Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Barun Chakrabarti

13 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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12 Evaluation of Electrophoretic and Electrospray Deposition Methods for Preparing Graphene and Activated Carbon Modified Nano-Fibre Electrodes for Hydrogen/Vanadium Flow Batteries and Supercapacitors

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Evangelos Kalamaras, Vladimir Yufit, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, C. T. John Low


In this work, we perform electrophoretic deposition of activated carbon on a number of substrates to prepare symmetrical coin cells for supercapacitor applications. From several recipes that involve the evaluation of a few solvents such as isopropyl alcohol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), or acetone to binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and charging agents such as magnesium chloride, we display a working means for achieving supercapacitors that can achieve 100 F/g in a consistent manner. We then adapt this EPD method to deposit reduced graphene oxide on SGL 10AA carbon paper to achieve cathodic materials for testing in a hydrogen/vanadium flow battery. In addition, a self-supported hierarchical carbon nano-fibre is prepared by means of electrospray deposition of an iron phthalocyanine solution onto a temporary substrate followed by carbonisation to remove heteroatoms. This process also induces a degree of nitrogen doping on the carbon nano-fibres (CNFs), which allows its catalytic performance to improve significantly as detailed in other publications. The CNFs are then used as catalysts by attaching them to graphite felt electrodes facing the membrane inside an all-vanadium flow battery (Scribner cell using serpentine flow distribution channels) and efficiencies as high as 60% is noted at high current densities of 150 mA/cm². About 20 charge and discharge cycling show that the CNF catalysts consistently perform better than pristine graphite felt electrodes. Following this, we also test the CNF as an electro-catalyst in the hydrogen/vanadium flow battery (cathodic side as mentioned briefly in the first paragraph) facing the membrane, based upon past studies from our group. Once again, we note consistently good efficiencies of 85% and above for CNF modified graphite felt electrodes in comparison to 60% for pristine felts at low current density of 50 mA/cm² (this reports 20 charge and discharge cycles of the battery). From this preliminary investigation, we conclude that the CNFs may be used as catalysts for other systems such as vanadium/manganese, manganese/manganese and manganese/hydrogen flow batteries in the future. We are generating data for such systems at present, and further publications are expected.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nano-fibres, all-vanadium redox flow battery, hydrogen-vanadium fuel cell, electrocatalysis

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11 Water Depth and Optical Attenuation Characteristics of Natural Water Reservoirs nearby Kolkata City Assessed from Hyperion Hyperspectral and LISS-3 Multispectral Images

Authors: Barun Raychaudhuri


A methodology is proposed for estimating the optical attenuation and proportional depth variation of shallow inland water. The process is demonstrated with EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral and IRS-P6 LISS-3 multispectral images of Kolkata city nearby area centered around 22º33′ N 88º26′ E. The attenuation coefficient of water was found to change with fine resolution of wavebands and in presence of suspended organic matter in water.

Keywords: hyperion, hyperspectral, Kolkata, water depth

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10 Use of Indian Food Mascot Design as an Advertising Tool in Maintaining and Growing the Brand Name

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabarti


Mascots provide memories to viewers, and numerous promotional campaigns with different appearances, continue to trigger viewers and capture their interest. This study investigates the effect of Indian food mascot designs and influence on enhancing communication; thereby, building long-term brand recognition by the consumers. This paper presents a descriptive approach to Indian food mascot design as an advertising tool, and its research adopts a quantitative methodology. The study confirms that mascots have an ability to communicate a message in an effective manner; all though they are simple in terms of design and fashion trend, they have the capability to build positive reactions.

Keywords: food mascot, brand recognitions, advertising, humour

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9 Detecting Heartbeat Architectural Tactic in Source Code Using Program Analysis

Authors: Ananta Kumar Das, Sujit Kumar Chakrabarti


Architectural tactics such as heartbeat, ping-echo, encapsulate, encrypt data are techniques that are used to achieve quality attributes of a system. Detecting architectural tactics has several benefits: it can aid system comprehension (e.g., legacy systems) and in the estimation of quality attributes such as safety, security, maintainability, etc. Architectural tactics are typically spread over the source code and are implicit. For large codebases, manual detection is often not feasible. Therefore, there is a need for automated methods of detection of architectural tactics. This paper presents a formalization of the heartbeat architectural tactic and a program analytic approach to detect this tactic in source code. The experiment of the proposed method is done on a set of Java applications. The outcome of the experiment strongly suggests that the method compares well with a manual approach in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, and far supersedes a manual exercise in terms of its scalability.

