Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4938

Search results for: grain size

4938 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova

Abstract:

Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

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4937 2D Monte Carlo Simulation of Grain Growth under Transient Conditions

Authors: K. R. Phaneesh, Anirudh Bhat, G. Mukherjee, K. T. Kashyap

Abstract:

Extensive Monte Carlo Potts model simulations were performed on 2D square lattice to investigate the effects of simulated higher temperatures effects on grain growth kinetics. A range of simulation temperatures (KTs) were applied on a matrix of size 10002 with Q-state 64, dispersed with a wide range of second phase particles, ranging from 0.001 to 0.1, and then run to 100,000 Monte Carlo steps. The average grain size, the largest grain size and the grain growth exponent were evaluated for all particle fractions and simulated temperatures. After evaluating several growth parameters, the critical temperature for a square lattice, with eight nearest neighbors, was found to be KTs = 0.4.

Keywords: average grain size, critical temperature, grain growth exponent, Monte Carlo steps

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4936 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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4935 Effect of Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) Process on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

Authors: H. Abdolvand, M. Riazat, H. Sohrabi, G. Faraji

Abstract:

An experimental investigation into the Tube Backward Extrusion (TBE) process on AZ31 magnesium alloy is studied. Microstructures and grain size distribution of the specimens before and after TBE process are investigated by optical microscopy. Tensile and Vickers microhardness tests along extrusion direction were performed at room temperature. It is found that the average grain size is refined remarkably from the initial 33 µm down to 3.5 µm after TBE process. Also, the microhardness increased significantly to 58 HV after the process from an initial value of 36 HV.

Keywords: tube backward extrusion, AZ31, grain size distribution, grain refinement

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4934 The Grain Size Distribution of Sandy Soils in Libya

Authors: Massoud Farag Abouklaish

Abstract:

The main aim of the present study is to investigate and classify the particle size distribution of sandy soils in Libya. More than fifty soil samples collected from many regions in North, West and South of Libya. Laboratory sieve analysis tests performed on disturbed soil samples to determine grain size distribution. As well as to provide an indicator of general engineering behavior and good understanding, test results are presented and analysed. In addition, conclusions, recommendations are made.

Keywords: Libya, grain size, sandy soils, sieve analysis tests

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4933 Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd Eutectics Ribbons under Superplastic Tensile Test Regime

Authors: Edgar Ochoa, G. Torres-Villasenor

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation is shown by materials with a fine grain size, usually less than 10 μm, when they are deformed within the strain rate range 10-5 10-1 s-1 at temperatures greater than 0.5Tm, where Tm is the melting point in Kelvin. According to the constitutive equation for superplastic flow, refinement of the grain size would be expected to increase the optimum strain rate and decrease the temperature required for superplastic flow. Ribbons of eutectic Ag-Cu and Bi-Cd alloys were manufactured by using a single roller melt-spinning technique to obtain a fine grain structure for later test in superplastic regime. The eutectics ribbons were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction, and the grain size was determined using the image analysis software ImageJ. The average grain size was less than 1 μm. Tensile tests were carried out from 10-4 to 10-1 s-1, at room temperature, to evaluate the superplastic behavior. The largest deformation was shown by the Bi-Cd eutectic ribbons, Ɛ=140 %, despite that these ribbons have a hexagonal unit cell. On the other hand, Ag-Cu eutectic ribbons have a minor grain size and cube unit cell, however they showed a lower deformation in tensile test under the same conditions than Bi-Cd ribbons. This is because the Ag-Cu grew in a strong cube-cube orientation relationship.

