Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: unvaccinated

12 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Factors Affecting Social Distancing among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Filipinos

Authors: Emmanuel Carlo Belara, Albert John Dela Merced, Mark Anthony Dominguez, Diomari Erasga, Jerome Ferrer, Bernard Ombrog


Social distancing errors are a common prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the Filipino community. This study aims to identify and relate the factors on how they affect our daily lives. Observed factors include memory, attention, anxiety, decision-making, and stress. Upon applying the ergonomic tools and statistical treatment such as t-test and multiple linear regression, stress and attention turned out to have the most impact to the errors of social distancing.

Keywords: vaccinated, unvaccinated, socoal distancing, filipinos

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11 Comparision of Statistical Variables for Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Children in Measles Cases in Khyber Pukhtun Khwa

Authors: Inayatullah Khan, Afzal Khan, Hamzullah Khan, Afzal Khan


Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare different statistical variables for vaccinated and unvaccinated children in measles cases. Material and Methods: This cross sectional comparative study was conducted at Isolation ward, Department of Paediatrics, Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar, from April 2012 to March 2013. A total of 566 admitted cases of measles were enrolled. Data regarding age, sex, address, vaccination status, measles contact, hospital stay and outcome was collected and recorded on a proforma. History of measles vaccination was ascertained either by checking the vaccination cards or on parental recall. Result: In 566 cases of measles, 211(39%) were vaccinated and 345 (61%) were unvaccinated. Three hundred and ten (54.80%) patients were males and 256 (45.20%) were females with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1.The age range was from 1 year to 14 years with mean age with SD of 3.2 +2 years. Majority (371, 65.5%) of the patients were 1-3 years old. Mean hospital stay was 3.08 days with a range of 1-10 days and a standard deviation of ± 1.15. History of measles contact was present in 393 (69.4%) cases. Fourty eight patients were expired with a mortality rate of 8.5%. Conclusion: Majority of the children in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa are unvaccinated and unprotected against measles. Among vaccinated children, 39% of children attracted measles which indicate measles vaccine failure. This figure is clearly higher than that accepted for measles vaccine (2-10%).

Keywords: measles, vaccination, immunity, population

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10 Phylogenetic Analyses of Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Unvaccinated Chicken Flocks in Kyrgyzstan from 2015 to 2016

Authors: Giang Tran Thi Huong, Hieu Dong Van, Tung Dao Duy, Saadanov Iskender, Isakeev Mairambek, Tsutomu Omatsu, Yukie Katayama, Tetsuya Mizutani, Yuki Ozeki, Yohei Takeda, Haruko Ogawa, Kunitoshi Imai


Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious viral disease of the poultry industry and other birds throughout the world. At present, very little is known about molecular epidemiological data regarding the causes of ND outbreak in commercial poultry farms in Kyrgyzstan. In the current study, the NDV isolated from the one out of three samples from the unvaccinated flock was confirmed as NDV. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this NDV strain is clustered in the Class II subgenotype VIId, and closely related to the Chinese NDV isolate. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the isolated NDV strain has an origin different from the 4 NDV strains previously identified in Kyrgyzstan. According to the mean death time (MDT: 61.1 h) and a multibasic amino acid (aa) sequence at the F0 proteolytic cleavage site (¹¹²R-R-Q-K-R-F¹¹⁷), the NDV isolate was determined as mesogenic strain. Several mutations in the neutralizing epitopes (notably, ³⁴⁷E→K) and the global head were observed in the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of the current isolate. The present study represents the molecular characterization of the coding gene region of NDV in Kyrgyzstan. Additionally, further study will be investigated on the antigenic characterization using monoclonal antibody.

