Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 594

Search results for: coverage

594 Harmony Search-Based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaimaa M. Mohamed, Haitham S. Hamza, Imane A. Saroit


Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), harmony search algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN

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593 Improving Coverage in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Ehsan Abdolzadeh, Sanaz Nouri, Siamak Khalaj


Today WSNs have many applications in different fields like the environment, military operations, discoveries, monitoring operations, and so on. Coverage size and energy consumption are the important challenges that these networks need to face. This paper tries to solve the problem of coverage with a requirement of k-coverage and minimum energy consumption. In order to minimize energy consumption, visual sensor networks have been used that observe and process just those targets that are located in their view direction. As a result, sensor rotations have decreased, and subsequently, energy consumption has been minimized. To solve the problem of coverage particle swarm optimization, coverage optimization has been able to ensure coverage requirement together with minimizing sensor rotations while meeting the problem requirement of k≤14. So energy consumption has decreased, and this could extend the sensors’ lifetime subsequently.

Keywords: K coverage, particle union optimization algorithm, wireless sensor networks, visual sensor networks

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592 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet


Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

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591 Automatic MC/DC Test Data Generation from Software Module Description

Authors: Sekou Kangoye, Alexis Todoskoff, Mihaela Barreau


Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) is a structural coverage criterion that is highly recommended or required for safety-critical software coverage. Therefore, many testing standards include this criterion and require it to be satisfied at a particular level of testing (e.g. validation and unit levels). However, an important amount of time is needed to meet those requirements. In this paper we propose to automate MC/DC test data generation. Thus, we present an approach to automatically generate MC/DC test data, from software module description written over a dedicated language. We introduce a new merging approach that provides high MC/DC coverage for the description, with only a little number of test cases.

Keywords: domain-specific language, MC/DC, test data generation, safety-critical software coverage

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590 Newspaper Reportage and Framing of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Anti-Corruption Campaign in Nigeria

Authors: Diane Ezeh-Aruah


This study examined newspaper coverage of President Muhammadu Buhar’s anti-corruption crusade, a case study of Guardian, Nation, Sun and Vanguard newspapers. It assessed the frequency of coverage given to President Buhari’s war against corruption, the prominence of coverage, the angles/framing of topics and the direction of the news stories. The determinants of the prominence of coverage were page placement, length of the story, illustrations and story types. The author made use of agenda setting and framing theories. The research was carried through the method of survey, by distribution of copies of the questionnaire. The result of this study showed that the media gave adequate coverage of President Buhari’s anti-corruption war, even though the reports were not many in the early stages of the law enactment, but the coverages lacked prominence as most of the major stories were not given front page coverage; they lacked pictorial illustrations and not exhaustive enough to be impactful. Newspaper organizations are therefore encouraged to include humanistic angles in their corruption stories rather than focus highly on political angles. They should adopt the elements of investigative and interpretative journalism in their coverage of corruption news.

Keywords: newspaper, coverage, president Muhammadu Buhari, anti-corruption campaign

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589 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong


Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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588 Media Representation of China: A Content Analysis of Coverage of China-Related Energy in the New York Times

Authors: Lian Liu


By analyzing the content of the New York Times' China-related energy reports, this study aims to explore the construction of China's national image by the mainstream media in the United States. The study analyzes three aspects of the coverage: topics, reporting tendencies, and countries involved. The results of the study show that economic issues are the main focus of the New York Times’ China-related energy coverage, followed by political issues and environmental issues. Overall, the coverage tendency was mainly negative, but positive coverage was dominated by science and technology issues. In addition, the study found that U.S.-China relations and Sino-Russian relations were important contexts for the construction of China's national image in the NYT's China-related energy coverage. These stories highlight China's interstate interactions with the United States, Japan, and Russia, which serve as important links in the coverage. The findings of this study reveal some characteristics and trends of the U.S. mainstream media's country image of China, which are important for a deeper understanding of the U.S.-China relationship and the media's influence on the construction of the country's image.

Keywords: media coverage, China, content analysis, visualization technology

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587 Maximizing Coverage with Mobile Crime Cameras in a Stochastic Spatiotemporal Bipartite Network

Authors: (Ted) Edward Holmberg, Mahdi Abdelguerfi, Elias Ioup


This research details a coverage measure for evaluating the effectiveness of observer node placements in a spatial bipartite network. This coverage measure can be used to optimize the configuration of stationary or mobile spatially oriented observer nodes, or a hybrid of the two, over time in order to fully utilize their capabilities. To demonstrate the practical application of this approach, we construct a SpatioTemporal Bipartite Network (STBN) using real-time crime center (RTCC) camera nodes and NOPD calls for service (CFS) event nodes from New Orleans, La (NOLA). We use the coverage measure to identify optimal placements for moving mobile RTCC camera vans to improve coverage of vulnerable areas based on temporal patterns.

