Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 478

Search results for: coverage

478 Harmony Search-Based K-Coverage Enhancement in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaimaa M. Mohamed, Haitham S. Hamza, Imane A. Saroit

Abstract:

Many wireless sensor network applications require K-coverage of the monitored area. In this paper, we propose a scalable harmony search based algorithm in terms of execution time, K-Coverage Enhancement Algorithm (KCEA), it attempts to enhance initial coverage, and achieve the required K-coverage degree for a specific application efficiently. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coverage improvement of 5.34% compared to K-Coverage Rate Deployment (K-CRD), which achieves 1.31% when deploying one additional sensor. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is more time efficient.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), harmony search algorithms, K-Coverage, Mobile WSN

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477 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet

Abstract:

Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
476 Automatic MC/DC Test Data Generation from Software Module Description

Authors: Sekou Kangoye, Alexis Todoskoff, Mihaela Barreau

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Modified Condition/Decision Coverage (MC/DC) is a structural coverage criterion that is highly recommended or required for safety-critical software coverage. Therefore, many testing standards include this criterion and require it to be satisfied at a particular level of testing (e.g. validation and unit levels). However, an important amount of time is needed to meet those requirements. In this paper we propose to automate MC/DC test data generation. Thus, we present an approach to automatically generate MC/DC test data, from software module description written over a dedicated language. We introduce a new merging approach that provides high MC/DC coverage for the description, with only a little number of test cases.

Keywords: domain-specific language, MC/DC, test data generation, safety-critical software coverage

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475 Newspaper Reportage and Framing of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Anti-Corruption Campaign in Nigeria

Authors: Diane Ezeh-Aruah

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This study examined newspaper coverage of President Muhammadu Buhar’s anti-corruption crusade, a case study of Guardian, Nation, Sun and Vanguard newspapers. It assessed the frequency of coverage given to President Buhari’s war against corruption, the prominence of coverage, the angles/framing of topics and the direction of the news stories. The determinants of the prominence of coverage were page placement, length of the story, illustrations and story types. The author made use of agenda setting and framing theories. The research was carried through the method of survey, by distribution of copies of the questionnaire. The result of this study showed that the media gave adequate coverage of President Buhari’s anti-corruption war, even though the reports were not many in the early stages of the law enactment, but the coverages lacked prominence as most of the major stories were not given front page coverage; they lacked pictorial illustrations and not exhaustive enough to be impactful. Newspaper organizations are therefore encouraged to include humanistic angles in their corruption stories rather than focus highly on political angles. They should adopt the elements of investigative and interpretative journalism in their coverage of corruption news.

Keywords: newspaper, coverage, president Muhammadu Buhari, anti-corruption campaign

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474 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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473 A Genetic Algorithm Based Sleep-Wake up Protocol for Area Coverage in WSNs

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii, Arash Nikdel, Seyed Mohsen Jameii

Abstract:

Energy efficiency is an important issue in the field of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). So, minimizing the energy consumption in this kind of networks should be an essential consideration. Sleep/wake scheduling mechanism is an efficient approach to handling this issue. In this paper, we propose a Genetic Algorithm-based Sleep-Wake up Area Coverage protocol called GA-SWAC. The proposed protocol puts the minimum of nodes in active mode and adjusts the sensing radius of each active node to decrease the energy consumption while maintaining the network’s coverage. The proposed protocol is simulated. The results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed protocol in terms of coverage ratio, number of active nodes and energy consumption.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, genetic algorithm, coverage, connectivity

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472 An Adaptive Cooperative Scheme for Reliability of Transmission Using STBC and CDD in Wireless Communications

Authors: Hyun-Jun Shin, Jae-Jeong Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

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In broadcasting and cellular system, a cooperative scheme is proposed for the improvement of performance of bit error rate. Up to date, the coverage of broadcasting system coexists with the coverage of cellular system. Therefore each user in a cellular coverage is frequently involved in a broadcasting coverage. The proposed cooperative scheme is derived from the shared areas. The users receive signals from both broadcasting base station and cellular base station. The proposed scheme selects a cellular base station of a worse channel to achieve better performance of bit error rate in cooperation. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated in fading channel.

Keywords: cooperative communication, diversity, STBC, CDD, channel condition, broadcasting system, cellular system

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471 A New Learning Automata-Based Algorithm to the Priority-Based Target Coverage Problem in Directional Sensor Networks

Authors: Shaharuddin Salleh, Sara Marouf, Hosein Mohammadi

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Directional sensor networks (DSNs) have recently attracted a great deal of attention due to their extensive applications in a wide range of situations. One of the most important problems associated with DSNs is covering a set of targets in a given area and, at the same time, maximizing the network lifetime. This is due to limitation in sensing angle and battery power of the directional sensors. This problem gets more complicated by the possibility that targets may have different coverage requirements. In the present study, this problem is referred to as priority-based target coverage (PTC). As sensors are often densely deployed, organizing the sensors into several cover sets and then activating these cover sets successively is a promising solution to this problem. In this paper, we propose a learning automata-based algorithm to organize the directional sensors into several cover sets in such a way that each cover set could satisfy coverage requirements of all the targets. Several experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrated that the algorithms were able to contribute to solving the problem.

