Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 46

Search results for: vaccinated

46 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Factors Affecting Social Distancing among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Filipinos

Authors: Emmanuel Carlo Belara, Albert John Dela Merced, Mark Anthony Dominguez, Diomari Erasga, Jerome Ferrer, Bernard Ombrog


Social distancing errors are a common prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the Filipino community. This study aims to identify and relate the factors on how they affect our daily lives. Observed factors include memory, attention, anxiety, decision-making, and stress. Upon applying the ergonomic tools and statistical treatment such as t-test and multiple linear regression, stress and attention turned out to have the most impact to the errors of social distancing.

Keywords: vaccinated, unvaccinated, socoal distancing, filipinos

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45 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan


Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

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44 Low Influenza Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Katarzyna Zycinska, Ewa Gyrczuk, Agnieszka Topczewska-Cabanek, Kazimierz Wardyn


Introduction: Influenza is an important clinical and epidemiological problem and should be considered as a possible nosocomial infection. The aim of the study was to determine the influenza vaccine coverage rates among Polish nurses and to find out drivers and barriers for influenza vaccination among this group of health care workers (HCWs). Material and methods: The self- fulfilled survey with 26 questions about the knowledge, perception, and influenza coverage rates was distributed among 461 nurses. Results: Only 15% of nurses were vaccinated against influenza in the consecutive seasons. The majority (75%) of the regularly vaccinated nurses were ambulatory careworkers. The difference between the number of vaccinated hospitals and ambulatory care nurses was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main motivating factors for an influenza vaccination were: a fear of the illness and its complications (97%) and a free of charge vaccine available at the workplace (87%). Ambulatory care nurses more often declared that they were vaccinated mainly to protect themselves while hospital care nurses more often declared the will to protect their patients, these differences in the perception and attitudes to an influenza vaccination among hospital and ambulatory care nurses were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The main barriers for an influenza vaccination among the nursing staff were: a lack of reimbursement of the vaccine (95%), a lack of insufficient knowledge about the effectiveness, and safety of the influenza vaccine (54%). The ambulatory care nurses more often found influenza vaccination as the ethical duty compared to hospital care nurses (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The influenza vaccine coverage rates among the Polish nurses are low and must be improved in the future. More educational activities dedicated to HCWs may result in the increased awareness of influenza vaccination benefits for both medical professionals and patients.

Keywords: influenza, vaccination, nurses, ambulatory careworkers

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43 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau


Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, aquaculture, disease resistance, fish, immune response, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive, rainbow trout, vaccination

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42 Spread of Measles Disease in Indonesia with Susceptible Vaccinated Infected Recovered Model

Authors: Septiawan A. Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih, Sutanto Sastraredja


Measles is a disease which can spread caused by a virus and has been a priority’s Ministry of Health in Indonesia to be solved. Each infected person can be recovered and get immunity so that the spread of the disease can be constructed with susceptible infected recovered (SIR). To prevent the spread of measles transmission, the Ministry of Health holds vaccinations program. The aims of the research are to derive susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR) model, to determine the patterns of disease spread with SVIR model, and also to apply the SVIR model on the spread of measles in Indonesia. Based on the article, it can be concluded that the spread model of measles with vaccinations, that is SVIR model. It is a first-order differential equation system. The patterns of disease spread is determined by solution of the model. Based on that model Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2186 with the average of vaccinations scope about 88% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 4.9%. If it is simulated as Ministry of Health new programs with the average of vaccinations scope about 95% and the average score of vaccinations failure about 3%, then Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2184. Even with the average of vaccinations scope about 100% and no failure of vaccinations, Indonesia will be a measles-free nation in 2183. Indonesia’s target as a measles-free nation in 2020 has not been reached.

Keywords: measles, vaccination, susceptible infected recovered (SIR), susceptible vaccinated infected recovered (SVIR)

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41 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS), India

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40 Effect of Fatty Acids in Feed on Levels of Antibody Titers and CD4 and CD8 T-Lymphocyte against Newcastle Disease Virus of Vaccinated Broiler Chicken

Authors: Alaa A. Shamaun Al-Abboodi, Yunis A. A. Bapeer


400 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross-308) randomly divided to 2 main groups, 1st main group (GA) was feeding basal diet with medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) at rate of 0.15% and divided to four subgroups, 3 subgroups vaccinated with different routes with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and non-vaccinated group. The 2nd main group (GB) feeding basal diet without MCFA and divided the same as 1st main group. The parameters used in this study included: ND antibody titers at 1, 10, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days of age and values of CD4 and CD8 at 1, 20, 30 and 42 days of age. This experiment detected increase in ND antibodies titers in (G1, G2, G3) groups were fed on basal diet MCFA comparing to groups were fed without adding MCFA (G5, G6, G7) and control groups (G4, G8). The results of cellular immune response (CD4 and CD8) T-cells in broiler chicks indicated that there was obviously significant relationship between dietary Fatty Acid (FA) versus the diet without FA on the level of CD4 parameter, for the entire experimental period. The effect of different ages was statistically significant in creating different values of CD4 level, whereas the CD4 level decreases markedly with age. However, analyzing the data of different vaccination methods, oculonasal method of vaccination led to the highest value of CD4 compared with the oral, S/C and control groups. There were statistical differences in CD8 values due to supplementation of FA versus the basal diet and due to the effect of different age periods. As for the age effect, the CD8 value at 20 days of age was significantly higher than at 42 and 30 days.