Keywords: software architecture, architectural tactics, detecting architectural tactics, program analysis, AST, alias analysis

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8 An Investigation of the Barriers to E-Business Implementation in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Authors: Jeffrey Chang, Barun Dasgupta


E-business technologies, whereby business transactions are conducted remotely using the Internet, present unique opportunities and challenges for business. E-business technologies are applicable to a wide range of organizations and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are no exception. There is an established body of literature about e-business, looking at definitions, concepts, benefits and challenges. In general, however, the research focus has been on larger organizations, not SMEs. In an attempt to redress the balance of research, this paper looks at e-business technologies specifically from a small business perspective. It seeks to identify the possible barriers that SMEs might face when considering adoption of the e-business concept and practice as part of their business process change initiatives and implementation. To facilitate analysis of these barriers a conceptual framework has been developed which outlines the key conceptual and practical challenges of e-business implementation in SMEs. This is developed following a literature survey comprised of three categories: characteristics of SMEs, issues of IS/IT use in SMEs and general e-business adoption and implementation issues. The framework is then empirically assessed against 7 SMEs who have yet to implement e-business or whose e-business efforts have been unsatisfactory. Conclusions from the case studies can be used to verify the framework, and set parameters for further larger scale empirical investigation.

Keywords: business process change, disruptive technologies, electronic business (e-Business), electronic commerce (e-Commerce), ICT adoption, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs)

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7 A Deep Learning Based Method for Faster 3D Structural Topology Optimization

Authors: Arya Prakash Padhi, Anupam Chakrabarti, Rajib Chowdhury


Topology or layout optimization often gives better performing economic structures and is very helpful in the conceptual design phase. But traditionally it is being done in finite element-based optimization schemes which, although gives a good result, is very time-consuming especially in 3D structures. Among other alternatives machine learning, especially deep learning-based methods, have a very good potential in resolving this computational issue. Here convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) based variational auto encoder (VAE) is trained using a dataset generated from commercially available topology optimization code ABAQUS Tosca using solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method for compliance minimization. The encoded data in latent space is then fed to a 3D generative adversarial network (3D-GAN) to generate the outcome in 64x64x64 size. Here the network consists of 3D volumetric CNN with rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation in between and sigmoid activation in the end. The proposed network is seen to provide almost optimal results with significantly reduced computational time, as there is no iteration involved.

Keywords: 3D generative adversarial network, deep learning, structural topology optimization, variational auto encoder

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6 Quasiperiodic Magnetic Chains as Spin Filters

Authors: Arunava Chakrabarti


A one-dimensional chain of magnetic atoms, representative of a quantum gas in an artificial quasi-periodic potential and modeled by the well-known Aubry-Andre function and its variants are studied in respect of its capability of working as a spin filter for arbitrary spins. The basic formulation is explained in terms of a perfectly periodic chain first, where it is shown that a definite correlation between the spin S of the incoming particles and the magnetic moment h of the substrate atoms can open up a gap in the energy spectrum. This is crucial for a spin filtering action. The simple one-dimensional chain is shown to be equivalent to a 2S+1 strand ladder network. This equivalence is exploited to work out the condition for the opening of gaps. The formulation is then applied for a one-dimensional chain with quasi-periodic variation in the site potentials, the magnetic moments and their orientations following an Aubry-Andre modulation and its variants. In addition, we show that a certain correlation between the system parameters can generate absolutely continuous bands in such systems populated by Bloch like extended wave functions only, signaling the possibility of a metal-insulator transition. This is a case of correlated disorder (a deterministic one), and the results provide a non-trivial variation to the famous Anderson localization problem. We have worked within a tight binding formalism and have presented explicit results for the spin half, spin one, three halves and spin five half particles incident on the magnetic chain to explain our scheme and the central results.