Keywords: eutectic ribbon, fine grain, superplastic deformation, cube-cube orientation

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4932 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee

Abstract:

The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: aluminium, grain size, nitrogen, reheating, sizing strain, steel, vanadium

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4931 Grain Growth Behavior of High Carbon Microalloyed Steels Containing Very Low Amounts of Niobium

Authors: Huseyin Zengin, Muhammet Emre Turan, Yunus Turen, Hayrettin Ahlatci, Yavuz Sun

Abstract:

This study aimed for understanding the effects of dilute Nb additions on the austenite microstructure of microalloyed steels at five different reheating temperatures from 950 °C to 1300 °C. Four microalloyed high-carbon steels having 0.8 %wt C were examined in which three of them had varying Nb concentrations from 0.005 wt% to 0.02 wt% and one of them had no Nb concentration. The quantitative metallographic techniques were used to measure the average prior austenite grain size in order to compare the grain growth pinning effects of Nb precipitates as a function of reheating temperature. Due to the higher stability of the precipitates with increasing Nb concentrations, the grain coarsening temperature that resulted in inefficient grain growth impediment and a bimodal grain distribution in the microstructure, showed an increase with increasing Nb concentration. The respective grain coarsening temperatures (T_GC) in an ascending order for the steels having 0.005 wt% Nb, 0.01 wt% Nb and 0.02 wt% Nb were 950 °C, 1050 °C and 1150 °C. According to these observed grain coarsening temperatures, an approximation was made considering the complete dissolution temperature (T_DISS) of second phase particles as T_GC=T_DISS-300. On the other hand, the plain carbon steel did not show abnormal grain growth behaviour due to the absence of second phase particles. It was also observed that the higher the Nb concentration, the smaller the average prior austenite grain size although the small increments in Nb concenration did not change the average grain size considerably.

Keywords: microalloyed steels, prior austenite grains, second phase particles, grain coarsening temperature

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4930 Effect of Molybdenum Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Titanium Plus Boron on Its Grain Size and Mechanical Characteristics in the Cast and After Pressing by the Equal Channel Angular Pressing Conditions

Authors: A. I. O. Zaid, A. M. Attieh, S. M. A. Al Qawabah

Abstract:

Aluminum and its alloys solidify in columnar structure with large grain size which tends to reduce their mechanical strength and surface quality. They are, therefore, grain refined by addition of either titanium or titanium plus boron to their melt before solidification. Equal channel angular pressing, ECAP, process is a recent forming method for producing heavy plastic deformation in materials. In this paper, the effect of molybdenum addition to aluminum grain refined by Ti+B on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics are investigated in the as cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process. It was found that addition of Mo or Ti+B alone or together to aluminum resulted in grain refining of its microstructure in the as cast condition, as the average grain size was reduced from 139 micron to 46 micron when Mo and Ti+B are added together. Pressing by the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the microstructure where 32 micron of average grain size was achieved in Al and the Al-Mo microalloy. Regarding the mechanical strength, addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in deterioration of its mechanical behavior but resulted in enhancement of its mechanical behavior when added together, increase of 10% in flow stress was achieved at 20% strain. However, pressing by ECAP addition of Mo or Ti+B alone to Al resulted in enhancement of its mechanical strength but reduced its strength when added together.

Keywords: ECAP, aluminum, cast, mechanical characteristics, Mo grain refiner

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4929 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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4928 Grain Boundary Detection Based on Superpixel Merges

Authors: Gaokai Liu

Abstract:

The distribution of material grain sizes reflects the strength, fracture, corrosion and other properties, and the grain size can be acquired via the grain boundary. In recent years, the automatic grain boundary detection is widely required instead of complex experimental operations. In this paper, an effective solution is applied to acquire the grain boundary of material images. First, the initial superpixel segmentation result is obtained via a superpixel approach. Then, a region merging method is employed to merge adjacent regions based on certain similarity criterions, the experimental results show that the merging strategy improves the superpixel segmentation result on material datasets.

Keywords: grain boundary detection, image segmentation, material images, region merging

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4927 Bake Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine Grained and Nano-Grained AA6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Hamid Alihosseini, Kamran Dehghani

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of grain size of AA6061 aluminum on the bake hardening have been investigated. The grains of sample sheets refined by applying 4, 8, and 12 passes of ECAP and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. EBSD and TEM studies of the sheets showed grain refinement, and the EBSD micrograph of the alloy ECAPed for 12 passes showed nano-grained (NG) ∼95nm in size. Then, the bake hardenability of processed sheet was compared by pre-straining to 6% followed by baking at 200°C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 200°C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 12, 8, and 4 passes, respectively. The maximum in bake hardenability (120 MPa) and final yield stress (583 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 6% followed by baking at 200◦C.