Keywords: broiler, CD4 and CD8, fatty acids, Newcastle Disease

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39 Uptake of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Hepatitis C Positive Patients and Their Vaccine Response in Myanmar

Authors: Zaw Z Aung


Background: High-risk groups for hepatitis B infection (HBV) are people who injected drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), people living with HIV (PLHIV) and persons with hepatitis C (HCV), etc. HBV/HCV coinfected patients are at increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To the best of author’s knowledge, there is currently no data for hepatitis B vaccine utilization in HCV positive patients and their antibody response. Methodology: From February 2018 to May 2018, consented participants at or above 18 years who came to the clinic in Mandalay were tested with the anti-HCV rapid test. Those who tested HCV positive (n=168) were further tested with hepatitis B profile and asked about their previous hepatitis B vaccination history and risk factors. Results: Out of 168 HCV positive participants, three were excluded for active HBV infections. The remaining 165 were categorized into previously vaccinated 64% (n=106) and unvaccinated 36% (n=59) There were three characteristics groups- PWID monoinfected (n=77), General Population (GP) monoinfected (n=22) and HIV/HCV coinfected participants (n=66). Unvaccinated participants were highest in HIV/HCV, with 68%(n=45) followed by GP (23%, n=5) and PWID (12%, n=9). Among previously vaccinated participants, the highest percentage was PWID (88%, n=68), the second highest was GP (77%, n=17) and lowest in HIV/HCV patients (32%, n=21). 63 participants completed third doses of vaccination (PWID=36, GP=13, HIV/HCV=14). 53% of participants who completed 3 dose of hepatitis B were non-responders (n=34): HIV/HCV (86%, n=12), PWID (44%, n=16), and GP (46%, n=6) Conclusion: Even in the presence of effective and safe hepatitis B vaccine, uptake is low among high risk groups especially PLHIV that needs to be improved. Integration or collaboration of hepatitis B vaccination program, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C treatment centers is desirable. About half of vaccinated participants were non-responders so that optimal doses, schedule and follow-up testing need to be addressed carefully for those groups.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis C, HIV, Myanmar

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38 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin


Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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37 Serosurveillance of Measles Virus amongst Vaccinated Children of a Rural Population of Sindh

Authors: Zeb Hussain, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Shaheen Sharafat


Background: Measles is a contagious viral infection common in childhood. Vaccination against measles is included in the expanded program of immunization (EPI). However, and alarmingly, a high mortality rate is observed due to measles infection in Pakistan. Moreover a recent outbreak of measles in various areas of Pakistan further highlights the problem. It is therefore important to investigate measles specific IgG (antibody) levels in our population. Objective: To quantify measles specific IgG antibodies amongst vaccinated children in district Qamber Shahdadkot, Sindh. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Microbiology section of the Dow-Diagnostic-Research-and-Reference-Laboratory (DDRRL), DUHS after Institutional Review Board approval (IRB-516/DUHS/-14) during August-December-2014. A total of 173 participants (residents of district Qamber Shahdadkot, Sindh) aged between 1-5 years were recruited in the study. Blood samples were collected as per standard phlebotomy guidelines. Blood was stored at 4 °C overnight. Samples were subsequently spun at a speed of 10000rpm to separate sera, which were divided into small aliquots to be frozen at -20 °C. Frozen sera were transported to the DDRRL on dry ice. Measles specific IgG (antibody) titers were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Blood was collected from a total of 173 individuals ranging between 1-5 years of age. Of these, a total of 88 participants were males and 85 were females. Of the 173 investigated samples, only 53 (30.6%) showed protective IgG titers against measles while 120 (69%) were sero-negative. Measles specific IgG antibodies titers were higher in female participants compared to the males. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that a substantial percentage of vaccinated children in district Qamber-Shahdadkot did not have protective antibody titres against measles. It is therefore extremely important to investigate measles specific IgG levels in various parts of Pakistan in order to implement appropriate protective measures.

Keywords: sero-surveillance, measles, vaccinated children, Pakistan

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36 Hepatitis B Virus Infection Among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy

Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin


This is a national community-based project to evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P < 0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.

Keywords: HBV infection, HBV vaccine, children, Egypt

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35 Genotyping of G/P No Typable Group a Rotavirus Strains Revealed G2 and G9 Genotype Circulations in Moroccan Children Fully Vaccinated with Rotarix™

Authors: H. Boulahyaoui, S. Alaoui Amine, C. Loutfi, H. El Annaz, N. Touil, El M. El Fahim, S. Mrani


Three Moroccan children fully vaccinated with Rotarix™ have been hospitalized for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric division of the Farabi Hospital, Oujda. Rotavirus G/P genotypes could not be typed because of their delayed crossing threshold (Ct) resolute with a group A rotavirus (RVA) real time RT-PCR. These strains were adapted to cell culture. All viruses replicated and caused extensive cytopathic effects after four or five passages in MA104 cell lines. Significant improvements have been obtained in the amount of viral particles. Each virus multiplied to a high titer (7.5 TCID50/ml). VP7 and VP4 partial gene sequencing revealed distinct genotypes compared to the Rotarix(®) vaccine strain. Two strains were of G2P[4] genotype whereas the third was G9P[8] genotype. Virus isolation while labor intensive, is recommended as a second test, especially when higher sensitivity for conventional RVA genotyping RT-PCR is needed. VP7 antigenic similarities between these strains and Rotarix were determined.

