlled cooling, H-Beam, optimization, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
7245 Determination of the Cooling Rate Dependency of High Entropy Alloys Using a High-Temperature Drop-on-Demand Droplet Generator

Authors: Saeedeh Imani Moqadam, Ilya Bobrov, Jérémy Epp, Nils Ellendt, Lutz Mädler


High entropy alloys (HEAs), having adjustable properties and enhanced stability compared with intermetallic compounds, are solid solution alloys that contain more than five principal elements with almost equal atomic percentage. The concept of producing such alloys pave the way for developing advanced materials with unique properties. However, the synthesis of such alloys may require advanced processes with high cooling rates depending on which alloy elements are used. In this study, the micro spheres of different diameters of HEAs were generated via a drop-on-demand droplet generator and subsequently solidified during free-fall in an argon atmosphere. Such droplet generators can generate individual droplets with high reproducibility regarding droplet diameter, trajectory and cooling while avoiding any interparticle momentum or thermal coupling. Metallography as well as X-ray diffraction investigations for each diameter of the generated metallic droplets where then carried out to obtain information about the microstructural state. To calculate the cooling rate of the droplets, a droplet cooling model was developed and validated using model alloys such as CuSn%6 and AlCu%4.5 for which a correlation of secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and cooling rate is well-known. Droplets were generated from these alloys and their SDAS was determined using quantitative metallography. The cooling rate was then determined from the SDAS and used to validate the cooling rates obtained from the droplet cooling model. The application of that model on the HEA then leads to the cooling rate dependency and hence to the identification of process windows for the synthesis of these alloys. These process windows were then compared with cooling rates obtained in processes such as powder production, spray forming, selective laser melting and casting to predict if a synthesis is possible with these processes.

Keywords: cooling rate, drop-on-demand, high entropy alloys, microstructure, single droplet generation, X-ray Diffractometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
7244 Comparative Analysis of Internal Combustion Engine Cooling Fins Using Ansys Software

Authors: Aakash Kumar R. G., Anees K. Ahamed, Raj M. Mohan


Effective engine cooling can improve the engine’s life and efficacy. The design of the fin of the cylinder head and block determines the cooling mechanism of air cooled engine. The heat conduction takes place through the engine parts and convection of heat from the surface of the fins takes place with air as the heat transferring medium. The air surrounding the cooling fins helps in removal of heat built up by the air cooled engine. If the heat removal rate is inadequate, it will result in lower engine efficiency and high thermal stresses in the engine. The main drawback of the air cooled engine is the low heat transfer rate of the cooling fins .This work is based on scrutiny of previous researches that involves enhancing of heat transfer rate of cooling fins. The current research is about augmentation of heat transfer rate of longitudinal rectangular fin profiles by varying the length of the fin and diameter of holes on the fins. Thermal and flow analysis is done for two different models of fins. One is simple fin without holes and the other is perforated (consist of holes). It can be inferred from the research that the fins with holes have a higher fin efficiency than the fins without holes. The geometry of the fin is done in CREO. The heat transfer analysis is done using ANSYS software.

Keywords: fins, heat transfer, perforated fins, thermal analysis, thermal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
7243 Effect of Cooling Approaches on Chemical Compositions, Phases, and Acidolysis of Panzhihua Titania Slag

Authors: Bing Song, Kexi Han, Xuewei Lv


Titania slag is a high quality raw material containing titanium in the subsequent process of titanium pigment. The effects of cooling approaches of granulating, water cooling, and air cooling on chemical, phases, and acidolysis of Panzhihua titania slag were investigated. Compared to the original slag which was prepared by the conventional processing route, the results show that the titania slag undergoes oxidation of Ti3+during different cooling ways. The Ti2O3 content is 17.50% in the original slag, but it is 16.55% and 16.84% in water cooled and air-cooled slag, respectively. Especially, the Ti2O3 content in granulated slag is decreased about 27.6%. The content of Fe2O3 in granulated slag is approximately 2.86% also obviously higher than water (<0.5%) or air-cooled slag (<0.5%). Rutile in cooled titania slag was formed because of the oxidation of Ti3+. The rutile phase without a noticeable change in water cooled and air-cooled slag after the titania slag was cooled, but increased significantly in the granulated slag. The rate of sulfuric acid acidolysis of cooled slag is less than the original slag. The rate of acidolysis is 90.61% and 92.46% to the water-cooled slag and air-cooled slag, respectively. However, the rate of acidolysis of the granulated slag is less than that of industry slag about 20%, only 74.72%.