Keywords: coverage measure, mobile node dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, observer nodes, observable nodes, spatiotemporal bipartite knowledge graph, temporal spatial analysis

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586 Novel Formal Verification Based Coverage Augmentation Technique

Authors: Surinder Sood, Debajyoti Mukherjee


Formal verification techniques have become widely popular in pre-silicon verification as an alternate to constrain random simulation based techniques. This paper proposed a novel formal verification-based coverage augmentation technique in verifying complex RTL functional verification faster. The proposed approach relies on augmenting coverage analysis coming from simulation and formal verification. Besides this, the functional qualification framework not only helps in improving the coverage at a faster pace but also aids in maturing and qualifying the formal verification infrastructure. The proposed technique has helped to achieve faster verification sign-off, resulting in faster time-to-market. The design picked had a complex control and data path and had many configurable options to meet multiple specification needs. The flow is generic, and tool independent, thereby leveraging across the projects and design will be much easier

Keywords: COI (cone of influence), coverage, formal verification, fault injection

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585 Russian Invasion of Ukraine-An analysis of Coverage in Indian Media

Authors: Dr.Prabhat Dixit Dr.Sanjay Pandey


Russian invasion of Ukraine has hogged the limelight in both national and international media. It is expected that the news about the war, which had affected the entire world, especially its economy, will continue to dominate the coverage on TV and newspapers in the next few days, at least until the hostilities come to an end. Although the war still continues, and it is hard to predict its ending, its coverage by the Indian media has raised eyebrows, and it has been observed that the coverage lacks depth, authenticity and a majority of information was sought to be presented in a sensational manner only to attract more number of viewers. It is said that Truth is the first casualty of war. The media should, especially while airing or publishing news about the wars, exercise caution so as not to inflame the already volatile situation in the warring countries. It was also observed that there were differences in the facts and figures presented by different media outlets in the country about the war.

Keywords: economy, media, russia, ukraine, war

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584 A Genetic Algorithm Based Sleep-Wake up Protocol for Area Coverage in WSNs

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii, Arash Nikdel, Seyed Mohsen Jameii


Energy efficiency is an important issue in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). So, minimizing the energy consumption in this kind of networks should be an essential consideration. Sleep/wake scheduling mechanism is an efficient approach to handling this issue. In this paper, we propose a Genetic Algorithm-based Sleep-Wake up Area Coverage protocol called GA-SWAC. The proposed protocol puts the minimum of nodes in active mode and adjusts the sensing radius of each active node to decrease the energy consumption while maintaining the network’s coverage. The proposed protocol is simulated. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of coverage ratio, number of active nodes and energy consumption.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, genetic algorithm, coverage, connectivity

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583 Foreign News Coverage in Conservative and Liberal U.S. Newspapers: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mohammed Huraysi


This research will investigate the historical coverage of foreign issues in U.S. newspapers. The study will focus on three main areas, which are coverage of wars, foreign leaders, and human rights in foreign countries, and analyze them by applying the framing theory to news stories about Saudi Arabia, used as a case study, within two different newspapers over some time Wall Street Journal and The New York Times will be investigated and representative of two distinct newspaper orientations, which are conservative and liberal ideological orientations. By the end of this research study, comprehensive coverage of these topics in U.S. newspapers from past to present will be provided, leading to an ability to discover consistency or lack thereof, explain the present, and devise future expectations.

Keywords: framing theory, US newspapers, historical research, Saudi Arabia

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582 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song


In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

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581 Optimal 3D Deployment and Path Planning of Multiple Uavs for Maximum Coverage and Autonomy

Authors: Indu Chandran, Shubham Sharma, Rohan Mehta, Vipin Kizheppatt


Unmanned aerial vehicles are increasingly being explored as the most promising solution to disaster monitoring, assessment, and recovery. Current relief operations heavily rely on intelligent robot swarms to capture the damage caused, provide timely rescue, and create road maps for the victims. To perform these time-critical missions, efficient path planning that ensures quick coverage of the area is vital. This study aims to develop a technically balanced approach to provide maximum coverage of the affected area in a minimum time using the optimal number of UAVs. A coverage trajectory is designed through area decomposition and task assignment. To perform efficient and autonomous coverage mission, solution to a TSP-based optimization problem using meta-heuristic approaches is designed to allocate waypoints to the UAVs of different flight capacities. The study exploits multi-agent simulations like PX4-SITL and QGroundcontrol through the ROS framework and visualizes the dynamics of UAV deployment to different search paths in a 3D Gazebo environment. Through detailed theoretical analysis and simulation tests, we illustrate the optimality and efficiency of the proposed methodologies.