Keywords: esacpe-vaccine, Morocco, Rotarix, G2P[4], G9P[8]

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34 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha


Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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33 Evaluation of Antibody Titer Produced in Layer Chicken after Vaccination with an Experimental Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal Vaccine

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mehrabanpour, Mohammad Hosein Hosseini, Ali Shirazi, Dorsa Mehrabanpour


Respiratory infections are the most important diseases that affect poultry. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections including alveolar inflation and pneumonia in birds. The aim of this study was to evaluated antibody titer against Ornitobacterium rhinotracheal in layer chicken sera after vaccination with an experimental ORT vaccine that produced in Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Cultured bacteria were inactivated by formalin, and controlled tests were conducted on it. The obtained antigens were formulated using Montanide oil and were homogenized using homogenizer. Eighty SPF chickens were kept until the age of 14 days under existing standards for temperature, humidity, and light. At the age of 14 days, chickens were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 chickens injected with prepared ORT vaccine, the second group, as control group, included 15 chickens injected with sterile PBS to get stress of infection and the third group included 15 chickens with no injection performed to them. All 3 groups were kept in separate cages at same room. Blood samples were regularly taken from the chickens every week for serum separation and evaluation of antibody titer. During the fifth week post vaccination, booster vaccine was injected into the chickens of vaccinated group. The chickens were inspected every day in terms of mortality as well as any injection site reactions. Three weeks after the booster injection, blood samples were taken from all chickens of all groups, and sera were isolated. The sera of immunized (vaccinated) SPF chickens with ORT vaccine as well as that of SPF chickens in the control groups were reviewed according to the recommendations of ELISA kit manufacturer to examine the chicken’s humeral immune response to the studied vaccine. Potency, stability and sterility tests were also performed on the above mentioned vaccine. Results obtained indicate high antibody titer in sera of chickens vaccinated with experimental ORT vaccine as compared with the control groups that emphasize the ability of experimentally prepared ORT vaccine to stimulate humoral immune response of chicken. After the second injection, antibody titer increased and remained almost stable up to 9 weeks after the injection. ORT vaccine can cause potency in chickens and can protect them against disease.

Keywords: antibody, layer chicken, Ornithobactrium rhinotracitis, vaccine

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32 Hepatitis B Prevalence in Institutionalized Intellectually Disabled Children

Authors: Maryam Vaezjalali, Foad Davoodbeglou, Mehrnaz Mesdaghi, Hossein Goudarzi, Fariba Shojaei, Hourieh Aram


Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic infection in human population, with high mortality. Some people are more susceptible to this infection. One of the high risk communities is mentally retarded children, who are institutionalized. Special conditions in these centers predispose children for HBV infection and transmission to healthy people. In this study our objective was to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among institutionalized mentally retarded children and study its associated risk factors. Materials and methods: In this study, 250 mentally retarded children (younger than 14 years old) were included. They were living in 5 nursing institutions, located in different parts of Tehran. HBsAg was measured in the sera of these patients by ELISA method. Results: Among 250 children, 20 children (8%) were HBsAg positive. HBV infection in girls was more than boys (11% to 5.6%). Among the types of mental retardation, children with cerebral palsy had the highest positive result for HBsAg. The most HBV infection (28.5%) was seen in children with longest duration of being institutionalized (10 to 11 years). Vaccinated children were more HBsAg positive (8.7%) than non-vaccinated children (5.3%). However, no significant relationship was observed between any of these factors and HBsAg positivity. Conclusion: Despite improvement of people’s health condition and implementation of HBV vaccination, the prevalence of HBV infection is high in institutionalized mentally retarded children, which highlights the need for active measures to reduce this infection among this high risk population.

Keywords: hepatitis B virus, HBV vaccine, intellectually disabled children, mentally retarded

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31 Time Delayed Susceptible-Vaccinated-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible Epidemic Model along with Nonlinear Incidence and Nonlinear Treatment

Authors: Kanica Goel, Nilam


Infectious diseases are a leading cause of death worldwide and hence a great challenge for every nation. Thus, it becomes utmost essential to prevent and reduce the spread of infectious disease among humans. Mathematical models help to better understand the transmission dynamics and spread of infections. For this purpose, in the present article, we have proposed a nonlinear time-delayed SVIRS (Susceptible-Vaccinated-Infected-Recovered-Susceptible) mathematical model with nonlinear type incidence rate and nonlinear type treatment rate. Analytical study of the model shows that model exhibits two types of equilibrium points, namely, disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Further, for the long-term behavior of the model, stability of the model is discussed with the help of basic reproduction number R₀ and we showed that disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if the basic reproduction number R₀ is less than one and unstable if the basic reproduction number R₀ is greater than one for the time lag τ≥0. Furthermore, when basic reproduction number R₀ is one, using center manifold theory and Casillo-Chavez and Song theorem, we showed that the model undergoes transcritical bifurcation. Moreover, numerical simulations are being carried out using MATLAB 2012b to illustrate the theoretical results.