Keywords: directional sensor networks, target coverage problem, cover set formation, learning automata

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470 Analysis of Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Planning Using High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)

Authors: Yosika Dian Komala, Uke Kurniawan Usman, Yuyun Siti Rohmah

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The enable technology fills up needs of high-speed data service is Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS). UMTS has a data rate up to 2Mbps.UMTS terrestrial system has a coverage area about 1-2km. High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) can be built by a macro cell that is able to serve the wider area. Design method of UMTS using HAPS is planning base on coverage and capacity. The planning method is simulated with 2.8.1 Atoll’s software. Determination of radius of the cell based on the coverage uses free space loss propagation model. While the capacity planning to determine the average cell through put is available with the Offered Bit Quantity (OBQ).

Keywords: UMTS, HAPS, coverage planning, capacity planning, signal level, Ec/Io, overlapping zone, throughput

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469 Power-Aware Adaptive Coverage Control with Consensus Protocol

Authors: Mert Turanli, Hakan Temeltas

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new approach to coverage control problem by using adaptive coordination and power aware control laws. Nonholonomic mobile nodes position themselves suboptimally according to a time-varying density function using Centroidal Voronoi Tesellations. The Lyapunov stability analysis of the adaptive and decentralized approach is given. A linear consensus protocol is used to establish synchronization among the mobile nodes. Also, repulsive forces prevent nodes from collision. Simulation results show that by using power aware control laws, energy consumption of the nodes can be reduced.

Keywords: power aware, coverage control, adaptive, consensus, nonholonomic, coordination

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468 Coverage Probability Analysis of WiMAX Network under Additive White Gaussian Noise and Predicted Empirical Path Loss Model

Authors: Chaudhuri Manoj Kumar Swain, Susmita Das

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This paper explores a detailed procedure of predicting a path loss (PL) model and its application in estimating the coverage probability in a WiMAX network. For this a hybrid approach is followed in predicting an empirical PL model of a 2.65 GHz WiMAX network deployed in a suburban environment. Data collection, statistical analysis, and regression analysis are the phases of operations incorporated in this approach and the importance of each of these phases has been discussed properly. The procedure of collecting data such as received signal strength indicator (RSSI) through experimental set up is demonstrated. From the collected data set, empirical PL and RSSI models are predicted with regression technique. Furthermore, with the aid of the predicted PL model, essential parameters such as PL exponent as well as the coverage probability of the network are evaluated. This research work may assist in the process of deployment and optimisation of any cellular network significantly.

Keywords: WiMAX, RSSI, path loss, coverage probability, regression analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
467 Interval Estimation for Rainfall Mean in Northeastern Thailand

Authors: Nitaya Buntao

Abstract:

This paper considers the problems of interval estimation for rainfall mean of the lognormal distribution and the delta-lognormal distribution in Northeastern Thailand. We present here the modified generalized pivotal approach (MGPA) compared to the modified method of variance estimates recovery (MMOVER). The performance of each method is examined in term of coverage probabilities and average lengths by Monte Carlo simulation. An extensive simulation study indicates that the MMOVER performs better than the MGPA approach in terms of the coverage probability; it results in highly accurate coverage probability.

Keywords: rainfall mean, interval estimation, lognormal distribution, delta-lognormal distribution

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466 The Columbine Shooting in German Media Coverage: A Point of No Return

Authors: Melanie Verhovnik

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School shootings are a well-known phenomenon in Germany, 14 of which have occurred to date. The first case happened half a year after the April 20th, 1999 Columbine shooting in the United States, which was at the time the most serious school shooting to have occurred anywhere in the world. The German media gave only scant attention to the subject of school shootings prior to Columbine, even though there were numerous instances of it throughout the world and several serious instances in the United States during the 1990s. A mixed method design of qualitative and quantitative content analysis was employed in order to demonstrate the main features and characteristics of core German media’s coverage of Columbine.

