Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4449

Search results for: all-vanadium redox flow battery

4449 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud


Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

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4448 Dimensionally Stable Anode as a Bipolar Plate for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Jaejin Han, Jinsub Choi


Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a type of redox flow battery which uses vanadium ionic solution as electrolyte. Inside the VRFB, 2.5mm thickness of graphite is generally used as bipolar plate for anti-corrosion of current collector. In this research, thick graphite bipolar plate was substituted by 0.126mm thickness of dimensionally stable anode which was coated with IrO2 on an anodic nanotubular TiO2 substrate. It can provide dimensional advantage over the conventional graphite when the VRFB is used as multi-stack. Ir was coated by using spray coating method in order to enhance electric conductivity. In this study, various electrochemical characterizations were carried out. Cyclic voltammetry data showed activation of Ir in the positive electrode of VRFB. In addition, polarization measurements showed Ir-coated DSA had low overpotential in the positive electrode of VRFB. In cell test results, the DSA-used VRFB showed better efficiency than graphite-used VRFB in voltage and overall efficiency.

Keywords: bipolar plate, DSA (dimensionally stable anode), iridium oxide coating, TiO2 nanotubes, VRFB (vanadium redox flow battery)

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4447 Enhanced Performance of an All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Employing Graphene Modified Carbon Paper Electrodes

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Dan Nir, Vladimir Yufit, P. V. Aravind, Nigel Brandon


Fuel cell grade gas-diffusion layer carbon paper (CP) electrodes are subjected to electrophoresis in N,N’-dimethylformamide (DMF) consisting of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The rGO modified electrodes are compared with CP in a single asymmetric all-vanadium redox battery system (employing a double serpentine flow channel for each half-cell). Peak power densities improved by 4% when the rGO deposits were facing the ion-exchange membrane (cell performance was poorer when the rGO was facing the flow field). Cycling of the cells showed least degradation of the CP electrodes that were coated with rGO in comparison to pristine samples.

Keywords: all-vanadium redox flow batteries, carbon paper electrodes, electrophoretic deposition, reduced graphene oxide

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4446 Preparation and Performance of Polyphenylene Oxide-Based Anion Exchange Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

Authors: Mi-Jung Park, Min-Hwa Lim, Ho-Young Jung


A polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based anion exchange membrane based on the functionalization of bromomethylated PPO using 1-methylimdazole was fabricated for vanadium redox flow application. The imidazolium-bromomethylated PPO (Im-bPPO) showed lower permeability VO2+ ions (2.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec), compared to Nafion 212 (2.3×10⁻¹² m²/sec) and FAP-450 (7.9×10⁻¹⁴ m²/sec). Even though the Im-bPPO membrane has higher permeability, the energy efficiency of the VRFB with the Im-bPPO membrane was slightly lower than that of Nafion and FAP-450. The Im-bPPO membrane exhibits good voltage efficiency compared to FAP-450 and Nafion 212 because of its better ion conductivity. The Im-bPPo membrane showed up good performance, but a decline in performance at later cycles was observed.

Keywords: anion exchange membranes, vanadium redox flow battery, polyphenylene oxide, energy efficiency (EE)

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4445 Chemical Stability and Characterization of Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Min-Hwa Lim, Mi-Jeong Park, Ho-Young Jung


Imidazolium-brominated polyphenylene oxide (Im-bPPO) is based on the functionalization of bromomethylated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) using 1-Methylimdazole. For the purpose of long cycle life of vanadium redox battery (VRB), the chemical stability of Im-bPPO, sPPO (sulfonated 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) and Fumatech membranes were evaluated firstly in the 0.1M vanadium (V) solution dissolved in 3M sulfuric acid (H2SO4) for 72h, and UV analyses of the degradation products proved that ether bond in PPO backbone was vulnerable to be attacked by vanadium (V) ion. It was found that the membranes had slightly weight loss after soaking in 2 ml distilled water included in STS pressure vessel for 1 day at 200◦C. ATR-FT-IR data indicated before and after the degradation of the membranes. Further evaluation on the degradation mechanism of the menbranes were carried out in Fenton’s reagent solution for 72 h at 50 ◦C and analyses of the membranes before and after degradation confirmed the weight loss of the membranes. The Fumatech membranes exhibited better performance than AEM and CEM, but Nafion 212 still suffers chemical degradation.