Keywords: bake hardening, ultrafine grain, nano grain, AA6061 aluminum,

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4926 Effect of Vanadium Addition to Aluminum Grain Refined by Ti or Ti + B on Its Microstructure, Mechanical Behavior, Fatigue Strength and Life

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid

Abstract:

As aluminum solidifies in columnar structure with large grain size which reduces its surface quality and mechanical strength; therefore it is normally grain refined either by titanium or titanium + boron (Ti or Ti + B). In this paper, the effect of addition of either Ti or Ti + B to commercially pure aluminum on its grain size, Vickers hardness, mechanical strength and fatigue strength and life is presented and discussed. Similarly, the effect of vanadium addition to Al grain refined by Ti or Ti+ B is presented and discussed. Two binary master alloys Al-Ti and Al-Vi were laboratory prepared from which five different micro-alloys in addition to the commercially pure aluminum namely Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B, Al-V, Al-Ti-V and Al-Ti-B-V were prepared for the investigation. Finally, the effect of their addition on the fatigue cracks initiation and propagation, using scanning electron microscope, SEM, is also presented and discussed. Photomirographs and photoscans are included in the paper.

Keywords: aluminum, fatigue, grain refinement, titanium, titanium+boron, vanadium

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4925 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment

Authors: Tahani Farah, Hanène Souli, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht

Abstract:

In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.

Keywords: bio-clogging, granulometry, permeability, nutrition

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4924 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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4923 Characteristics of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) Flour on the Soaking Time of Peeled Grains and Particle Size Treatment

Authors: Sri Satya Antarlina, Elok Zubaidah, Teti Istiana, Harijono

Abstract:

Sorghum bicolor (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential as a flour for gluten-free food products. Sorghum flour production needs grain soaking treatment. Soaking can reduce the tannin content which is an anti-nutrient, so it can increase the protein digestibility. Fine particle size decreases the yield of flour, so it is necessary to study various particle sizes to increase the yield. This study aims to determine the characteristics of sorghum flour in the treatment of soaking peeled grain and particle size. The material of white sorghum varieties KD-4 from farmers in East Java, Indonesia. Factorial randomized factorial design (two factors), repeated three times, factor I were the time of grain soaking (five levels) that were 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours, factor II was the size of the starch particles sifted with a fineness level of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mesh. The method of making sorghum flour is grain peeling, soaking peeled grain, drying using the oven at 60ᵒC, milling, and sieving. Physico-chemical analysis of sorghum flour. The results show that there is an interaction between soaking time of grain with the size of sorghum flour particles. Interaction in yield of flour, L* color (brightness level), whiteness index, paste properties, amylose content, protein content, bulk density, and protein digestibility. The method of making sorghum flour through the soaking of peeled grain and the difference in particle size has an important role in producing the physicochemical properties of the specific flour. Based on the characteristics of sorghum flour produced, it is determined the method of making sorghum flour through sorghum grain soaking for 24 hours, the particle size of flour 80 mesh. The sorghum flour with characteristic were 24.88% yield of flour, 88.60 color L* (brightness level), 69.95 whiteness index, 3615 Cp viscosity, 584.10 g/l of bulk density, 24.27% db protein digestibility, 90.02% db starch content, 23.4% db amylose content, 67.45% db amylopectin content, 0.22% db crude fiber content, 0.037% db tannin content, 5.30% db protein content, ash content 0.18% db, carbohydrate content 92.88 % db, and 1.94% db fat content. The sorghum flour is recommended for cookies products.