Keywords: Kyrgyzstan, Newcastle disease, genotype, genome characterization

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9 Uptake of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Hepatitis C Positive Patients and Their Vaccine Response in Myanmar

Authors: Zaw Z Aung


Background: High-risk groups for hepatitis B infection (HBV) are people who injected drugs (PWID), men who have sex with men (MSM), people living with HIV (PLHIV) and persons with hepatitis C (HCV), etc. HBV/HCV coinfected patients are at increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To the best of author’s knowledge, there is currently no data for hepatitis B vaccine utilization in HCV positive patients and their antibody response. Methodology: From February 2018 to May 2018, consented participants at or above 18 years who came to the clinic in Mandalay were tested with the anti-HCV rapid test. Those who tested HCV positive (n=168) were further tested with hepatitis B profile and asked about their previous hepatitis B vaccination history and risk factors. Results: Out of 168 HCV positive participants, three were excluded for active HBV infections. The remaining 165 were categorized into previously vaccinated 64% (n=106) and unvaccinated 36% (n=59) There were three characteristics groups- PWID monoinfected (n=77), General Population (GP) monoinfected (n=22) and HIV/HCV coinfected participants (n=66). Unvaccinated participants were highest in HIV/HCV, with 68%(n=45) followed by GP (23%, n=5) and PWID (12%, n=9). Among previously vaccinated participants, the highest percentage was PWID (88%, n=68), the second highest was GP (77%, n=17) and lowest in HIV/HCV patients (32%, n=21). 63 participants completed third doses of vaccination (PWID=36, GP=13, HIV/HCV=14). 53% of participants who completed 3 dose of hepatitis B were non-responders (n=34): HIV/HCV (86%, n=12), PWID (44%, n=16), and GP (46%, n=6) Conclusion: Even in the presence of effective and safe hepatitis B vaccine, uptake is low among high risk groups especially PLHIV that needs to be improved. Integration or collaboration of hepatitis B vaccination program, HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C treatment centers is desirable. About half of vaccinated participants were non-responders so that optimal doses, schedule and follow-up testing need to be addressed carefully for those groups.

Keywords: Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis C, HIV, Myanmar

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8 Rt-Pcr Negative COVID-19 Infection in a Bodybuilding Competitor Using Anabolic Steroids: A Case Report

Authors: Mariana Branco, Nahida Sobrino, Cristina Neves, Márcia Santos, Afonso Granja, João Rosa Oliveira, Joana Costa, Luísa Castro Leite


This case reports a COVID-19 infection in an unvaccinated adult man with no history of COVID-19 and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use, undergoing weaning with tamoxifen after a bodybuilding competition. The patient presented a 4cm cervical mass 3 weeks after COVID-19 infection in his cohabitants. He was otherwise asymptomatic and tested negative to multiple RT-PCR tests. Nevertheless, the IgG COVID-19 antibody was positive, suggesting the previous infection. This report raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset. Objectives: The goals of this paper are to raise a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset but also to report an uncommon case of COVID-19 infection with consecutive negative gold standard tests. Methodology: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Introduction: This case reports a COVID-19 infection case in an unvaccinated adult man, with multiple serial negative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results, presenting with single cervical lymphadenopathy. Although the association between COVID-19 and lymphadenopathy is well established, there are no cases with this presentation, and consistently negative RT-PCR tests have been reported. Methodologies: The authors used CARE guidelines for case report writing. Case presentation: This case reports a 28-year-old Caucasian man with no previous history of COVID-19 infection or vaccination and no relevant clinical history besides anabolic steroid use undergoing weaning with tamoxifendue to participation in a bodybuilding competition. He visits his primary care physician because of a large (4 cm) cervical lump, present for 3 days prior to the consultation. There was a positive family history for COVID-19 infection 3 weeks prior to the visit, during which the patient cohabited with the infected family members. The patient never had any previous clinical manifestation of COVID-19 infection and, despite multiple consecutive RT-PCR testing, never tested positive. The patient was treated with an NSAID and a broad-spectrum antibiotic, with little to no effect. Imagiological testing was performed via a cervical ultrasound, followed by a needle biopsy for histologic analysis. Serologic testing for COVID-19 immunity was conducted, revealing a positive Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Spike S1) antibody, suggesting the previous infection, given the unvaccinated status of our patient Conclusion: In patients with a positive epidemiologic context and cervical lymphadenopathy, physicians should still consider COVID-19 infection as a differential diagnosis, despite negative PCR testing. This case also raises a potential link between anabolic steroid use and atypical COVID-19 onset, never before reported in scientific literature.