Keywords: Aubry-Andre model, correlated disorder, localization, spin filter

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5 New Test Algorithm to Detect Acute and Chronic HIV Infection Using a 4th Generation Combo Test

Authors: Barun K. De


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, collectively designated HIV. HIV infection is spreading globally particularly in developing countries. Before an individual is diagnosed with HIV, the disease goes through different phases. First there is an acute early phase that is followed by an established or chronic phase. Subsequently, there is a latency period after which the individual becomes immunodeficient. It is in the acute phase that an individual is highly infectious due to a high viral load. Presently, HIV diagnosis involves use of tests that do not detect the acute phase infection during which both the viral RNA and p24 antigen are expressed. Instead, these less sensitive tests detect antibodies to viral antigens which are typically sero-converted later in the disease process following acute infection. These antibodies are detected in both asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals as well as AIDS patients. Studies indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection can reduce medical costs, improve survival, and reduce spreading of infection to new uninfected partners. Newer 4th generation combination antigen/antibody tests are highly sensitive and specific for detection of acute and established HIV infection (HIV1 and HIV2) enabling immediate linkage to care. The CDC (Center of Disease Control, USA) recently recommended an algorithm involving three different tests to screen and diagnose acute and established infections of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in a general population. Initially a 4th generation combo test detects a viral antigen p24 and specific antibodies against HIV -1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins. If the test is positive it is followed by a second test known as a differentiation assay which detects antibodies against specific HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins confirming established infection of HIV-1 or HIV-2. However if it is negative then another test is performed that measures viral load confirming an acute HIV-1 infection. Screening results of a Phoenix area population detected 0.3% new HIV infections among which 32.4% were acute cases. Studies in the U.S. indicate that this algorithm effectively reduces HIV infection through immediate treatment and education following diagnosis.

Keywords: new algorithm, HIV, diagnosis, infection

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4 Is More Inclusive More Effective? The 'New Style' Public Distribution System in India

Authors: Avinash Kishore, Suman Chakrabarti


In September 2013, the parliament of India enacted the National Food Security Act (NFSA) which entitles two-thirds of India’s population to five kilograms of rice, wheat or coarse cereals per person per month at one to three rupees per kilogram. Five states in India—Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha and West Bengal—had already implemented somewhat similar changes in the TPDS a few years earlier using their own budgetary resources. They made rice—coincidentally, all five states are predominantly rice-eating—available in fair price shops to a majority of their population at very low prices (less than Rs.3/kg). This paper tries to account for the changes in household consumption patterns associated with the change in TPDS policy in these states using data from household consumption surveys by the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). NSS data show improvement in the coverage of TPDS and average off-take of grains from fair price shops between 2004-05 and 2009-10 across all states of India. However, the increase in coverage and off-take was significantly higher in four out of these five states than in the rest of India. An average household in these states purchased three kilos more rice per month from fair price shops than its counterpart in non-treated states as a result of more generous TPDS policies backed by administrative reforms. The increase in consumption of PDS rice was the highest in Chhattisgarh, the poster state of PDS reforms. Households in Chhattisgarh used money saved on rice to spend more on pulses, edible oil, vegetables and sugar and other non-food items. We also find evidence that making TPDS more inclusive and more generous is not enough unless it is supported by administrative reforms to improve grain delivery and control diversion to open markets.

Keywords: public distribution system, social safety-net, national food security act, diet quality, Chhattisgarh

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3 Synthesis and Characterisations of Cordierite Bonded Porous SiC Ceramics by Sol Infiltration Technique