Keywords: characteristic, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) flour, grain soaking, particle size, physicochemical properties

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4922 Grain and Grain Boundary Behavior of Sm Substituted Barium Titanate Based Ceramics

Authors: Parveen Kumar, J. K. Juneja, Chandra Prakash, K. K. Raina

Abstract:

A series of polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics with compositional formula Ba0.80-xSmxPb0.20Ti0.90Zr0.10O3 with x varying from 0 to 0.01 in the steps of 0.0025 has been prepared by solid state reaction method. The dielectric constant and tangent loss was measured as a function of frequency from 100Hz to 1MHz at different temperatures (200-500oC). The electrical behavior was then investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy (CIS) technique. From the CIS study, it has been found that there is a contribution of both grain and grain boundary in the electrical behavior of such ceramics. Grain and grain boundary resistivity and capacitance were calculated at different temperature using CIS technique. The present paper is about the discussion of grain and grain boundary contribution towards the electrical properties of Sm modified BaTiO3 based ceramics at high temperature.

Keywords: grain, grain boundary, impedance, dielectric

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4921 Investigation on the Effect of Titanium (Ti) Plus Boron (B) Addition to the Mg-AZ31 Alloy in the as Cast and After Extrusion on Its Metallurgical and Mechanical Characteristics

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid, Raghad S. Hemeimat

Abstract:

Magnesium - aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are used in manufacturing a number of engineering and industrial parts in the automobile and aircraft industries due to their strength – to –weight -ratio. Against these preferable characteristics, magnesium is difficult to deform at room temperature therefore it is alloyed with other elements mainly Aluminum and Zinc to add some required properties particularly for their high strength - to -weight ratio. Mg and its alloys oxidize rapidly therefore care should be taken during melting or machining them; but they are not fire hazardous. Grain refinement is an important technology to improve the mechanical properties and the micro structure uniformity of the alloys. Grain refinement has been introduced in early fifties; when Cibula showed that the presence of Ti, and Ti+ B, produced a great refining effect in Al. since then it became an industrial practice to grain refine Al. Most of the published work on grain refinement was directed toward grain refining Al and Zinc alloys; however, the effect of the addition of rare earth material on the grain size or the mechanical behavior of Mg alloys has not been previously investigated. This forms the main objective of the research work; where, the effect of Ti addition on the grain size, mechanical behavior, ductility, and the extrusion force & energy consumed in forward extrusion of Mg-AZ31 alloy is investigated and discussed in two conditions, first in the as cast condition and the second after extrusion. It was found that addition of Ti to Mg- AZ31 alloy has resulted in reduction of its grain size by 14%; the reduction in grain size after extrusion was much higher. However the increase in Vicker’s hardness was 3% after the addition of Ti in the as cast condition, and higher values for Vicker’s hardness were achieved after extrusion. Furthermore, an increase in the strength coefficient by 36% was achieved with the addition of Ti to Mg-AZ31 alloy in the as cast condition. Similarly, the work hardening index was also increased indicating an enhancement of the ductility and formability. As for the extrusion process, it was found that the force and energy required for the extrusion were both reduced by 57% and 59% with the addition of Ti.

Keywords: cast condition, direct extrusion, ductility, MgAZ31 alloy, super - plasticity

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4920 Microstructural Origin of Morphotropic Phase Boundary and Magnetic Ordering in the Multiferroic BiFeO3-PbTiO3

Authors: Bastola Narayan, Rajeev Ranjan

Abstract:

The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in the magnetoelectric (1-x)BiFeO3-(x)PbTiO3 has remained a matter of controversy ever since its discovery in 1964. The nature of the phase stabilized (single phase tetragonal or coexistence of tetragonal and rhombohedral phases) is very sensitive to the slight changes in the synthesis conditions. It thus remained an enigma as to what is the essential physical factor which is controlled by the slight difference in the synthesis conditions that finally determines, whether the phase formed will be single phase or coexistence of phases. In this paper, we demonstrate that the nature of the phase stabilized in this system is uniquely dependent on the crystallite size. The system is shown to exhibit features of abnormal grain growth (AGG) during sintering with abrupt increase in the grain size from ~ 1 micron to ~ 10 microns. The 10 micron grains exhibit pure tetragonal phase while the 1 micron grains exhibit coexistence of rhombohedral and tetragonal ferroelectric phases. The Rietveld analysis of powder neutron diffraction shows a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic order transition inducing with crystalline size reduction from 10 micron to 1 micron. Since tetragonal phase is known to have paramagnetic order and rhombohedral phase has antiferromagnetic order in room temperature, this further strengthens our argument of size induced structure transition.