Keywords: nonlinear incidence rate, nonlinear treatment rate, stability, time delayed SVIRS epidemic model

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30 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak


Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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29 Efficacy and Safety of COVID-19 Vaccination in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Looking Forward to Post-COVID-19

Authors: Achiron Anat, Mathilda Mandel, Mayust Sue, Achiron Reuven, Gurevich Michael


Introduction: As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is currently spreading around the world, it is of importance to assess the ability of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to mount an appropriate immune response to the vaccine in the context of disease-modifying treatments (DMT’s). Objectives: Evaluate immunity generated following COVID-19 vaccination in MS patients, and assess factors contributing to protective humoral and cellular immune responses in MS patients vaccinated against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) virus infection. Methods: Review our recent data related to (1) the safety of PfizerBNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in adult MS patients; (2) the humoral post-vaccination SARS-CoV2 IgG response in MS vaccinees using anti-spike protein-based serology; and (3) the cellular immune response of memory B-cells specific for SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) and memory T-cells secreting IFN-g and/or IL-2 in response to SARS-CoV2 peptides using ELISpot/Fluorospot assays in MS patients either untreated or under treatment with fingolimod, cladribine, or ocrelizumab; (4) covariate parameters related to mounting protective immune responses. Results: COVID-19 vaccine proved safe in MS patients, and the adverse event profile was mainly characterised by pain at the injection site, fatigue, and headache. Not any increased risk of relapse activity was noted and the rate of patients with acute relapse was comparable to the relapse rate in non-vaccinated patients during the corresponding follow-up period. A mild increase in the rate of adverse events was noted in younger MS patients, among patients with lower disability, and in patients treated with DMTs. Following COVID-19 vaccination protective humoral immune response was significantly decreased in fingolimod- and ocrelizumab- treated MS patients. SARS-CoV2 specific B-cell and T-cell cellular responses were respectively decreased. Untreated MS patients and patients treated with cladribine demonstrated protective humoral and cellular immune responses, similar to healthy vaccinated subjects. Conclusions: COVID-19 BNT162b2 vaccine proved as safe for MS patients. No increased risk of relapse activity was noted post-vaccination. Although COVID-19 vaccination is new, accumulated data demonstrate differences in immune responses under various DMT’s. This knowledge can help to construct appropriate COVID-19 vaccine guidelines to ensure proper immune responses for MS patients.

Keywords: covid-19, vaccination, multiple sclerosis, IgG

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28 Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among Tunisian Physicians in the 2018-2019 Influenza Season

Authors: Ines Cherif, Ghassen Kharroubi, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret Mccarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb


Healthcare workers' flu vaccination prevents influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. We aimed in this study to assess influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in 2018-2019 among Tunisian physicians and to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A cross sectional study was carried out in Tunisian primary and secondary health care facilities in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Physicians with direct patient contact were recruited according to a self-weighted multistage sampling. Data were collected through a face to face questionnaire containing questions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding IV. Bivariate analysis was used in order to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A total of 167 physicians were included in the study with a mean age of 48.2 ± 7.7 years and a sex-ratio (M: F) of 0.37. Among participants, 15.1% (95% CI: [9.7%-20.3%]) were vaccinated against influenza in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Bivariate analysis revealed that previous flu immunization in the four years preceding the 2018-2019 influenza season (OR=32.3; p < 10-3), belief that vaccinating healthcare workers may reduce work absenteeism (OR=4.7, p=0.028), belief that flu vaccine should be mandatory to healthcare workers (OR=3.3, p=0.01) and high confidence towards IV efficacy in preventing influenza among caregivers (OR= 4.5, p=0.01) were associated with a higher IV receipt in 2018-2019 among physicians. Less than one fifth of Tunisian physicians were vaccinated against influenza in 2018-2019. Higher vaccine uptake was related to a higher belief in vaccine efficacy in preventing influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. This underscores the need for periodic educational campaigns to raise physicians' awareness about IV efficacy. The switch to an IV mandatory policy should also be considered.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, physicians, Tunisia, vaccination uptake

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27 Factors Influencing the General Public Intention to Be Vaccinated: A Case of Botswana

Authors: Meng Qing Feng, Otsile Morake


Background: Successful implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination ensures the prevention of virus infection. Postponement and refusal of the vaccination will threaten public health, which is now common among the general public across the world. In addition, an acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine appears as a decisive factor in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Purpose: This study's objective is to explore the factors influencing the public intention to be vaccinated (ITBV). Design/methodology/approach: The web-based survey included socio-demographics and questions related to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM). An online survey was administered using Google Form to collect data from participants of Botswana. The sample included 339 participants, half-half of the participants were female. Data analysis was run using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings: The study results highlight that perceived severity, perceived barriers, health motivation, and attitude have a positive and significant effect on ITBV, while perceived susceptibility, benefits, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control do not affect ITBV. Among all of the predictors, perceived barriers have the most significant influence on ITBV. Conclusion: Theoretically, this research stated that both HBM and TPB are effective in predicting and explaining the general public ITBV. Practically, this study offers insights to the government and health departments to arrange and launch health awareness programs and provide a better guide to vaccination so that doubts about vaccine confidence and the level of uncertainty can be decreased.