Authors: Sanchita Baitalik, Nijhuma Kayal, Omprakash Chakrabarti


Recently SiC ceramics have been a focus of interest in the field of porous materials due to their unique combination of properties and hence they are considered as an ideal candidate for catalyst supports, thermal insulators, high-temperature structural materials, hot gas particulate separation systems etc. in different industrial processes. Several processing methods are followed for fabrication of porous SiC at low temperatures but all these methods are associated with several disadvantages. Therefore processing of porous SiC ceramics at low temperatures is still challenging. Concerning that of incorporation of secondary bond phase additives by an infiltration technique should result in a homogenous distribution of bond phase in the final ceramics. Present work is aimed to synthesis cordierite (2MgO.2Al2O3.5SiO2) bonded porous SiC ceramics following incorporation of sol-gel bond phase precursor into powder compacts of SiC and heat treating the infiltrated body at 1400 °C. In this paper the primary aim was to study the effect of infiltration of a precursor sol of cordierite into a porous SiC powder compact prepared with pore former of different particle sizes on the porosity, pore size, microstructure and the mechanical properties of the porous SiC ceramics. Cordierite sol was prepared by mixing a solution of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate in 2:4 molar ratio in ethanol another solution containing tetra-ethyl orthosilicate and ethanol in 1:3 molar ratio followed by stirring for several hours. Powders of SiC (α-SiC; d50 =22.5 μm) and 10 wt. % polymer microbead of two sizes 8 and 50µm as the pore former were mixed in a suitable liquid medium, dried and pressed in the form of bars (50×20×16 mm3) at 23 MPa pressure. The well-dried bars were heat treated at 1100° C for 4 h with a hold at 750 °C for 2 h to remove the pore former. Bars were evacuated for 2 hr upto 0.3 mm Hg pressure into a vacuum chamber and infiltrated with cordierite precursor sol. The infiltrated samples were dried and the infiltration process was repeated until the weight gain became constant. Finally the infiltrated samples were sintered at 1400 °C to prepare cordierite bonded porous SiC ceramics. Porous ceramics prepared with 8 and 50 µm sized microbead exhibited lower oxidation degrees of respectively 7.8 and 4.8 % than the sample (23 %) prepared with no microbead. Depending on the size of pore former, the porosity of the final ceramic varied in the range of 36 to 40 vol. % with a variation of flexural strength from 33.7 to 24.6 MPa. XRD analysis showed major crystalline phases of the ceramics as SiC, SiO2 and cordierite. Two forms of cordierite, α-(hexagonal) and µ-(cubic), were detected by the XRD analysis. The SiC particles were observed to be bonded both by cristobalite with fish scale morphology and cordierite with rod shape morphology and thereby formed a porous network. The material and mechanical properties of cordierite bonded porous SiC ceramics are good in agreement to carry out further studies like thermal shock, corrosion resistance etc.

Keywords: cordierite, infiltration technique, porous ceramics, sol-gel

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2 Office Workspace Design for Policewomen in Assam, India: Applications for Developing Countries

Authors: Shilpi Bora, Abhirup Chatterjee, Debkumar Chakrabarti


Organizations of all the sectors around the world are increasingly revisiting their workplace strategies with due concern for women working therein. Limited office space and rigid work arrangements contribute to lesser job satisfaction and greater work impoundments for any organization. Flexible workspace strategies are indispensable to accommodate the progressive rise of modular workstations and involvement of women. Today’s generation of employees deserves malleable office environments with employee-friendly job conditions and strategies. The workplace nowadays stands on rapid organizational changes in progressive and flexible work culture. Occupational well-being practices need to keep pace with the rapid changes in office-based work. Working at the office (workspace) with awkward postures or for long periods can cause pain, discomfort, and injury. The world is stirring towards the era of globalization and progress. The 4000 women police personnel constitute less than one per cent of the total police strength of India. Lots of innovative fields are growing fast, and it is important that we should accommodate women in those arenas. The timeworn trends should be set apart to set out for fresh opportunities and possibilities of development and success through more involvement of women in the workplace. The notion of women policing is gaining position throughout the world, and various countries are putting solemn efforts to mainstream women in policing. As the role of women policing in a society is budding, and thus it is also notable that the accessibility of women at general police stations should be considered. Accordingly, the impact of workspace at police station on the employee productivity has been widely deliberated as a crucial contributor to employee satisfaction leading to better functional motivation. Thus the present research aimed to look into the office workstation design of police station with reference to womanhood specific issues to uplift occupational wellbeing of the policewomen. Personal interview and individual responses collected through administering to a subjective assessment questionnaire on thirty women police as well as to have their views on these issues by purposive non-probability sampling of women police personnel of different ranks posted in Guwahati, Assam, India. Scrutiny of the collected data revealed that office design has a substantial impact on the policewomen job satisfaction in the police station. In this study, the workspace was designed in such a way that the set of factors would impact on the individual to ensure increased productivity. Office design such as furniture, noise, temperature, lighting and spatial arrangement were considered. The primary feature which affected the productivity of policewomen was the furniture used in the workspace, which was found to disturb the everyday and overall productivity of policewomen. Therefore, it was recommended to have proper and adequate ergonomics design intervention to improve the office design for better performance. This type of study is today’s need-of-the-hour to empower women and facilitate their inner talent to come up in service of the nation. The office workspace design also finds critical importance at several other occupations also – where office workstation needs further improvement.