Keywords: size driven MPB, size driven magnetic ordering, abnormal grain growth, phase formation in BF-PT system

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4919 Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites Cobalt Matrix with Nano SiC Particles

Authors: Dhuha Albusalih, David Weston, Simon Gill

Abstract:

Nanocomposites Co-SiC with well dispersed nanoparticles and Co nano grain size has produced using Pulse Reverse Plating (PRP) and using anionic surfactant. Different particle contents of nanocomposites were produced by altering the plating parameters. The method allows great control over the level of nanoparticles in the coating, without changing bath chemistry. Examination by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), TEM and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to characterize and study the strengthening mechanisms of these nanocomposites. The primary strengthening mechanisms were shown to be grain refinement and dispersion strengthening. Tribological performances of the produced electroplated nanocomposite Co-SiC coatings were examined. Results showed that the coating with the higher volume fraction (vol. %) of SiC and the smallest grain size has the higher hardness and low wear rate.

Keywords: nanocomposites, pulse reverse plating, tribological performance of cobalt nanocomposites

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4918 The Role of Deformation Strain and Annealing Temperature on Grain Boundary Engineering and Texture Evolution of Haynes 230

Authors: Mohsen Sanayei, Jerzy Szpunar

Abstract:

The present study investigates the effects of deformation strain and annealing temperature on the formation of twin boundaries, deformation and recrystallization texture evolution and grain boundary networks and connectivity. The resulting microstructures were characterized using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) both immediately following small amount of deformation and after short time annealing at high temperature to correlate the micro and macro texture evolution of these alloys. Furthermore, this study showed that the process of grain boundary engineering, consisting cycles of deformation and annealing, is found to substantially reduce the mass and size of random boundaries and increase the proportion of low Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) grain boundaries.

Keywords: coincidence site lattice, grain boundary engineering, electron backscatter diffraction, texture, x-ray diffraction

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4917 Synthesis and Characterization of Non-Aqueous Electrodeposited ZnSe Thin Film

Authors: S. R. Kumar, Shashikant Rajpal

Abstract:

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution and subsequently annealed in air at 400°C. XRD analysis indicates the polycrystalline deposit of (111) plane in both the cases. The sharpness of the peak increases due to annealing of the film and average grain size increases to 20 nm to 27nm. SEM photograph indicate that grains are uniform and densely distributed over the surface. Due to annealing the average grain size increased by 20%. The EDS spectroscopy shows the ratio of Zn & Se is 1.1 in case of annealed film. AFM analysis indicates the average roughness of the film reduces from 181nm to 165nm due to annealing of the film. The bandgap also decreases from 2.71eV to 2.62eV.

Keywords: electrodeposition, non-aqueous medium, SEM, XRD

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4916 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: austenite, ferrite, grain size, hardness, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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4915 The Effect of Electromagnetic Stirring during Solidification of Nickel Based Alloys

Authors: Ricardo Paiva, Rui Soares, Felix Harnau, Bruno Fragoso

Abstract:

Nickel-based alloys are materials well suited for service in extreme environments subjected to pressure and heat. Some industrial applications for Nickel-based alloys are aerospace and jet engines, oil and gas extraction, pollution control and waste processing, automotive and marine industry. It is generally recognized that grain refinement is an effective methodology to improve the quality of casted parts. Conventional grain refinement techniques involve the addition of inoculation substances, the control of solidification conditions, or thermomechanical treatment with recrystallization. However, such methods often lead to non-uniform grain size distribution and the formation of hard phases, which are detrimental to both wear performance and biocompatibility. Stirring of the melt by electromagnetic fields has been widely used in continuous castings with success for grain refinement, solute redistribution, and surface quality improvement. Despite the advantages, much attention has not been paid yet to the use of this approach on functional castings such as investment casting. Furthermore, the effect of electromagnetic stirring (EMS) fields on Nickel-based alloys is not known. In line with the gaps/needs of the state-of-art, the present research work targets to promote new advances in controlling grain size and morphology of investment cast Nickel based alloys. For such a purpose, a set of experimental tests was conducted. A high-frequency induction furnace with vacuum and controlled atmosphere was used to cast the Inconel 718 alloy in ceramic shells. A coil surrounded the casting chamber in order to induce electromagnetic stirring during solidification. Aiming to assess the effect of the electromagnetic stirring on Ni alloys, the samples were subjected to microstructural analysis and mechanical tests. The results show that electromagnetic stirring can be an effective methodology to modify the grain size and mechanical properties of investment-cast parts.