Keywords: cooling approaches, titania slag, granulating, sulfuric acid acidolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7242 Review of Modern Gas turbine Blade Cooling Technologies used in Aircraft

Authors: Arun Prasath Subramanian


The turbine Inlet Temperature is an important parameter which determines the efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The increase in this parameter is limited by material constraints of the turbine blade.The modern Gas turbine blade has undergone a drastic change from a simple solid blade to a modern multi-pass blade with internal and external cooling techniques. This paper aims to introduce the reader the concept of turbine blade cooling, the classification of techniques and further explain some of the important internal cooling technologies used in a modern gas turbine blade along with the various factors that affect the cooling effectiveness.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, cooling technologies, internal cooling, pin-fin cooling, jet impingement cooling, rib turbulated cooling, metallic foam cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
7241 Numerical Simulation of Effect of Various Rib Configurations on Enhancing Heat Transfer of Matrix Cooling Channel

Authors: Seok Min Choi, Minho Bang, Seuong Yun Kim, Hyungmin Lee, Won-Gu Joo, Hyung Hee Cho


The matrix cooling channel was used for gas turbine blade cooling passage. The matrix cooling structure is useful for the structure stability however the cooling performance of internal cooling channel was not enough for cooling. Therefore, we designed the rib configurations in the matrix cooling channel to enhance the cooling performance. The numerical simulation was conducted to analyze cooling performance of rib configured matrix cooling channel. Three different rib configurations were used which are vertical rib, angled rib and c-type rib. Three configurations were adopted in two positions of matrix cooling channel which is one fourth and three fourth of channel. The result shows that downstream rib has much higher cooling performance than upstream rib. Furthermore, the angled rib in the channel has much higher cooling performance than vertical rib. This is because; the angled rib improves the swirl effect of matrix cooling channel more effectively. The friction factor was increased with the installation of rib. However, the thermal performance was increased with the installation of rib in the matrix cooling channel.

Keywords: matrix cooling, rib, heat transfer, gas turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
7240 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li


The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

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7239 Cooling-Rate Induced Fiber Birefringence Variation in Regenerated High Birefringent Fiber

Authors: Man-Hong Lai, Dinusha S. Gunawardena, Kok-Sing Lim, Harith Ahmad


In this paper, we have reported birefringence manipulation in regenerated high-birefringent fiber Bragg grating (RPMG) by using CO2 laser annealing method. The results indicate that the birefringence of RPMG remains unchanged after CO2 laser annealing followed by a slow cooling process, but reduced after the fast cooling process (~5.6×10-5). After a series of annealing procedures with different cooling rates, the obtained results show that slower the cooling rate, higher the birefringence of RPMG. The volume, thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and glass transition temperature (Tg) change of stress applying part in RPMG during the cooling process are responsible for the birefringence change. Therefore, these findings are important to the RPMG sensor in high and dynamic temperature environment. The measuring accuracy, range and sensitivity of RPMG sensor are greatly affected by its birefringence value. This work also opens up a new application of CO2 laser for fiber annealing and birefringence modification.

Keywords: birefringence, CO2 laser annealing, regenerated gratings, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
7238 Effect of Welding Parameters on Penetration and Bead Width for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish K. Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K. Saxena


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on penetration and bead width. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction for same heat input, while bead width increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
7237 Effect of Welding Parameters on Dilution and Bead Height for Variable Plate Thickness in Submerged Arc Welding

Authors: Harish Kumar Arya, Kulwant Singh, R. K Saxena, Deepti Jaiswal


The heat flow in weldment changes its nature from 2D to 3D with the increase in plate thickness. For welding of thicker plates the heat loss in thickness direction increases the cooling rate of plate. Since the cooling rate changes, the various bead parameters like bead penetration, bead height and bead width also got affected by it. The present study incorporates the effect of variable plate thickness on bead geometry and dilution. The penetration reduces with increase in plate thickness due to heat loss in thickness direction, while bead width and reinforcement increases for thicker plate due to faster cooling.