Keywords: COVID-19, cervical lymphadenopathy, anabolic steroids, primary care

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7 Positivity Rate of Person under Surveillance (PUS) Among Institute Jantung Negara’s Patient with Various Vaccination Status in First Quarter of 2022, Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Izzat M. D. Nor, Norfazlina J, Noor Zaitulakma M. Z, Nur Izyanti M. S, Subhashini B, Geetha K


Introduction: In the near-endemic of Coronavirus (COVID-19), Malaysia has implemented COVID-19 Vaccination Program from 24 February 2021 from 5-year-old until advanced age. But the question remains about how it improves public transmission. Objective: In this study, we focus in comparing the positivity rate between our institution PUS and national (13.6%) after Malaysia had reached 78.9% vaccination status in the first quarter of 2022. We are also optimistic about seeing if our Hospital screening process is able to protect our patients better from COVID-19 transmission. Methodology: This is a retrospective observational study carried out from 1 January until 3 March 2022 in IJN. PUS among IJN total patient population of 389540 per day was included in this study. Each patient that enters IJN will be screened with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) swab. Any patient who had positive PCR on day 1 of admission and had exposure to visitor/caregiver will be excluded in this study. Patient who has exposure to positive COVID-19 staff or patient in IJN building will be included in this study. They will be isolated in a room and undergo a quarantine period according to their vaccination status and current national guideline.PCR swabs will be done on their last day of quarantine. For inpatient screening, we implement the inpatient saliva Rapid Antigen Test (RTK) on day 3, 7 and 14. Vaccination status were categorizing into Boostered, Fully Vaccinated, Partially/unvaccinated, and unknown status. We have divided their exposure into frequency and severity of the exposure. We collect data on severity and fatality rate of positive COVID-19 infection among PUS that become positive via their COVID-19 category (symptoms and oxygen requirement). Result: Total PUS to Patient and Staff is 492, only 13(2.6%) of them become positive. 5(2.6%) were in close contact to the patient, while 8(3.0%) were close contact to Staff. For frequency of exposure, 8(62%) had multiple exposures, while another 5 had a single exposure. For Severity of exposure, 10(77%) had a high risk exposure and 3(23%) had medium risk exposure. For Vaccination status, 4(30%) were boostered, 4(30%) were fully vaccinated and 2(15%) were partial/unvaccinated, 3 (23%) unknown vaccination status. For patient outcomes, 5(38%) were in category 1-2, 5(38%) of the patients were in category 3-5. However, there are 2 patients with unknown COVID-19 category status. For the Fatality rate, only one ends up in the mortuary and pass away due to COVID-19. Conclusion: We realize limitations in retrieving data in this study as some of the information is incomplete in the system and some patient were discharge early before knowing their outcome due to bed occupancy. Our institution positivity rate is 2.6% as compared with national positivity rate of (13.6%) within first quarter of 2022. However this percentage may be bias due to national population having taken higher Malaysian population of 32.37 million as compared with IJN patient population of 389540. Multiple screening programs in IJN had improved early detection and containment of affected people from creating new outbreaks. Continuous improvement is needed in order to ensure continuous patient safety in our institution.