Keywords: investment casting, grain refinement, electromagnetic stirring, nickel alloys

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4914 Dislocation Density-Based Modeling of the Grain Refinement in Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

Authors: Reza Miresmaeili, Asghar Heydari Astaraee, Fereshteh Dolati

Abstract:

In the present study, an analytical model based on dislocation density model was developed to simulate grain refinement in surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The correlation between SMAT time and development in plastic strain on one hand, and dislocation density evolution, on the other hand, was established to simulate the grain refinement in SMAT. A dislocation density-based constitutive material law was implemented using VUHARD subroutine. A random sequence of shots is taken into consideration for multiple impacts model using Python programming language by utilizing a random function. The simulation technique was to model each impact in a separate run and then transferring the results of each run as initial conditions for the next run (impact). The developed Finite Element (FE) model of multiple impacts describes the coverage evolution in SMAT. Simulations were run to coverage levels as high as 4500%. It is shown that the coverage implemented in the FE model is equal to the experimental coverage. It is depicted that numerical SMAT coverage parameter is adequately conforming to the well-known Avrami model. Comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements for residual stresses and depth of deformation layers confirms the performance of the established FE model for surface engineering evaluations in SMA treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of grain refinement, including resultant grain size and dislocation density, were conducted to validate the established model. The full width at half-maximum in XRD profiles can be used to measure the grain size. Numerical results and experimental measurements of grain refinement illustrate good agreement and show the capability of established FE model to predict the gradient microstructure in SMA treatment.

Keywords: dislocation density, grain refinement, severe plastic deformation, simulation, surface mechanical attrition treatment

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4913 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng

Abstract:

Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4912 Effect of Austenitizing Temperature, Soaking Time and Grain Size on Charpy Impact Toughness of Quenched and Tempered Steel

Authors: S. Gupta, R. Sarkar, S. Pathak, D. H. Kela, A. Pramanick, P. Talukdar

Abstract:

Low alloy quenched and tempered steels are typically used in cast railway components such as knuckles, yokes, and couplers. Since these components experience extensive impact loading during their service life, adequate impact toughness of these grades need to be ensured to avoid catastrophic failure of parts in service. Because of the general availability of Charpy V Test equipment, Charpy test is the most common and economical means to evaluate the impact toughness of materials and is generally used in quality control applications. With this backdrop, an experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of austenitizing temperature, soaking time and resultant grain size on the Charpy impact toughness and the related fracture mechanisms in a quenched and tempered low alloy steel, with the aim of optimizing the heat treatment parameters (i.e. austenitizing temperature and soaking time) with respect to impact toughness. In the first phase, samples were austenitized at different temperatures viz. 760, 800, 840, 880, 920 and 960°C, followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. In the next phase, samples were subjected to different soaking times (0, 2, 4 and 6 hours) at a fixed austenitizing temperature (980°C), followed by quenching and tempering at 600°C for 4 hours. The samples corresponding to different test conditions were then subjected to instrumented Charpy tests at -40°C and energy absorbed were recorded. Subsequently, microstructure and fracture surface of samples corresponding to different test conditions were observed under scanning electron microscope, and the corresponding grain sizes were measured. In the final stage, austenitizing temperature, soaking time and measured grain sizes were correlated with impact toughness and the fracture morphology and mechanism.