Keywords: submerged arc welding, plate thickness, bead geometry, cooling rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
7236 Investigation on the Cooling Performance of Cooling Channels Fabricated via Selective Laser Melting for Injection Molding

Authors: Changyong Liu, Junda Tong, Feng Xu, Ninggui Huang


In the injection molding process, the performance of cooling channels is crucial to the part quality. Through the application of conformal cooling channels fabricated via metal additive manufacturing, part distortion, warpage can be greatly reduced and cycle time can be greatly shortened. However, the properties of additively manufactured conformal cooling channels are quite different from conventional drilling processes such as the poorer dimensional accuracy and larger surface roughness. These features have significant influences on its cooling performance. In this study, test molds with the cooling channel diameters of φ2 mm, φ3 mm and φ4 mm were fabricated via selective laser melting and conventional drilling process respectively. A test system was designed and manufactured to measure the pressure difference between the channel inlet and outlet, the coolant flow rate and the temperature variation during the heating process. It was found that the cooling performance of SLM-fabricated channels was poorer than drilled cooling channels due to the smaller sectional area of cooling channels resulted from the low dimensional accuracy and the unmolten particles adhered to the channel surface. Theoretical models were established to determine the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient of SLM-fabricated cooling channels. These findings may provide guidance to the design of conformal cooling channels.

Keywords: conformal cooling channels, selective laser melting, cooling performance, injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
7235 Control Strategy of Solar Thermal Cooling System under the Indonesia Climate

Authors: Budihardjo Sarwo Sastrosudiro, Arnas Lubis, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin Jusuf


Solar thermal cooling system was installed on Mechanical Research Center (MRC) Building that is located in Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia. It is the first cooling system in Indonesia that utilizes solar energy as energy input combined with natural gas; therefore, the control system must be appropriated with the climates. In order to stabilize the cooling capacity and also to maximize the use of solar energy, the system applies some controllers. Constant flow rate and on/off controller are applied for the hot water, chilled water and cooling water pumps. The hot water circulated by pump when the solar radiation is over than 400W/m2, and the chilled water is continually circulated by pump and its temperature is kept constant 7 °C by absorption chiller. The cooling water is also continually circulated until the outlet temperature of cooling tower below than 27 oC. Furthermore, the three-way valve is used to control the hot water for generate vapor on absorption chiller. The system performance using that control system is shown in this study results.

Keywords: absorption chiller, control system, solar cooling, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
7234 Numerical Analysis of Internal Cooled Turbine Blade Using Conjugate Heat Transfer

Authors: Bhavesh N. Bhatt, Zozimus D. Labana


This work is mainly focused on the analysis of heat transfer of blade by using internal cooling method. By using conjugate heat transfer technology we can effectively compute the cooling and heat transfer analysis of blade. Here blade temperature is limited by materials melting temperature. By using CFD code, we will analyze the blade cooling with the help of CHT method. There are two types of CHT methods. In the first method, we apply coupled CHT method in which all three domains modeled at once, and in the second method, we will first model external domain and then, internal domain of cooling channel. Ten circular cooling channels are used as a cooling method with different mass flow rate and temperature value. This numerical simulation is applied on NASA C3X turbine blade, and results are computed. Here results are showing good agreement with experimental results. Temperature and pressure are high at the leading edge of the blade on stagnation point due to its first faces the flow. On pressure side, shock wave is formed which also make a sudden change in HTC and other parameters. After applying internal cooling, we are succeeded in reducing the metal temperature of blade by some extends.

Keywords: gas turbine, conjugate heat transfer, NASA C3X Blade, circular film cooling channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
7233 Mathematical Modeling of District Cooling Systems

Authors: Dana Alghool, Tarek ElMekkawy, Mohamed Haouari, Adel Elomari


District cooling systems have captured the attentions of many researchers recently due to the enormous benefits offered by such system in comparison with traditional cooling technologies. It is considered a major component of urban cities due to the significant reduction of energy consumption. This paper aims to find the optimal design and operation of district cooling systems by developing a mixed integer linear programming model to minimize the annual total system cost and satisfy the end-user cooling demand. The proposed model is experimented with different cooling demand scenarios. The results of the very high cooling demand scenario are only presented in this paper. A sensitivity analysis on different parameters of the model was performed.