Keywords: vanadium redox flow battery, ion exchange membrane, permeability, degradation, chemical stability

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4444 Modification of Polyolefin Membrane Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide for Redox Flow Batteries

Authors: Vadim V. Zefirov, Victor E. Sizov, Marina A. Pigaleva, Igor V. Elmanovich, Mikhail S. Kondratenko, Marat O. Gallyamov


This work presents a novel method for treating porous hydrophobic polyolefin membranes using supercritical carbon dioxide that allows usage of the modified membrane in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte. Polyolefin membranes are well known and widely used, however, they cannot be used as separators in redox flow batteries with an aqueous electrolyte since they have insufficient wettability, and therefore do not provide sufficient proton conductivity. The main aim of the presented work was the development of hydrophilic composites based on cheap membranes and precursors. Supercritical fluid was used as a medium for the deposition of the hydrophilic phase on the hydrophobic surface of the membrane. Due to the absence of negative capillary effects in a supercritical medium, a homogeneous composite is obtained as a result of synthesis. The in-situ synthesized silicon oxide nanoparticles and the chitosan polymer layer act as the hydrophilic phase and not only increase the affinity of the membrane towards the electrolyte, but also reduce the pore size of the polymer matrix, which positively affects the ion selectivity of the membrane. The composite material obtained as a result of synthesis has enhanced hydrophilic properties and is capable of providing proton conductivity in redox flow batteries. The morphology of the obtained composites was characterized by electron microscopy. To analyze the phase composition, infrared spectroscopy was used. The hydrophilic properties were studied by water contact angle measurements. In addition, the proton conductivity and ion selectivity of the obtained samples were studied, and tests in real redox flow batteries were performed. As a result, modified membrane was characterised in detail and moreover it was shown that modified cheap polyolefin membranes have pronounced proton conductivity and high ion selectivity, so their performance in a real redox flow battery approaches expensive commercial analogues, reaching 70% of energy efficiency.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, chitosan, polymer membrane, redox flow batteries, silica nanoparticles, supercritical fluid

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4443 Evaluation of Electrophoretic and Electrospray Deposition Methods for Preparing Graphene and Activated Carbon Modified Nano-Fibre Electrodes for Hydrogen/Vanadium Flow Batteries and Supercapacitors

Authors: Barun Chakrabarti, Evangelos Kalamaras, Vladimir Yufit, Xinhua Liu, Billy Wu, Nigel Brandon, C. T. John Low


In this work, we perform electrophoretic deposition of activated carbon on a number of substrates to prepare symmetrical coin cells for supercapacitor applications. From several recipes that involve the evaluation of a few solvents such as isopropyl alcohol, N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), or acetone to binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and charging agents such as magnesium chloride, we display a working means for achieving supercapacitors that can achieve 100 F/g in a consistent manner. We then adapt this EPD method to deposit reduced graphene oxide on SGL 10AA carbon paper to achieve cathodic materials for testing in a hydrogen/vanadium flow battery. In addition, a self-supported hierarchical carbon nano-fibre is prepared by means of electrospray deposition of an iron phthalocyanine solution onto a temporary substrate followed by carbonisation to remove heteroatoms. This process also induces a degree of nitrogen doping on the carbon nano-fibres (CNFs), which allows its catalytic performance to improve significantly as detailed in other publications. The CNFs are then used as catalysts by attaching them to graphite felt electrodes facing the membrane inside an all-vanadium flow battery (Scribner cell using serpentine flow distribution channels) and efficiencies as high as 60% is noted at high current densities of 150 mA/cm². About 20 charge and discharge cycling show that the CNF catalysts consistently perform better than pristine graphite felt electrodes. Following this, we also test the CNF as an electro-catalyst in the hydrogen/vanadium flow battery (cathodic side as mentioned briefly in the first paragraph) facing the membrane, based upon past studies from our group. Once again, we note consistently good efficiencies of 85% and above for CNF modified graphite felt electrodes in comparison to 60% for pristine felts at low current density of 50 mA/cm² (this reports 20 charge and discharge cycles of the battery). From this preliminary investigation, we conclude that the CNFs may be used as catalysts for other systems such as vanadium/manganese, manganese/manganese and manganese/hydrogen flow batteries in the future. We are generating data for such systems at present, and further publications are expected.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nano-fibres, all-vanadium redox flow battery, hydrogen-vanadium fuel cell, electrocatalysis