Keywords: COVID-19, Omicron, intention to be COVID-19 vaccine, health behavior model, theory of planned behavior, Botswana

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26 Low Pertussis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Sylwia Dyk, Izabela Gołebiak


Background. Since 2014 the pertussis vaccine is recommended to Polish health care workers who have close contacts with infants. Although this recommendation is implemented into the National Immunization Programme, its realization has remained unknown. The Purpose: The aim of the study, conducted at the department of Social Medicine and Public Health (Medical University of Warsaw, Poland), was to describe a perception, knowledge and coverage rates regarding pertussis vaccination among nursing staff. According to the authors' knowledge, it was the first study related to this topic in our country. Material and Methods: A total number of 543 nurses who work at pediatric or neonatal wards was included into the study (501 women and 42 men), average age was 47 years. All nurses were asked to fulfill the anonymous survey, previously validated. Results: 1. Coverage rates: The analysis of results revealed that only 4% of responders reported they were vaccinated with Tdpa within past 10 years, while 8% declared they would plan the vaccine in the future. 35% of responders would consider the Tdpa vaccine whether there is some kind of the reimbursement. 2. Perception and knowledge of the disease and vaccination: The majority (82%) of nurses did not recognize pertussis as a re-emerging infectious disease. 54% of them believed that obligatory vaccinations in the childhood protect against the disease and the protection is a life-long one. Only 15% of nurses considered pertussis as a possible nosocomial infection. The current epidemiology of the disease was known to 6% of responders, while 24% of them were familiar with pertussis vaccination schedules for infants, children and adolescents, but only 9% of responders knew that adults older than 19 years are recommended to be vaccinated with Tdpa every 10 years. Many nurses (82%) would expect more educational activities related to pertussis and methods of its prophylaxis. Conclusions: The pertussis vaccine coverage rate among Polish nurses is extremely low. This is a result of not enough knowledge about the disease and its prevention. Educational activities addressed to health care workers and reimbursement of the pertussis vaccine are required to improve awareness and increase of vaccine coverage rates in the future.

Keywords: coverage, nurse, pertussis, vaccine

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25 Activities for Increasing Childhood Vaccination Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Population, Greece, European Program PHILOS, 2017

Authors: C. Silvestros, K. Mellou, T. Georgakopoulou, A. Koustenis, E. Kokkinou, C. Botsi, A. Terzidis


'PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis' is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. One of the main objectives of the program is the immunization coverage of the target – population to assure the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. The program foresees vaccination needs assessment of children hosted at camps at the mainland and implementation of interventions to cover the vaccination gaps in co-operation with the Ministry of Health. The National Immunization Advisory Committee in Greece recommended that MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) and HEXA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccines should be performed in priority. Recording was completed at 24 camps (May - June 2017); 3381 children (0-18 years) were recorded. The median number of children hosted at each camp was 95 (range: 5-553). For 68% of the children, the WHO vaccination booklet was available. 44%, 48.5% and 61% of the children were vaccinated with at least one dose of PCV, HEXA, and MMR, respectively. The proportion of vaccinated children for the three vaccines mentioned above is significantly lower for the remaining doses; PCV (second dose 8%, third dose 1.3%), HEXA (second dose 13%, third dose 2.7%, forth dose 0.1%) and MMR (second dose 23%). None of the 37 (10 from Afghanistan, 3 from Bangladesh, 23 from Pakistan, 1 from Syria) recorded unaccompanied children did not have a WHO vaccination booklet and were considered unvaccinated. There is no differentiation in vaccination coverage among different ethnicities. Massive catch up vaccination was performed at 4 camps, and 671 vaccinations were performed (245 PCV, 307 HEXA, and 119 MMR). Similar interventions are planned for all camps of the country. Recording reveled gaps in vaccination coverage of the population, mainly because of the mobility of the population, the influx of refugees- which is still ongoing- and new births. Mass vaccination campaigns are considered vital in order to increase vaccination coverage, and continuous efforts are needed in order all children living at the camps to have full access to the National Childhood Immunization Program.