Keywords: Annual Cooling Demand, Compression Chiller, Mathematical Modeling, District Cooling Systems, Optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
7232 Diabatic Flow of Sub-Cooled R-600a Inside a Capillary Tube: Concentric Configuration

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Santhosh Kumar Dubba


This paper presents an experimental study of a diabatic flow of R-600a through a concentric configured capillary tube suction line heat exchanger. The details of experimental facility for testing the diabatic capillary tube with different inlet sub-cooling degree and pressure are discussed. The effect of coil diameter, capillary length, capillary tube diameter, sub-cooling degree and inlet pressure on mass flow rate are presented. The degree of sub-cooling at the inlet of capillary tube is varied from 3-20°C. The refrigerant mass flow rate is scattered up with rising of pressure. A semi-empirical correlation to predict the mass flow rate of R-600a flowing through a diabatic capillary tube is proposed for sub-cooled inlet conditions. The proposed correlation predicts measured data with an error band of ±20 percent.

Keywords: diabatic, capillary tube, concentric, R-600a

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
7231 [Keynote Speaker]: Enhancing the Performance of a Photovoltaic Module Using Different Cooling Methods

Authors: Ahmed Amine Hachicha


Temperature effect on the performance of a photovoltaic module is one of the main concern that face this renewable energy, especially in the hot arid region, e.g United Arab Emirates. Overheating of the PV modules reduces the open circuit voltage and the efficiency of the modules dramatically. In this work, water cooling is developed to enhance the performance of PV modules. Different scenarios are tested under UAE weather conditions: front, back and double cooling. A spraying system is used for the front cooling whether a direct contact water system is used for the back cooling. The experimental results are compared to a non-cooling module and the performance of the PV module is determined for different situations. A mathematical model is presented to estimate the theoretical performance and validate the experimental results with and without cooling. The experimental results show that the front cooling is more effective than the back cooling and may decrease the temperature of the PV module significantly.

Keywords: PV cooling, solar energy, cooling methods, electrical efficiency, temperature effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
7230 Integrated Passive Cooling Systems for Tropical Residential Buildings: A Review through the Lens of Latent Heat Assessment

Authors: O. Eso, M. Mohammadi, J. Darkwa, J. Calautit


Residential buildings are responsible for 22% of the global end-use energy demand and 17% of global CO₂ emissions. Tropical climates particularly present higher latent heat gains, leading to more cooling loads. However, the cooling processes are all based on conventional mechanical air conditioning systems which are energy and carbon intensive technologies. Passive cooling systems have in the past been considered as alternative technologies for minimizing energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, replacing mechanical cooling systems with passive ones will require a careful assessment of the passive cooling system heat transfer to determine if suitable to outperform their conventional counterparts. This is because internal heat gains, indoor-outdoor heat transfer, and heat transfer through envelope affects the performance of passive cooling systems. While many studies have investigated sensible heat transfer in passive cooling systems, not many studies have focused on their latent heat transfer capabilities. Furthermore, combining heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation to passively cool indoor spaces in the tropical climates is critical to achieve thermal comfort. Since passive cooling systems use only one of these three approaches at a time, integrating more than one passive cooling system for effective indoor latent heat removal while still saving energy is studied. This study is a systematic review of recently published peer review journals on integrated passive cooling systems for tropical residential buildings. The missing links in the experimental and numerical studies with regards to latent heat reduction interventions are presented. Energy simulation studies of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings are also discussed. The review has shown that comfortable indoor environment is attainable when two or more passive cooling systems are integrated in tropical residential buildings. Improvement occurs in the heat transfer rate and cooling performance of the passive cooling systems when thermal energy storage systems like phase change materials are included. Integrating passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings can reduce energy consumption by 6-87% while achieving up to 17.55% reduction in indoor heat flux. The review has highlighted a lack of numerical studies regarding passive cooling system performance in tropical savannah climates. In addition, detailed studies are required to establish suitable latent heat transfer rate in passive cooling ventilation devices under this climate category. This should be considered in subsequent studies. The conclusions and outcomes of this study will help researchers understand the overall energy performance of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical climates and help them identify and design suitable climate specific options for residential buildings.