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4442 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh


This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox-mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, and RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells

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4441 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi


The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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4440 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee


This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: battery, recovery effect, low-power, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

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4439 Reducing Change-Related Costs in Assembly of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Cars by Mechanical Decoupling

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Nemanja Sarovic


A key component of the drive train of electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery system. Among various other components, such as the battery management system or the thermal management system, the battery system mostly consists of several cells which are integrated mechanically as well as electrically. Due to different vehicle concepts with regards to space, energy and power specifications, there is a variety of different battery systems. The corresponding assembly lines are specially designed for each battery concept. Minor changes to certain characteristics of the battery have a disproportionally high effect on the set-up effort in the form of high change-related costs. This paper will focus on battery systems which are made out of battery cells with a prismatic format. The product architecture and the assembly process will be analyzed in detail based on battery concepts of existing electric cars and key variety-causing drivers will be identified. On this basis, several measures will be presented and discussed on how to change the product architecture and the assembly process in order to reduce change-related costs.

Keywords: assembly, automotive industry, battery system, battery concept

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4438 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

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4437 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom


This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

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4436 A Study on Long Life Hybrid Battery System Consists of Ni-63 Betavoltaic Battery and All Solid Battery

Authors: Bosung Kim, Youngmok Yun, Sungho Lee, Chanseok Park


There is a limitation to power supply and operation by the chemical or physical battery in the space environment. Therefore, research for utilizing nuclear energy in the universe has been in progress since the 1950s, around the major industrialized countries. In this study, the self-rechargeable battery having a long life relative to the half-life of the radioisotope is suggested. The hybrid system is composed of betavoltaic battery, all solid battery and energy harvesting board. Betavoltaic battery can produce electrical power at least 10 years over using the radioisotope from Ni-63 and the silicon-based semiconductor. The electrical power generated from the betavoltaic battery is stored in the all-solid battery and stored power is used if necessary. The hybrid system board is composed of input terminals, boost circuit, charging terminals and output terminals. Betavoltaic and all solid batteries are connected to the input and output terminal, respectively. The electric current of 10 µA is applied to the system board by using the high-resolution power simulator. The system efficiencies are measured from a boost up voltage of 1.8 V, 2.4 V and 3 V, respectively. As a result, the efficiency of system board is about 75% after boosting up the voltage from 1V to 3V.

Keywords: isotope, betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, energy harvesting

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4435 Wireless Battery Charger with Adaptive Rapid-Charging Algorithm

Authors: Byoung-Hee Lee


Wireless battery charger with adaptive rapid charging algorithm is proposed. The proposed wireless charger adopts voltage regulation technique to reduce the number of power conversion steps. Moreover, based on battery models, an adaptive rapid charging algorithm for Li-ion batteries is obtained. Rapid-charging performance with the proposed wireless battery charger and the proposed rapid charging algorithm has been experimentally verified to show more than 70% charging time reduction compared to conventional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging without the degradation of battery lifetime.

Keywords: wireless, battery charger, adaptive, rapid-charging

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4434 Investigation and Estimation of State of Health of Battery Pack in Battery Electric Vehicles-Online Battery Characterization

Authors: Ali Mashayekh, Mahdiye Khorasani, Thomas Weyh


The tendency to use the Battery-Electric vehicle (BEV) for the low and medium driving range or even high driving range has been growing more and more. As a result, higher safety, reliability, and durability of the battery pack as a component of electric vehicles, which has a great share of cost and weight of the final product, are the topics to be considered and investigated. Battery aging can be considered as the predominant factor regarding the reliability and durability of BEV. To better understand the aging process, offline battery characterization has been widely used, which is time-consuming and needs very expensive infrastructures. This paper presents the substitute method for the conventional battery characterization methods, which is based on battery Modular Multilevel Management (BM3). According to this Topology, the battery cells can be drained and charged concerning their capacity, which allows varying battery pack structures. Due to the integration of the power electronics, the output voltage of the battery pack is no longer fixed but can be dynamically adjusted in small steps. In other words, each cell can have three different states, namely series, parallel, and bypass in connection with the neighbor cells. With the help of MATLAB/Simulink and by using the BM3 modules, the battery string model is created. This model allows us to switch two cells with the different SoC as parallel, which results in the internal balancing of the cells. But if the parallel switching lasts just for a couple of ms, we can have a perturbation pulse which can stimulate the cells out of the relaxation phase. With the help of modeling the voltage response pulse of the battery, it would be possible to characterize the cell. The Online EIS method, which is discussed in this paper, can be a robust substitute for the conventional battery characterization methods.