Keywords: area coverage, coverage path planning, heuristic algorithm, mission monitoring, optimization, task assignment, unmanned aerial vehicles

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580 A New Learning Automata-Based Algorithm to the Priority-Based Target Coverage Problem in Directional Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaharuddin Salleh, Sara Marouf, Hosein Mohammadi


Directional sensor networks (DSNs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their extensive applications in a wide range of situations. One of the most important problems associated with DSNs is covering a set of targets in a given area and, at the same time, maximizing the network lifetime. This is due to limitation in sensing angle and battery power of the directional sensors. This problem gets more complicated by the possibility that targets may have different coverage requirements. In the present study, this problem is referred to as priority-based target coverage (PTC). As sensors are often densely deployed, organizing the sensors into several cover sets and then activating these cover sets successively is a promising solution to this problem. In this paper, we propose a learning automata-based algorithm to organize the directional sensors into several cover sets in such a way that each cover set could satisfy coverage requirements of all the targets. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrated that the algorithms were able to contribute to solving the problem.

Keywords: directional sensor networks, target coverage problem, cover set formation, learning automata

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579 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah


The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, capacity planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone, throughput

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578 Power-Aware Adaptive Coverage Control with Consensus Protocol

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas


In this paper, we propose a new approach to coverage control problem by using adaptive coordination and power aware control laws. Nonholonomic mobile nodes position themselves suboptimally according to a time-varying density function using Centroidal Voronoi Tesellations. The Lyapunov stability analysis of the adaptive and decentralized approach is given. A linear consensus protocol is used to establish synchronization among the mobile nodes. Also, repulsive forces prevent nodes from collision. Simulation results show that by using power aware control laws, energy consumption of the nodes can be reduced.

Keywords: power aware, coverage control, adaptive, consensus, nonholonomic, coordination

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577 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model

Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das


This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.

Keywords: WiMAX, RSSI, path loss, coverage probability, regression analysis

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576 Interval Estimation for Rainfall Mean in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Nitaya Buntao


This paper considers the problems of interval estimation for rainfall mean of the lognormal distribution and the delta-lognormal distribution in Northeastern Thailand. We present here the modified generalized pivotal approach (MGPA) compared to the modified method of variance estimates recovery (MMOVER). The performance of each method is examined in term of coverage probabilities and average lengths by Monte Carlo simulation. An extensive simulation study indicates that the MMOVER performs better than the MGPA approach in terms of the coverage probability; it results in highly accurate coverage probability.

Keywords: rainfall mean, interval estimation, lognormal distribution, delta-lognormal distribution

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575 Textual Analysis of Media Coverage on Women’s Employment during Covid-19 Recovery: Personal Choice versus Systemic Insufficiencies

Authors: Rania Al Namara


During the Covid-19 pandemic, women disproportionately left the workforce compared to men, and many remained outside of the labor market during the Covid-19 recovery period—a phenomenon referred to as the “she-recession” or “shecession.” While the number of women returning to work has increased, long-standing systemic inequalities interfere with women's equal participation in the workforce. Previous research on media framing has explored the importance of news coverage of women’s issues in print and magazines to shaping the public’s views on an issue and the national response. This study adopts textual analysis to examine how 50 news stories published on CNN and CBS in March 2023 frame women’s employment challenges as a matter of choice or as a matter of insufficient systems and analyzes the narratives portrayed to understand how this discourse affects national policies regarding women’s equality in the workforce. Findings suggest that media coverage centers on four themes: unequal wages at work, work-life integration, experiences of minority women, and the struggle to acquire leadership positions. Media coverage gives space to women to tell personal stories about facing these four societal challenges. However, little coverage is devoted to the political figures and institutions that either reinforce gender inequalities or advance women’s rights in these areas. These findings highlight the need for media stories that discuss policies and reforms that broaden the choices available to women in the first place.