Keywords: institute Jantung Negara, COVID-19, PUS, PCR, RTK, outbreak

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6 Expand Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis to Where It Is Needed the Most

Authors: Henry Wilde, Thiravat Hemachudha


Human rabies deaths are underreported worldwide at 55,000 annual cases; more than of dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Almost half are children. A recent study from the Philippines of nearly 2,000 rabies deaths revealed that none of had received incomplete or no post exposure prophylaxis. Coming from a canine rabies endemic country, this is not unique. There are two major barriers to reducing human rabies deaths: 1) the large number of unvaccinated dogs and 2) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) that is not available, incomplete, not affordable, or not within reach for bite victims travel means. Only the first barrier, inadequate vaccination of dogs, is now being seriously addressed. It is also often not done effectively or sustainably. Rabies PEP has evolved as a complex, prolonged process, usually delegated to centers in larger cities. It is virtually unavailable in villages or small communities where most dog bites occur, victims are poor and usually unable to travel a long distance multiple times to receive PEP. Reseacrh that led to better understanding of the pathophysiology of rabies and immune responses to potent vaccines and immunoglobulin have allowed shortening and making PEP more evidence based. This knowledge needs to be adopted and applied so that PEP can be rendered safely and affordably where needed the most: by village health care workers who have long performed more complex services after appropriate training. Recent research makes this an important and long neglected goal that is now within our means to implement.

Keywords: rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis, availability, immunoglobulin

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5 Decreasing Hepatitis B and Tuberculosis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Neonates in Poland, 2015-2017

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Beata Pawlus, Maria Pawlak


Introduction: Recently, the number of parents who refuse to vaccinate their children or present so-called hesitant behaviors has increased in many developed countries. The study aimed to analyze the completeness and timeliness of vaccinations against hepatitis B and tuberculosis in neonates in a single maternity hospital in Warsaw (Poland). Material and Methods: We analyzed medical records of children born in the hospital between 1st January 2015 and 31st December 2016 and calculated the proportion of newborns not vaccinated on time. Results: The percentage of unvaccinated newborns was similar in the analyzed years: 7.2% in 2015 and 6.7% in 2016. Parental decisions rather than medical contraindications caused non-immunization (4.3% vs. 2.9% in 2015, and 4.7% vs. 2% in 2016). Most parents refused both vaccinations (81%-84%), whereas 7-8% refused only hep B vaccination, and 9-11% refused alone tuberculosis vaccination. The majority of hesitant parents decided to delay both vaccinations (70-80%), while 10-11% of parents chose to delay only one vaccination (hep B). In consecutive years, an increase in the percentage of parents delaying tuberculosis vaccination was reported (10 vs. 19%). Discussion: The increase in the number of newborns who are not correctly vaccinated just after birth due to their parents' decision should be considered non-gradual, both for hepatitis B and tuberculosis. It is necessary to implement effective educational and informative measures targeted at future parents to reinforce positive attitudes towards vaccinations and to dispel doubts about them among parents who are hesitant.

Keywords: hepatitis B, tuberculosis, immunization, new-borns, coverage rate

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4 Non-Physician Medical Worker Experience during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: William Mahony, L. Jacqueline Hirth, Richard Rupp, Sandra Gonzalez, Roger Zoorob


Background: The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physicians has been considered by many researchers, but less is known about non-physician healthcare workers. The aim of this study is to examine the association of COVID-19 safety training and communication with stress. Methods: A 91-item online survey was distributed, starting January 2, 2021, to non-physician healthcare workers, including physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and medical assistants (MAs) in the United States through email and social media. A $1 donation was made to the Red Cross for each completed survey. The survey consisted of demographics, occupational questions, and perceived stress (perceived stress scale, PSS). Items on the PSS were combined for an overall score and categorized according to the severity of perceived stress. Chi-square tests were performed for bivariate analyses of categorical variables. Results: Of the 284 participants consenting to complete the survey, 197 participants completed the full survey. MAs made up most of the sample at 79%. Among all respondents, 47% had moderate PSS scores (scored between 14 and 26), and 51% had severe PSS scores (scored between 27 and 40). Unvaccinated participants reported statistically significantly lower levels of perceived stress (p = 0.002). Performing tasks outside of typical job responsibilities was not associated with PSS scores (p = .667). Discussion: Non-physician healthcare workers demonstrated a high level of perceived stress overall. The association between vaccination status and perceived stress should be examined in order to evaluate whether vaccination levels could be improved with further education about the virus and associated risks.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-Cov-2, nursing, public health