Keywords: battery characterization, SoH estimation, RLS, BEV

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4433 Estimation of the State of Charge of the Battery Using EFK and Sliding Mode Observer in MATLAB-Arduino/Labview

Authors: Mouna Abarkan, Abdelillah Byou, Nacer M'Sirdi, El Hossain Abarkan


This paper presents the estimation of the state of charge of the battery using two types of observers. The battery model used is the combination of a voltage source, which is the open circuit battery voltage of a strength corresponding to the connection of resistors and electrolyte and a series of parallel RC circuits representing charge transfer phenomena and diffusion. An adaptive observer applied to this model is proposed, this observer to estimate the battery state of charge of the battery is based on EFK and sliding mode that is known for their robustness and simplicity implementation. The results are validated by simulation under MATLAB/Simulink and implemented in Arduino-LabView.

Keywords: model of the battery, adaptive sliding mode observer, the EFK observer, estimation of state of charge, SOC, implementation in Arduino/LabView

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4432 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka


The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

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4431 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi


Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

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4430 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien


This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transfer

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4429 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won


The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

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4428 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: A Theoretical Model of Electrochemical Hydrogen Storage in an Activated Carbon Electrode

Authors: Sh. Heidari, A. J. Andrews, A. Oberoi


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have a roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. In this paper, a theoretical model is presented of the process of H+ ion (proton) conduction through an acid electrolyte into a highly porous activated carbon electrode where it is neutralised and absorbed on the inner surfaces of pores. A Butler-Volmer type equation relates the rate of adsorption to the potential difference between the activated carbon surface and the electrolyte. This model for the hydrogen storage electrode is then incorporated into a more general computer model based on MATLAB software of the entire electrochemical cell including the oxygen electrode. Hence a theoretical voltage-current curve is generated for given input parameters for a particular activated carbon electrode. It is shown that theoretical VI curves produced by the model can be fitted accurately to experimental data from an actual electrochemical cell with the same characteristics. By obtaining the best-fit values of input parameters, such as the exchange current density and charge transfer coefficient for the hydrogen adsorption reaction, an improved understanding of the adsorption reaction is obtained. This new model will assist in designing improved proton flow batteries for storing solar and wind energy.

Keywords: electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, butler-volmer equation, activated carbon

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4427 The Proton Flow Battery for Storing Renewable Energy: Hydrogen Storage Capacity of Selected Activated Carbon Electrodes Made from Brown Coal

Authors: Amandeep Singh Oberoi, John Andrews, Alan L. Chaffee, Lachlan Ciddor


Electrochemical storage of hydrogen in activated carbon electrodes as part of a reversible fuel cell offers a potentially attractive option for storing surplus electrical energy from inherently variable solar and wind energy resources. Such a system – which we have called a proton flow battery – promises to have roundtrip energy efficiency comparable to lithium ion batteries, while having higher gravimetric and volumetric energy densities. Activated carbons with high internal surface area, high pore volume, light weight and easy availability have attracted considerable research interest as a solid-state hydrogen storage medium. This paper compares the physical characteristics and hydrogen storage capacities of four activated carbon electrodes made by different methods from brown coal. The fabrication methods for these samples are explained. Their proton conductivity was measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and their hydrogen storage capacity by galvanostatic charging and discharging in a three-electrode electrolytic cell with 1 mol sulphuric acid as electrolyte. The highest hydrogen storage capacity obtained was 1.29 wt%, which compares favourably with metal hydrides used in commercially available solid-state hydrogen storages. The hydrogen storage capacity of the samples increased monotonically with increasing BET surface area (calculated from CO2 adsorption method). The results point the way towards selecting high-performing electrodes for proton flow batteries that the competitiveness of this energy storage technology.