Keywords: energy savings, latent heat, passive cooling systems, residential buildings, tropical residential buildings

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7229 Preliminary Study of Desiccant Cooling System under Algerian Climates

Authors: N. Hatraf, N. Moummi


The interest in air conditioning using renewable energies is increasing. The thermal energy produced from the solar energy can be converted to useful cooling and heating through the thermochemical or thermophysical processes by using thermally activated energy conversion systems. The ambient air contains so much water that very high dehumidification rates are required. For a continuous dehumidification of the process air, the water adsorbed on the desiccant material has to be removed, which is done by allowing hot air to flow through the desiccant material (regeneration). A solid desiccant cooling system transfers moisture from the inlet air to the silica gel by using two processes: Absorption process and the regeneration process. The main aim of this paper is to study how the dehumidification rate, the generation temperature and many other factors influence the efficiency of a solid desiccant system by using TRNSYS software. The results show that the desiccant system could be used to decrease the humidity rate of the entering air.

Keywords: dehumidification, efficiency, humidity, Trnsys

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
7228 Thermoelectric Cooler As A Heat Transfer Device For Thermal Conductivity Test

Authors: Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Azahar Mohd, Nor Idayu Arifin, Siti Nor Azila Khalid, Mohd Julzaha Zahari Mohamad Yusof


A thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is an electronic component that uses ‘peltier’ effect to create a temperature difference by transferring heat between two electrical junctions of two different types of materials. TEC can also be used for heating by reversing the electric current flow and even power generation. A heat flow meter (HFM) is an equipment for measuring thermal conductivity of building materials. During the test, water is used as heat transfer medium to cool the HFM. The existing re-circulating cooler in the market is very costly, and the alternative is to use piped tap water to extract heat from HFM. However, the tap water temperature is insufficiently low to enable heat transfer to take place. The operating temperature for isothermal plates in the HFM is 40°C with the range of ±0.02°C. When the temperature exceeds the operating range, the HFM stops working, and the test cannot be conducted. The aim of the research is to develop a low-cost but energy-efficient TEC prototype that enables heat transfer without compromising the function of the HFM. The objectives of the research are a) to identify potential of TEC as a cooling device by evaluating its cooling rate and b) to determine the amount of water savings using TEC compared to normal tap water. Four (4) peltier sets were used, with two (2) sets used as pre-cooler. The cooling water is re-circulated from the reservoir into HFM using a water pump. The thermal conductivity readings, the water flow rate, and the power consumption were measured while the HFM was operating. The measured data has shown decrease in average cooling temperature difference (ΔTave) of 2.42°C and average cooling rate of 0.031°C/min. The water savings accrued from using the TEC is projected to be 8,332.8 litres/year with the application of water re-circulation. The results suggest the prototype has achieved required objectives. Further research will include comparing the cooling rate of TEC prototype against conventional tap water and to optimize its design and performance in terms of size and portability. The possible application of the prototype could also be expanded to portable storage for medicine and beverages.

Keywords: energy efficiency, thermoelectric cooling, pre-cooling device, heat flow meter, sustainable technology, thermal conductivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
7227 Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate

Authors: A. H. Alenezi


Cooling by impingement jet is known to have a significant high local and average heat transfer coefficient which make it widely used in industrial cooling systems. The heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet on rib-roughened flat plate has been investigated numerically. This paper was set out to investigate the effect of rib height on the heat transfer rate. Since the flow needs to have enough spacing after passing the rib to allow reattachment especially for high Reynolds numbers, this study focuses on finding the optimum rib height which would be the best to maximize the heat transfer rate downstream the plate. This investigation employs a round nozzle with hydraulic diameter (Dh) of 13.5 mm, Jet-to-target distance of (H/D) of 4, rib location=1.5D and and finally jet angels of 45˚ and 90˚ under the influence of Re =10,000.

Keywords: jet impingement, CFD, turbulence model, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
7226 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah, H. Ibrahim


This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: evaporative cooling, vapor compression, electricity consumption, CO2 emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
7225 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser


Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: antiprotons, anions, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
7224 Research and Development of Intelligent Cooling Channels Design System

Authors: Q. Niu, X. H. Zhou, W. Liu


The cooling channels of injection mould play a crucial role in determining the productivity of moulding process and the product quality. It’s not a simple task to design high quality cooling channels. In this paper, an intelligent cooling channels design system including automatic layout of cooling channels, interference checking and assembly of accessories is studied. Automatic layout of cooling channels using genetic algorithm is analyzed. Through integrating experience criteria of designing cooling channels, considering the factors such as the mould temperature and interference checking, the automatic layout of cooling channels is implemented. The method of checking interference based on distance constraint algorithm and the function of automatic and continuous assembly of accessories are developed and integrated into the system. Case studies demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of the intelligent design system.