Keywords: Covid-19 recovery, media coverage, shecession, women’s employment

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574 Relationship Between Health Coverage and Emergency Disease Burden

Authors: Karim Hajjar, Luis Lillo, Diego Martinez, Manuel Hermosilla, Nicholas Risko


Objectives: This study examines the relationship between universal health coverage (UCH) and the burden of emergency diseases at a global level. Methods: Data on Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from emergency conditions were extracted from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) database for the years 2015 and 2019. Data on UHC, measured using two variables, 1) coverage of essential health services and 2) proportion of population spending more than 10% of household income on out-of-pocket health care expenditure, was extracted from the World Bank Database for years preceding our outcome of interest. Linear regression was performed, analyzing the effect of the UHC variables on the DALYs of emergency diseases, controlling for other variables. Results: A total of 133 countries were included. 44.4% of the analyzed countries had coverage of essential health services index of at least 70/100, and 35.3% had at least 10% of their population spend greater than 10% of their household income on healthcare. For every point increase in the coverage of essential health services index, there was a 13-point reduction in DALYs of emergency medical diseases (95% CI -16, -11). Conversely, for every percent decrease in the population with large household expenditure on healthcare, there was a 0.48 increase in DALYs of emergency medical diseases (95% CI -5.6, 4.7). Conclusions: After adjusting for multiple variables, an increase in coverage of essential health services was significantly associated with improvement in DALYs for emergency conditions. There was, however, no association between catastrophic health expenditure and DALYs.

Keywords: emergency medicine, universal healthcare, global health, health economics

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573 Media Representation And Visibility Of Female Athletes In Sporting Events Featuring Both Female And Male Competitors

Authors: L.A. Jennings


Traditional sports media marginalizes or ignores female athletes in their coverage despite increasing numbers of female participation in professional sports. However, in venues in which women and men compete in the same event, such as fighting sports, media coverage of female athletes increases dramatically. Focusing on fighting sports, including boxing, submission wrestling, kickboxing, and Mixed Martial Arts, this paper demonstrates that inclusive venues provide an avenue for female athletes to receive equitable promotion, media coverage, and sponsorship opportunities using data from ESPN, Neilson, the Fan Report, and other emerging sources. This paper further argues that transgendered and nonbinary athletes could thrive in these environments in future sporting activities.

Keywords: sports, media, athletes, sports media, women in sports

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572 The Columbine Shooting in German Media Coverage: A Point of No Return

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik


School shootings are a well-known phenomenon in Germany, 14 of which have occurred to date. The first case happened half a year after the April 20th, 1999 Columbine shooting in the United States, which was at the time the most serious school shooting to have occurred anywhere in the world. The German media gave only scant attention to the subject of school shootings prior to Columbine, even though there were numerous instances of it throughout the world and several serious instances in the United States during the 1990s. A mixed method design of qualitative and quantitative content analysis was employed in order to demonstrate the main features and characteristics of core German media’s coverage of Columbine.

Keywords: Columbine, media coverage, qualitative, quantitative content analysis, school shooting

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571 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi


The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

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570 Assessing Role of Newspapers in Creating Awareness of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

Authors: Fatima Kiran


This study investigates the HIV/AIDS coverage in the selected newspapers. The premises of the study depend upon the fact that informing public about any social issue that effects people’s life is among one of the fundamental functions of media, such as HIV/AIDS is one of prime importance. In this study two most prime newspapers of Pakistan Daily Jang and Daily Dawn were analyzed. This paper adopted two approaches for investigation one is content analysis and another is discourse analysis. The content analysis was used to determine the frequency of HIV/AIDS content coverage. Discourse analysis was used to determine consciousness of these newspapers on covering HIV/AIDS stories with correct language and terminologies according to the given media guideline of UNICEF. Total 368 editions from 1st July 2017 to 31st December 2017 were sampled for the study. The result of the study indicates that newspapers have severely underestimated the severity of HIV/AIDS. The coverage given by newspapers is dissatisfactory. Selected newspapers used inappropriate terminologies and language in the stories which shows negligence of newspapers regarding HIV/AIDS issue.

Keywords: Pakistani newspapers, HIV/AIDS, coverage, public awareness, content analysis, discourse analysis, press consciousness

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569 The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying

Authors: Beata Cieniawska, Deta Łuczycka, Katarzyna Dereń


When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.