Keywords: office workspace design, policewomen, womanhood concerns at workspace, occupational wellbeing

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1 Evaluation of Functional Properties of Protein Hydrolysate from the Fresh Water Mussel Lamellidens marginalis for Nutraceutical Therapy

Authors: Jana Chakrabarti, Madhushrita Das, Ankhi Haldar, Roshni Chatterjee, Tanmoy Dey, Pubali Dhar


High incidences of Protein Energy Malnutrition as a consequence of low protein intake are quite prevalent among the children in developing countries. Thus prevention of under-nutrition has emerged as a critical challenge to India’s developmental Planners in recent times. Increase in population over the last decade has led to greater pressure on the existing animal protein sources. But these resources are currently declining due to persistent drought, diseases, natural disasters, high-cost of feed, and low productivity of local breeds and this decline in productivity is most evident in some developing countries. So the need of the hour is to search for efficient utilization of unconventional low-cost animal protein resources. Molluscs, as a group is regarded as under-exploited source of health-benefit molecules. Bivalve is the second largest class of phylum Mollusca. Annual harvests of bivalves for human consumption represent about 5% by weight of the total world harvest of aquatic resources. The freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis is widely distributed in ponds and large bodies of perennial waters in the Indian sub-continent and well accepted as food all over India. Moreover, ethno-medicinal uses of the flesh of Lamellidens among the rural people to treat hypertension have been documented. Present investigation thus attempts to evaluate the potential of Lamellidens marginalis as functional food. Mussels were collected from freshwater ponds and brought to the laboratory two days before experimentation for acclimatization in laboratory conditions. Shells were removed and fleshes were preserved at- 20oC until analysis. Tissue homogenate was prepared for proximate studies. Fatty acids and amino acids composition were analyzed. Vitamins, Minerals and Heavy metal contents were also studied. Mussel Protein hydrolysate was prepared using Alcalase 2.4 L and degree of hydrolysis was evaluated to analyze its Functional properties. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and DPPH Antioxidant assays were performed. Anti-hypertensive property was evaluated by measuring Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibition assay. Proximate analysis indicates that mussel meat contains moderate amount of protein (8.30±0.67%), carbohydrate (8.01±0.38%) and reducing sugar (4.75±0.07%), but less amount of fat (1.02±0.20%). Moisture content is quite high but ash content is very low. Phospholipid content is significantly high (19.43 %). Lipid constitutes, substantial amount of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which have proven prophylactic values. Trace elements are found present in substantial amount. Comparative study of proximate nutrients between Labeo rohita, Lamellidens and cow’s milk indicates that mussel meat can be used as complementary food source. Functionality analyses of protein hydrolysate show increase in Fat absorption, Emulsification, Foaming capacity and Protein solubility. Progressive anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive properties have also been documented. Lamellidens marginalis can thus be regarded as a functional food source as this may combine effectively with other food components for providing essential elements to the body. Moreover, mussel protein hydrolysate provides opportunities for utilizing it in various food formulations and pharmaceuticals. The observations presented herein should be viewed as a prelude to what future holds.

Keywords: functional food, functional properties, Lamellidens marginalis, protein hydrolysate

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