Keywords: vaccine preventable, refugee–migrants camps, vaccination coverage, PCV, MMR, HEXA

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24 Assessment of Urban Immunization Practices among Urban Mother's in Sri Lanka

Authors: Kasun U. G. Palihakkara


Although vaccine coverage in Sri Lanka is close to 100%, with the widely spreading vaccine rejection trend reaching South Asian regions, it is essential to catch on whether Sri Lankans are being misinformed from the common misconceptions regarding vaccines. As the rates of target diseases decrease, parents become less accepting of even minor common adverse events. It is essential to preserve the integrity of immunization programs and protect public health by finding out the prevalence of anti-immunization trends. The primary objective of this study was to assess the immunization practices and prevalence of trends related to anti-immunization among urban community in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study on 323 participants using convenient sampling with 213 self-administered questionnaires. Additionally, 110 online questionnaires were distributed. 31% of the study population does not maintain immunization records for their children. While majority seek information regarding immunization from reliable sources such as the family physician or specialist pediatricians, 30% also refer to unreliable sources such as online communities for their opinion. 31% of study population had not vaccinated for Japanese encephalitis. 73% of the study population had encountered with side effects of vaccination such as fever & 47% believed that such side effects are rare. 52% of the population had hostile attitude regarding the administration of several doses multiple vaccines within a child’s first year. Diseases like polio had been successfully eradicated from Sri Lanka with the help of vigorous vaccination programs. However, majority of the study population believe that there’s no need to keep vaccinating the children for those eradicated diseases and exposing the child for adverse effects of such vaccines. Majority of the population were aware of the existing misconceptions regarding immunization. The most popular misconceptions about vaccines popular among the study population were the MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine being a possible cause leading to autism and bowel disease and children getting infected with the disease even after they get vaccinated, may be due to the inactivated vaccine. Disturbingly 22% of the study population believed that vaccines are useless in preventing diseases nowadays. These data obtained from the urban study population reveals that even though statistically Sri Lankan immunization coverage is 100%, there is a possibility of anti-vaccination trend arising in Sri Lanka due to the prevalence of various misconceptions and rumors related to it. Therefore these data recommend the need for thorough awareness among the mothers.

Keywords: anti-vaccination, immunization, infectious diseases, pediatric health

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23 Positivity Rate of Person under Surveillance (PUS) Among Institute Jantung Negara’s Patient with Various Vaccination Status in First Quarter of 2022, Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Izzat M. D. Nor, Norfazlina J, Noor Zaitulakma M. Z, Nur Izyanti M. S, Subhashini B, Geetha K


Introduction: In the near-endemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19), Malaysia has implemented COVID-19 Vaccination Program from 24 February 2021 from 5-year-old until advanced age. But the question remains about how it improves public transmission. Objective: In this study, we focus in comparing the positivity rate between our institution PUS and national (13.6%) after Malaysia had reached 78.9% vaccination status in the first quarter of 2022. We are also optimistic about seeing if our Hospital screening process is able to protect our patients better from COVID-19 transmission. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study carried out from 1 January until 3 March 2022 in IJN. PUS among IJN total patient population of 389540 per day was included in this study. Each patient that enters IJN will be screened with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) swab. Any patient who had positive PCR on day 1 of admission and had exposure to visitor/caregiver will be excluded in this study. Patient who has exposure to positive COVID-19 staff or patient in IJN building will be included in this study. They will be isolated in a room and undergo a quarantine period according to their vaccination status and current national guideline.PCR swabs will be done on their last day of quarantine. For inpatient screening, we implement the inpatient saliva Rapid Antigen Test (RTK) on day 3, 7 and 14. Vaccination status were categorizing into Boostered, Fully Vaccinated, Partially/unvaccinated, and unknown status. We have divided their exposure into frequency and severity of the exposure. We collect data on severity and fatality rate of positive COVID-19 infection among PUS that become positive via their COVID-19 category (symptoms and oxygen requirement). Result: Total PUS to Patient and Staff is 492, only 13(2.6%) of them become positive. 5(2.6%) were in close contact to the patient, while 8(3.0%) were close contact to Staff. For frequency of exposure, 8(62%) had multiple exposures, while another 5 had a single exposure. For Severity of exposure, 10(77%) had a high risk exposure and 3(23%) had medium risk exposure. For Vaccination status, 4(30%) were boostered, 4(30%) were fully vaccinated and 2(15%) were partial/unvaccinated, 3 (23%) unknown vaccination status. For patient outcomes, 5(38%) were in category 1-2, 5(38%) of the patients were in category 3-5. However, there are 2 patients with unknown COVID-19 category status. For the Fatality rate, only one ends up in the mortuary and pass away due to COVID-19. Conclusion: We realize limitations in retrieving data in this study as some of the information is incomplete in the system and some patient were discharge early before knowing their outcome due to bed occupancy. Our institution positivity rate is 2.6% as compared with national positivity rate of (13.6%) within first quarter of 2022. However this percentage may be bias due to national population having taken higher Malaysian population of 32.37 million as compared with IJN patient population of 389540. Multiple screening programs in IJN had improved early detection and containment of affected people from creating new outbreaks. Continuous improvement is needed in order to ensure continuous patient safety in our institution.