Keywords: degree of coverage, deposition of liquid, nozzle, spraying

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568 Energy-Efficient Internet of Things Communications: A Comparative Study of Long-Term Evolution for Machines and Narrowband Internet of Things Technologies

Authors: Nassim Labdaoui, Fabienne Nouvel, Stéphane Dutertre


The Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a crucial communication technology for the future. Many solutions have been proposed, and among them, licensed operators have put forward LTE-M and NB-IoT. However, implementing these technologies requires a good understanding of the device energy requirements, which can vary depending on the coverage conditions. In this paper, we investigate the power consumption of LTE-M and NB-IoT devices using Ublox SARA-R422S modules based on relevant standards from two French operators. The measurements were conducted under different coverage conditions, and we also present an empirical consumption model based on the different states of the radio modem as per the RRC protocol specifications. Our findings indicate that these technologies can achieve a 5 years operational battery life under certain conditions. Moreover, we conclude that the size of transmitted data does not have a significant impact on the total power consumption of the device under favorable coverage conditions. However, it can quickly influence the battery life of the device under harsh coverage conditions. Overall, this paper offers insights into the power consumption of LTE-M and NBIoT devices and provides useful information for those considering the use of these technologies.

Keywords: internet of things, LTE-M, NB-IoT, MQTT, cellular IoT, power consumption

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567 Queueing Modeling of M/G/1 Fault Tolerant System with Threshold Recovery and Imperfect Coverage

Authors: Madhu Jain, Rakesh Kumar Meena


This paper investigates a finite M/G/1 fault tolerant multi-component machining system. The system incorporates the features such as standby support, threshold recovery and imperfect coverage make the study closer to real time systems. The performance prediction of M/G/1 fault tolerant system is carried out using recursive approach by treating remaining service time as a supplementary variable. The numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational tractability of analytical results by taking three different service time distributions viz. exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic. Moreover, the cost function is constructed to determine the optimal choice of system descriptors to upgrading the system.

Keywords: fault tolerant, machine repair, threshold recovery policy, imperfect coverage, supplementary variable technique

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566 Impact of Television on the Coverage of Lassa Fever Disease in Nigeria

Authors: H. Shola Adeosun, F. Ajoke Adebiyi


This study appraises the impact of television on the coverage of Lassa Fever disease. The objectives of the study are to find out whether television is an effective tool for raising awareness about Lassa fever shapes the perception of members of the public. The research work was based on the theoretical foundation of Agenda – setting and reinforcement theory. Survey research method was adopted in the study to elicit data from the residents of Obafemi Owode Local Government, area of Ogun state. Questionnaire and oral interview were adopted as a tool for data gathering. Simple random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample for this study. Out of filled 400 questionnaires distributed to the respondents. 37 of them were incorrectly filled and returned at the stipulated time. This is about (92.5% Tables, percentages, and figures were used to analyse and interpret the data and hypothesis formulation for this study revealed that Lassa fever diseases with higher media coverage were considered more serious and more representative of a disease and estimated to have lower incidents, than diseases less frequently found in the media. Thus, 92% of the respondents agree that they have access to television coverage of Lassa fever disease led to exaggerated perceptions of personal vulnerability. It, therefore, concludes that there is a need for relevant stakeholders to ensure better community health education and improved housing conditions in southwestern Nigeria, with an emphasis on slum areas and that Nigeria need to focus on the immediate response, while preparing for the future because a society or community is all about the people who inhabit. Therefore every effort must be geared towards their society and survival.

Keywords: impact, television, coverage, Lassa fever disease

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565 Distributed Coverage Control by Robot Networks in Unknown Environments Using a Modified EM Algorithm

Authors: Mohammadhosein Hasanbeig, Lacra Pavel


In this paper, we study a distributed control algorithm for the problem of unknown area coverage by a network of robots. The coverage objective is to locate a set of targets in the area and to minimize the robots’ energy consumption. The robots have no prior knowledge about the location and also about the number of the targets in the area. One efficient approach that can be used to relax the robots’ lack of knowledge is to incorporate an auxiliary learning algorithm into the control scheme. A learning algorithm actually allows the robots to explore and study the unknown environment and to eventually overcome their lack of knowledge. The control algorithm itself is modeled based on game theory where the network of the robots use their collective information to play a non-cooperative potential game. The algorithm is tested via simulations to verify its performance and adaptability.

Keywords: distributed control, game theory, multi-agent learning, reinforcement learning

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