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3 Effect of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B (HIB) Vaccination on Child Anthropometry in India: Evidence from Young Lives Study

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay


Haemophilus influenzae Type B (Hib) cause infections of pneumonia, meningitis, epiglottises and other invasive disease exclusively among children under age five. Occurrence of these infections may impair child growth by causing micronutrient deficiency. Using longitudinal data from first and second waves of Young Lives Study conducted in India during 2002 and 2006-07 respectively and multivariable logistic regression models (using generalised estimation equation to take into account the cluster nature of sample), this study aims to examine the impact of Hib vaccination on child anthropometric outcomes (stunting, underweight and wasting) in India. Bivariate result shows that, a higher percent of children were stunted and underweight among those who were not vaccinated against Hib (39% & 48% respectively) as compare to those who were vaccinated (31% and 39% respectively).The risk of childhood stunting and underweight was significantly lower among children who were vaccinated against Hib (odds ratio: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96 and odds ratio: 0.79, 95% C.I: 0.64-0.98 respectively) as compare to the unvaccinated children. No significant association was found between vaccination status against Hib and childhood wasting. Moreover, in the statistical models, about 13% of stunting and 12% of underweight could be attributable to lack of vaccination against Hib in India. Study concludes that vaccination against Hib- in addition to being a major intervention for reducing childhood infectious disease and mortality- can be consider as a potential tool for reducing the burden of undernutrition in India. Therefore, the Government of India must include the vaccine against Hib into the Universal Immunization Programme in India.

Keywords: Haemophilus influenzae Type-B, Stunting, Underweight, Wasting, Young Lives Study (YLS), India

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2 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin


Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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1 Activities for Increasing Childhood Vaccination Coverage of the Refugee and Migrant Population, Greece, European Program PHILOS, 2017

Authors: C. Silvestros, K. Mellou, T. Georgakopoulou, A. Koustenis, E. Kokkinou, C. Botsi, A. Terzidis


'PHILOS – Emergency health response to refugee crisis' is a programme of the Greek Ministry of Health, implemented by the Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention (HCDCP) funded by the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) of EU’s DG Migration and Home Affairs. One of the main objectives of the program is the immunization coverage of the target – population to assure the prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. The program foresees vaccination needs assessment of children hosted at camps at the mainland and implementation of interventions to cover the vaccination gaps in co-operation with the Ministry of Health. The National Immunization Advisory Committee in Greece recommended that MMR (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella), PCV (Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) and HEXA (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccines should be performed in priority. Recording was completed at 24 camps (May - June 2017); 3381 children (0-18 years) were recorded. The median number of children hosted at each camp was 95 (range: 5-553). For 68% of the children, the WHO vaccination booklet was available. 44%, 48.5% and 61% of the children were vaccinated with at least one dose of PCV, HEXA, and MMR, respectively. The proportion of vaccinated children for the three vaccines mentioned above is significantly lower for the remaining doses; PCV (second dose 8%, third dose 1.3%), HEXA (second dose 13%, third dose 2.7%, forth dose 0.1%) and MMR (second dose 23%). None of the 37 (10 from Afghanistan, 3 from Bangladesh, 23 from Pakistan, 1 from Syria) recorded unaccompanied children did not have a WHO vaccination booklet and were considered unvaccinated. There is no differentiation in vaccination coverage among different ethnicities. Massive catch up vaccination was performed at 4 camps, and 671 vaccinations were performed (245 PCV, 307 HEXA, and 119 MMR). Similar interventions are planned for all camps of the country. Recording reveled gaps in vaccination coverage of the population, mainly because of the mobility of the population, the influx of refugees- which is still ongoing- and new births. Mass vaccination campaigns are considered vital in order to increase vaccination coverage, and continuous efforts are needed in order all children living at the camps to have full access to the National Childhood Immunization Program.

Keywords: vaccine preventable, refugee–migrants camps, vaccination coverage, PCV, MMR, HEXA

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