Keywords: injection mould, cooling channel, intelligent design, automatic layout, interference checking

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
7223 The Effect of Window Position and Ceiling Height on Cooling Load in Architectural Studio

Authors: Seyedehzahra Mirrahimi


This paper investigates the effect of variations in window and ceiling heights on cooling inside an architectural training studio with a full-width window. For architectural training, students use the studio more often than they use ordinary classrooms. Therefore, studio dimensions and size, and the window position, directly influence the cooling load. Energy for cooling is one of the most expensive costs in the studio because of the high activity levels of students during the warm season. The methodology of analysis involves measuring energy changes in the Energy Plus software in Kish Island. It was proved that the cooling energy in an architecture studio can be increased by changing window levels and ceiling heights to add a range of cooling energy.

Keywords: cooling energy, Energy Plus, studio classroom, window position

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
7222 Analysis of Force Convection in Bandung Triga Reactor Core Plate Types Fueled Using Coolod-N2

Authors: K. A. Sudjatmi, Endiah Puji Hastuti, Surip Widodo, Reinaldy Nazar


Any pretensions to stop the production of TRIGA fuel elements by TRIGA reactor fuel elements manufacturer should be anticipated by the operating agency of TRIGA reactor to replace the cylinder type fuel element with plate type fuel element, that available on the market. This away was performed the calculation on U3Si2Al fuel with uranium enrichment of 19.75% and a load level of 2.96 gU/cm3. Maximum power that can be operated on free convection cooling mode at the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor fuel plate was 600 kW. This study has been conducted thermalhydraulic characteristic calculation model of the reactor core power 2MW. BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core fueled plate type is composed of 16 fuel elements, 4 control elements and one irradiation facility which is located right in the middle of the core. The reactor core is cooled using a pump which is already available with flow rate 900 gpm. Analysis on forced convection cooling mode with flow from the top down from 10%, 20%, 30% and so on up to a 100% rate of coolant flow. performed using the COOLOD-N2 code. The calculations result showed that the 2 MW power with inlet coolant temperature at 37 °C and cooling rate percentage of 50%, then the coolant temperature, maximum cladding and meat respectively 64.96 oC, 124.81 oC, and 125.08 oC, DNBR (departure from nucleate boiling ratio)=1.23 and OFIR (onset of flow instability ratio)=1:00. The results are expected to be used as a reference for determining the power and cooling rate level of the BANDUNG TRIGA reactor core plate types fueled.

Keywords: TRIGA, COOLOD-N2, plate type fuel element, force convection, thermal hydraulic characteristic

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7221 Investigation on The Feasibility of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System in Libya

Authors: A. S. Zgalei, B. T. Al-Mabrouk


With a particularly significant growth rate observed in the Libyan commercial and residential buildings coupled with a growth in energy demand, solar desiccant evaporative cooling offers energy savings and promises a good sharing for sustainable buildings where the availability of solar radiation matches with the cooling load demand. The paper presents a short introduction for the desiccant systems. A mathematical model of a selected system has been developed and a simulation has been performed in order to investigate the system performance at different working conditions and an optimum design of the system structure is established. The results showed a technical feasibility of the system working under the Libyan climatic conditions with a reasonable COP at temperatures that can be obtained through the solar reactivation system. Discussion of the results and the recommendations for future work are proposed.

Keywords: computer program, solar desiccant wheel cooling, system modelling, simulation, technical feasibility

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7220 Sensitivity of Steindachneridion parahybae Mature Oocytes versus Embryos at Low Temperature