Keywords: activated carbon, electrochemical hydrogen storage, proton flow battery, proton conductivity

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4426 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom


This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, printed battery, screen printing, Zn-air

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4425 Internet of Things Based Battery Management System

Authors: Pakhil Singh, Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Yasser Rafat


The battery management system is an essential package/system which ensures optimum performance and safety of a battery by monitoring the key essential parameters of the battery like the voltage, current, temperature, state of charge, state of health during charging and discharging. This can be accomplished using outputs of various sensors employed to serve the purpose. The increasing demand for electricity generation from renewable energy sources requires proper storage and hence a proper monitoring system as well. A battery management system is required in wide applications ranging from renewable energy storage systems, off-grid solar PV applications to electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to study the parameters used in monitoring various battery operating conditions and proposes the usage of the internet of things (IoT) to implement a reliable battery management system.

Keywords: electric vehicles, internet of things, sensors, state of charge, state of health

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4424 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat


This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

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4423 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Jiheon Park, Taekwang Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu


Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

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4422 Advanced Structural Analysis of Energy Storage Materials

Authors: Disha Gupta


The aim of this research is to conduct X-ray and e-beam characterization techniques on lithium-ion battery materials for the improvement of battery performance. The key characterization techniques employed are the synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain a more holistic approach to understanding material properties. This research effort provides additional battery characterization knowledge that promotes the development of new cathodes, anodes, electrolyte and separator materials for batteries, hence, leading to better and more efficient battery performance. Both ex-situ and in-situ synchrotron experiments were performed on LiFePO₄, one of the most common cathode material, from different commercial sources and their structural analysis, were conducted using Athena/Artemis software. This analysis technique was then further extended to study other cathode materials like LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ and even some sulphate systems like Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂ and Li₂Co0.5Mn₀.₅ (SO₄)₂. XAS data were collected for Fe and P K-edge for LiFePO4, and Fe, Mn and P-K-edge for LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ to conduct an exhaustive study of the structure. For the sulphate system, Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, XAS data was collected at both Mn and S K-edge. Finite Difference Method for Near Edge Structure (FDMNES) simulations were also conducted for various iron, manganese and phosphate model compounds and compared with the experimental XANES data to understand mainly the pre-edge structural information of the absorbing atoms. The Fe K-edge XAS results showed a charge compensation occurring on the Fe atom for all the differently synthesized LiFePO₄ materials as well as the LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ systems. However, the Mn K-edge showed a difference in results as the Mn concentration changed in the materials. For the sulphate-based system Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, however, no change in the Mn K-edge was observed, even though electrochemical studies showed Mn redox reactions.

Keywords: li-ion batteries, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, XRD

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4421 Transformation of Iopromide Due to Redox Gradients in Sediments of the Hyporheic Zone

Authors: Niranjan Mukherjee, Burga Braun, Ulrich Szewzyk


Recalcitrant pharmaceuticals are increasingly found in urban water systems forced by demographic changes. The groundwater-surface water interface, or the hyporheic zone, is known for its impressive self-purification capacity of water bodies. Redox gradients present in this zone provide a wide range of electron acceptors and harbour diverse microbial communities. Biotic transformations of pharmaceuticals in this zone have been demonstrated, but not much information is available on the kind of communities bringing about these transformations. Therefore, bioreactors using sediment from the hyporheic zone of a river in Berlin were set up and fed with iopromide, a recalcitrant iodinated X-ray contrast medium. Iopromide, who’s many oxic and anoxic transformation products have been characterized, was shown to be transformed in such a bioreactor as it passes along the gradient. Many deiodinated transformation products of iopromide could be identified at the outlet of the reactor. In our experiments, it was seen that at the same depths of the column, the transformation of iopromide increased over time. This could be an indication of the microbial communities in the sediment adapting to iopromide. The hyporheic zone, with its varying redox conditions, mainly due to the upwelling and downwelling of surface and groundwater levels, could potentially provide microorganisms with conditions for the complete transformation of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: iopromide, hyporheic zone, recalcitrant pharmaceutical, redox gradients

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4420 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Cross-Linked Redox Enzyme/Nanomaterials

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff


In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of cross-linked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: redox enzyme, nanomaterials, biosensors, electrical communication

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