Keywords: institute Jantung Negara, COVID-19, PUS, PCR, RTK, outbreak

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22 Consumer Cognitive Models of Vaccine Attitudes: Behavioral Informed Strategies Promoting Vaccination Policy in Greece

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Antonopoulou Hera


Immunization appears to be an essential part of health care service in times of pandemics such as covid-19 and aims not only to protect the health of the population but also the health and sustainability of the economies of the countries affected. It is reported that more than 3.44 billion doses have been administered so far, which accounts for 45 doses for 100 people. Vaccination programs in various countries have been promoted and accepted by people differently and therefore they proceeded in different ways and speed; most countries directing them towards people with vulnerable chronic or recent health statuses. Large scale restriction measures or lockdown, personal protection measures such as masks and gloves and a decrease in leisure and sports activities were also implemented around the world as part of the protection health strategies against the covid-19 pandemic. This research aims to present an analysis based on variations on people’s attitudes towards vaccination based on demographic, social and epidemiological characteristics, and health status on the one hand and perception of health, health satisfaction, pain, and quality of life on the other hand. 1500 Greek e-consumers participated in the research, mainly through social media who took part in an online-based survey voluntarily. The questionnaires included demographic, social and medical characteristics of the participants, and questions asking people’s willingness to be vaccinated and their opinion on whether there should be a vaccine against covid-19. Other stressor factors were also reported in the questionnaires and participants’ loss of someone close due to covid-19, or staying at home quarantine due to being infected from covid-19. WHOQUOL-BREF and GLOBAL PSYCHOTRAUMA SCREEN- GPS were used with kind permission from WHO and from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in this study. Attitudes towards vaccination varied significantly related to aging, level of education, health status and consumer behavior. Health professionals’ attitudes also varied in relation to age, level of education, profession, health status and consumer needs. Vaccines have been the most common technological aid of human civilization so far in the fight against viruses. The results of this study can be used for health managers and digital marketers of pharmaceutical companies and also other staff involved in vaccination programs and for designing health policy immunization strategies during pandemics in order to achieve positive attitudes towards vaccination and larger populations being vaccinated in shorter periods of time after the break out of pandemic. Health staff needs to be trained, aided and supervised to go through with vaccination programs and to be protected through vaccination programs themselves. Feedback in each country’s vaccination program, short backs, deficiencies and delays should be addressed and worked out.

Keywords: consumer behavior, cognitive models, vaccination policy, pandemic, Covid-19, Greece

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21 A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Investigating the Impact of Integrating Mass Drug Administration Treating Soil Transmitted Helminths with Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination in Remote Communities in Tanzania

Authors: Felix Lankester, Alicia Davis, Safari Kinung'hi, Catherine Bunga, Shayo Alkara, Imam Mzimbiri, Jonathan Yoder, Sarah Cleaveland, Guy H. Palmer


Achieving the London Declaration goal of a 90% reduction in neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2030 requires cost-effective strategies that attain high and comprehensive coverage. The first objective of this trial was to assess the impact on cost and coverage of employing a novel integrative One Health approach linking two NTD control programs: mass drug administration (MDA) for soil-transmitted helminths in humans (STH) and mass dog rabies vaccination (MDRV). The second objective was to compare the coverage achieved by the MDA, a community-wide deworming intervention, with that of the existing national primary school-based deworming program (NSDP), with particular focus on the proportion of primary school-age children reached and their school enrolment status. Our approach was unconventional because, in line with the One Health approach to disease control, it coupled the responsibilities and resources of the Ministries responsible for human and animal health into one program with the shared aim of preventing multiple NTDs. The trial was carried out in hard-to-reach pastoral communities comprising 24 villages of the Ngorongoro District, Tanzania, randomly allocated to either Arm A (MDA and MDRV), Arm B (MDA only) or Arm C (MDRV only). Objective one: The percentage of people in each target village that received treatment through MDA in Arms A and B was 63% and 65%, respectively (χ2 = 1, p = 0.32). The percentage of dogs vaccinated in Arm A and C was 70% and 81%, respectively (χ2 =9, p = 0.003). It took 33% less time for a single person and a dog to attend the integrated delivery than two separate events. Cost per dose (including delivery) was lower under the integrated strategy, with delivery of deworming and rabies vaccination reduced by $0.13 (54%) and $0.85 (19%) per dose, respectively. Despite a slight reduction in the proportion of village dogs vaccinated in the integrated event, both the integrated and non-integrated strategies achieved the target threshold of 70% required to eliminate rabies. Objective two: The percentages of primary school age children enrolled in school that was reached by this trial (73%) and the existing NSDP (80%) were not significantly different (F = 0.9, p = 0.36). However, of the primary school age children treated in this trial, 46% were not enrolled in school. Furthermore, 86% of the people treated would have been outside the reach of the NSDP because they were not primary school age or were primary school age children not enrolled in school. The comparable reach, the substantial reductions in cost per dose delivered and the decrease in participants’ time support this integrated One Health approach to control multiple NTDs. Further, the recorded level of non-enrolment at primary school suggests that, in remote areas, school-based delivery strategies could miss a large fraction of school-age children and that programs that focus delivery solely at the level of the primary school will miss a substantial proportion of both primary school age children as well as other individuals from the community. We have shown that these populations can be effectively reached through extramural programs.