Authors: Tais Silva Lopes, Danilo Caneppele, Elizabeth Romagosa


Surubim-do-Paraíba, Steindachneridion parahybae is a species of South American fish in critical conditions of extinction. Researches have been developed with the objective of conserving the biological material of this species. We evaluated the cooling of mature oocytes in the cryoprotective solutions containing the following alcohols: methanol, Propylene glycol and DMSO, each at concentrations of 1M, 2M and 4M, totaling nine treatments. After being submitted to treatments, the oocytes were maintained for 120 minutes in cooling to -5.52±2.58⁰C. A sample of oocytes was submitted to negative control (NC), kept in 90% L-15 solution, and positive control (PC), fertilized and taken directly to the incubator. Fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated. In order to compare the sensitivity of oocytes to embryos of the same species, the embryos maintained as CP in the previous assay were used in the free-flow stage (about 22 hours post fertilization) and submitted to the same treatments (prepared in distilled water) and also cooled for 120 min. The evaluation was done by the hatch rate. There was no fertilization rate of the oocytes submitted to the cooling with propylene glycol; the other cryoprotectants presented values of at most 3.7% of fertilization (Methanol 1M), and no treatment completed development until hatching. The cooled embryos had a significant percentage of normal larvae in all treatments, but inversely proportional to the increase in the concentration of the alcohols. DMSO 1M was the most promising treatment for embryo cooling, with 41.7% ± 20.2 of normal larvae, while mature oocytes were highly sensitive to cold.

Keywords: cryoconservation, cooling, embryos, freezing, oocytes, south American fish

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7219 Exercise in Extreme Conditions: Leg Cooling and Fat/Carbohydrate Utilization

Authors: Anastasios Rodis


Background: Case studies of walkers, climbers, and campers exposed to cold and wet conditions without limb water/windproof protection revealed experiences of muscle weakness and fatigue. It is reasonable to assume that a part of the fatigue could occur due to an alteration in substrate utilization, since reduction of performance in extreme cold conditions, may partially be explained by higher anaerobic glycolysis, reflecting higher carbohydrate oxidation and an increase accumulation rate of blood lactate. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of pre-exercise lower limb cooling on substrate utilization rate during sub-maximal exercise. Method: Six male university students (mean (SD): age, 21.3 (1.0) yr; maximal oxygen uptake (V0₂ max), 49.6 (3.6) ml.min⁻¹; and percentage of body fat, 13.6 (2.5) % were examined in random order after either 30min cold water (12°C) immersion utilized as the cooling strategy up to the gluteal fold, or under control conditions (no precooling), with tests separated by minimum of 7 days. Exercise consisted of 60min cycling at 50% V0₂ max, in a thermoneutral environment of 20°C. Subjects were also required to record a diet diary over the 24hrs prior to the each trial. Means (SD) for the three macronutrients during the 1 day prior to each trial (expressed as a percentage of total energy) 52 (3) % carbohydrate, 31 (4) % fat, and 17 (± 2) % protein. Results: The following responses to lower limb cooling relative to control trial during exercise were: 1) Carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation, and blood lactate (Bₗₐc) concentration were significantly higher (P < 0.05); 2) rectal temperature (Tᵣₑc) was significantly higher (P < 0.05), but skin temperature was significantly lower (P < 0.05); no significant differences were found in blood glucose (Bg), heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (V0₂). Discussion: These data suggested that lower limb cooling prior to submaximal exercise will shift metabolic processes from Fat oxidation to CHO oxidation. This shift from Fat to CHO oxidation will probably have important implications in the surviving scenario, since people facing accidental localized cooling of their limbs either through wading/falling in cold water or snow even if they do not perform high intensity activity, they have to rely on CHO availability.

Keywords: exercise in wet conditions, leg cooling, outdoors exercise, substrate utilization

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7218 Austenite Transformation in Duplex Stainless Steels under Fast Cooling Rates

Authors: L. O. Luengas, E. V. Morales, L. F. G. De Souza, I. S. Bott


Duplex Stainless Steels are well known for its good mechanical properties, and corrosion resistance. However, when submitted to heating, these features can be lost since the good properties are strongly dependent on the austenite-ferrite phase ratio which has to be approximately 1:1 to keep the phase balance. In a welded joint, the transformation kinetics at the heat affected zone (HAZ) is a function of the cooling rates applied which in turn are dependent on the heat input. The HAZ is usually ferritized at these temperatures, and it has been argued that small variations of the chemical composition can play a role in the solid state transformation sequence of ferrite to austenite during cooling. The δ → γ transformation has been reported to be massive and diffusionless due to the fast cooling rate, but it is also considered a diffusion controlled transformation. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of different heat inputs on the HAZ of two duplex stainless steels UNS S32304 and S32750, obtained by physical simulation.

Keywords: duplex stainless steels, HAZ, microstructural characterization, physical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 209