Keywords: heat treatment, grain size, microstructure, retained austenite and impact toughness

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4911 Characterizing Surface Machining-Induced Local Deformation Using Electron Backscatter Diffraction

Authors: Wenqian Zhang, Xuelin Wang, Yujin Hu, Siyang Wang

Abstract:

The subsurface layer of a component plays a significant role in its service performance. Any surface mechanical process during fabrication can introduce a deformed layer near the surface, which can be related to the microstructure alteration and strain hardening, and affects the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the material. However, there exists a great difficulty in determining the subsurface deformation induced by surface machining. In this study, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to study the deformed layer of surface milled 316 stainless steel. The microstructure change was displayed by the EBSD maps and characterized by misorientation variation. The results revealed that the surface milling resulted in heavily nonuniform deformations in the subsurface layer and even in individual grains. The direction of the predominant grain deformation was about 30-60 deg to the machined surface. Moreover, a local deformation rate (LDR) was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the local deformation degree. Both of the average and maximum LDRs were utilized to characterize the deformation trend along the depth direction. It was revealed that the LDR had a strong correlation with the development of grain and sub-grain boundaries. In this work, a scan step size of 1.2 μm was chosen for the EBSD measurement. A LDR higher than 18 deg/μm indicated a newly developed grain boundary, while a LDR ranged from 2.4 to 18 deg/μm implied the generation of a sub-grain boundary. And a lower LDR than 2.4 deg/μm could only introduce a slighter deformation and no sub-grain boundary was produced. According to the LDR analysis with the evolution of grain or sub grain boundaries, the deformed layer could be classified into four zones: grain broken layer, seriously deformed layer, slightly deformed layer and non-deformed layer.

Keywords: surface machining, EBSD, subsurface layer, local deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
4910 Effects of Sintering Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanostructured Ni-17Cr Alloy

Authors: B. J. Babalola, M. B. Shongwe

Abstract:

Spark Plasma Sintering technique is a novel processing method that produces limited grain growth and highly dense variety of materials; alloys, superalloys, and carbides just to mention a few. However, initial particle size and spark plasma sintering parameters are factors which influence the grain growth and mechanical properties of sintered materials. Ni-Cr alloys are regarded as the most promising alloys for aerospace turbine blades, owing to the fact that they meet the basic requirements of desirable mechanical strength at high temperatures and good resistance to oxidation. The conventional method of producing this alloy often results in excessive grain growth and porosity levels that are detrimental to its mechanical properties. The effect of sintering temperature was evaluated on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the nanostructured Ni-17Cr alloy. Nickel and chromium powder were milled using high energy ball milling independently for 30 hours, milling speed of 400 revs/min and ball to powder ratio (BPR) of 10:1. The milled powders were mixed in the composition of Nickel having 83 wt % and chromium, 17 wt %. This was sintered at varied temperatures from 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C and 1200°C. The structural characteristics such as porosity, grain size, fracture surface and hardness were analyzed by scan electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, Archimedes densitometry, micro-hardness tester. The corresponding results indicated an increase in the densification and hardness property of the alloy as the temperature increases. The residual porosity of the alloy reduces with respect to the sintering temperature and in contrast, the grain size was enhanced. The study of the mechanical properties, including hardness, densification shows that optimum properties were obtained for the sintering temperature of 1100°C. The advantages of high sinterability of Ni-17Cr alloy using milled powders and microstructural details were discussed.

Keywords: densification, grain growth, milling, nanostructured materials, sintering temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4909 X-Ray Analysis and Grain Size of CuInx Ga1-X Se2 Solar Cells

Authors: A. I. Al-Bassam, A. M. El-Nggar

Abstract:

Polycrystalline Cu In I-x GaxSe2 thin films have been fabricated. Some physical properties such as lattice parameters, crystal structure and microstructure of Cu In I-x GaxSe2 were determined using X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films with x ≥ 0.5 have a chalcopyrite structure and the films with x ≤ 0.5 have a zinc blende structure. The lattice parameters were found to vary linearly with composition over a wide range from x = 0 to x =1.0. The variation of lattice parameters with composition was found to obey Vegard's law. The variation of the c/a with composition was also linear. The quality of a wide range of Cu In I-xGaxSe2 thin film absorbers from CuInSe to CuGaSe was evaluated by Photoluminescence (PL) measurements.

Keywords: grain size, polycrystalline, solar cells, lattice parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 421