Keywords: canine mediated human rabies, integrated health interventions, mass drug administration, neglected tropical disease, One Health, soil-transmitted helminths

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20 Assessment of the Efficacy of Oral Vaccination of Wild Canids and Stray Dogs against Rabies in Azerbaijan

Authors: E. N. Hasanov, K. Y. Yusifova, M. A. Ali


Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis in domestic and wild carnivores. The goal of our investigation was to analyze the data on oral vaccination of wild canids and stray dogs in Azerbaijan. Before the start of the vaccination campaign conducted by the International Dialogue for Environmental Action (IDEA) Animal Care Center (IACC), all rabies cases in Azerbaijan for the period of 2017-2020 were analyzed. So, 30 regions for oral immunization with the Rabadrop vaccine were selected. In total, 95.9 thousand doses of baits were scattered in 30 regions, 970 (0.97%) remained intact. In addition, a campaign to sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs and cats undoubtedly had a positive impact on reducing the dynamics of rabies incidence. During the period 2017-2020, 2339 dogs and 2962 cats were sterilized and vaccinated under this program. It can be noted that the risk of rabies infection can be reduced through special preventive measures against disease reservoirs, which include oral immunization of wild and stray animals.

Keywords: rabies, vaccination, oral immunization, wild canids, stray dogs, baits, disease reservoirs

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19 Religious Beliefs versus Child’s Rights: Anti-Vaccine Movement in Indonesia

Authors: Ni Luh Bayu PurwaEka Payani, Destin Ristanti


Every child has the right to be healthy, and it is a parents’ obligation to fulfill their rights. In order to be healthy and prevented from the outbreak of infectious diseases, some vaccines are required. However, there are groups of people, who consider that vaccines consist of religiously forbidden ingredients. The government of Indonesia legally set the rule that all children must be vaccinated. However, merely based on religious beliefs and not supported by scientific evidence, these people ignore the vaccination. As a result, this anti-vaccine movement caused diphtheria outbreak in 2017. Categorized as a vulnerable group, child`s rights must be fulfilled in any forms. This paper tries to analyze the contradiction between religious beliefs and the fulfillment of child`s rights. Furthermore, it tries to identify the anti-vaccine movement as a form of human rights violation, especially regarding child's rights. This has been done by examining the event of the outbreak of diphtheria in 20 provinces of Indonesia. Furthermore, interview and literature reviews have been done to support the analysis. Through this process, it becomes clear that the anti-vaccine movements driven by religious beliefs did influence the outbreak of diphtheria. Hence, the anti-vaccine movements ignore the long-term effects not only on their own children’s health but also others.

Keywords: anti-vaccine movement, child rights, religious beliefs, right to health

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18 Relationship between Mannheimia haemolytica and the Fertility Characteristics of Boer Goats

Authors: Muhammad Naveed Ali


A study was conducted to determine the effects on the severity of pneumonia due to Mannheimia haemolytica and its relation with the fertility of bucks. A total of 12 crossbred Boer bucks of 3 treatment groups of equal number (4 goats per group, aged 12-14 months) were selected in this study. Group A was intranasally inoculated live M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group B was first immunized subcutaneously M. haemolytica killed vaccine (2 ml) two week before intranasal inoculation of M. haemolytica 1 × 105 (cfu). Group C was treated with normal saline (PBS) as control. Electro-ejaculator was used for semen collection once per week whilst scrotal circumference was measured before and after challenge. The semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, live/dead percentage and morphology were evaluated. From the semen evaluation, goats in Group A exhibited significant decrease in the semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and live/dead sperm compared with vaccinated group B. The scrotal circumference was significantly decreased in group A compared to B. There were non-significant differences in scrotal circumferences of group B and C. The results suggested that M. haemolytica infection has negative effects on the fertility of Boer bucks.

Keywords: Boer bucks, Mannheimia haemolytica, semen evaluation, vaccination

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17 Neutralizing Antibody Response against Inactivated FMDV Type O/IRN/2010 Vaccine by Electron Beam in BALB/C Mice

Authors: F. Motamedi Sedeh, Sh. Chahardoli, H. Mahravani, N. Harzandi, M. Sotoodeh, S. K. Shafaei


Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the most economically important disease of livestock. The aim of the study is inactivation of FMD virus type O/IRN/2010 by electron beam without antigenic changes as electron radio vaccine. The BALB/C mice were divided into three groups, each group containing five mice. Three groups of mice were inoculated with conventional vaccine and electron beam irradiated vaccine FMDV type O/IRN/2010 subcutaneously three weeks interval, the final group as negative control. The sera were separated from the blood samples of mice 14 days after last vaccination and tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV type O/IRN/2010 by serum neutralization test. The Serum Neutralization Test (SNT) was carried out and antibody titration was calculated according to the Kraber protocol. The results of the SNT in three groups of mice showed the titration of neutralizing antibody in the vaccinated mice groups; electron radio vaccine and conventional vaccine were significantly higher than negative control group (P<0.05). Therefore, the radio vaccine is a good candidate to immunize animals against FMDV type O/IRN/2010.

Keywords: FMDV type O/IRN/2010, neutralizing antibody response, electron beam, radio vaccine

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