Keywords: Columbine, media coverage, qualitative, quantitative content analysis, school shooting

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465 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi

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The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

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464 Assessing Role of Newspapers in Creating Awareness of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan

Authors: Fatima Kiran

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This study investigates the HIV/AIDS coverage in the selected newspapers. The premises of the study depend upon the fact that informing public about any social issue that effects people’s life is among one of the fundamental functions of media, such as HIV/AIDS is one of prime importance. In this study two most prime newspapers of Pakistan Daily Jang and Daily Dawn were analyzed. This paper adopted two approaches for investigation one is content analysis and another is discourse analysis. The content analysis was used to determine the frequency of HIV/AIDS content coverage. Discourse analysis was used to determine consciousness of these newspapers on covering HIV/AIDS stories with correct language and terminologies according to the given media guideline of UNICEF. Total 368 editions from 1st July 2017 to 31st December 2017 were sampled for the study. The result of the study indicates that newspapers have severely underestimated the severity of HIV/AIDS. The coverage given by newspapers is dissatisfactory. Selected newspapers used inappropriate terminologies and language in the stories which shows negligence of newspapers regarding HIV/AIDS issue.

Keywords: Pakistani newspapers, HIV/AIDS, coverage, public awareness, content analysis, discourse analysis, press consciousness

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463 The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying

Authors: Beata Cieniawska, Deta Łuczycka, Katarzyna Dereń

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When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.

Keywords: degree of coverage, deposition of liquid, nozzle, spraying

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462 Queueing Modeling of M/G/1 Fault Tolerant System with Threshold Recovery and Imperfect Coverage

Authors: Madhu Jain, Rakesh Kumar Meena

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This paper investigates a finite M/G/1 fault tolerant multi-component machining system. The system incorporates the features such as standby support, threshold recovery and imperfect coverage make the study closer to real time systems. The performance prediction of M/G/1 fault tolerant system is carried out using recursive approach by treating remaining service time as a supplementary variable. The numerical results are presented to illustrate the computational tractability of analytical results by taking three different service time distributions viz. exponential, 3-stage Erlang and deterministic. Moreover, the cost function is constructed to determine the optimal choice of system descriptors to upgrading the system.

Keywords: fault tolerant, machine repair, threshold recovery policy, imperfect coverage, supplementary variable technique

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461 Impact of Television on the Coverage of Lassa Fever Disease in Nigeria

Authors: H. Shola Adeosun, F. Ajoke Adebiyi

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This study appraises the impact of television on the coverage of Lassa Fever disease. The objectives of the study are to find out whether television is an effective tool for raising awareness about Lassa fever shapes the perception of members of the public. The research work was based on the theoretical foundation of Agenda – setting and reinforcement theory. Survey research method was adopted in the study to elicit data from the residents of Obafemi Owode Local Government, area of Ogun state. Questionnaire and oral interview were adopted as a tool for data gathering. Simple random sampling techniques were used to draw a sample for this study. Out of filled 400 questionnaires distributed to the respondents. 37 of them were incorrectly filled and returned at the stipulated time. This is about (92.5% Tables, percentages, and figures were used to analyse and interpret the data and hypothesis formulation for this study revealed that Lassa fever diseases with higher media coverage were considered more serious and more representative of a disease and estimated to have lower incidents, than diseases less frequently found in the media. Thus, 92% of the respondents agree that they have access to television coverage of Lassa fever disease led to exaggerated perceptions of personal vulnerability. It, therefore, concludes that there is a need for relevant stakeholders to ensure better community health education and improved housing conditions in southwestern Nigeria, with an emphasis on slum areas and that Nigeria need to focus on the immediate response, while preparing for the future because a society or community is all about the people who inhabit. Therefore every effort must be geared towards their society and survival.

Keywords: impact, television, coverage, Lassa fever disease

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460 Distributed Coverage Control by Robot Networks in Unknown Environments Using a Modified EM Algorithm

Authors: Mohammadhosein Hasanbeig, Lacra Pavel

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In this paper, we study a distributed control algorithm for the problem of unknown area coverage by a network of robots. The coverage objective is to locate a set of targets in the area and to minimize the robots’ energy consumption. The robots have no prior knowledge about the location and also about the number of the targets in the area. One efficient approach that can be used to relax the robots’ lack of knowledge is to incorporate an auxiliary learning algorithm into the control scheme. A learning algorithm actually allows the robots to explore and study the unknown environment and to eventually overcome their lack of knowledge. The control algorithm itself is modeled based on game theory where the network of the robots use their collective information to play a non-cooperative potential game. The algorithm is tested via simulations to verify its performance and adaptability.

Keywords: distributed control, game theory, multi-agent learning, reinforcement learning

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459 Media Framing and Agenda-Setting of Hurricane Harvey’s News Coverage: A Content Analysis of The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, and The Houston Chronicle from 2017 To 2018

Authors: S M Asger Ali, Duane A. Gill

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During crisis moments like a natural disaster, people tend to rely on the mass media to get up-to-date information and stay informed. However, when media are covering crisis news, they may lose some objectivity, and rather than providing balanced news coverage, media may become critical towards the government and private sectors for their participation in disaster response and recovery processes. This paper investigated the print media coverage of Hurricane Harvey and utilized data from three newspapers: the New York Times (online), the Wall Street Journal (online), and the Houston Chronicle. By examining the media's use of descriptors, quotes, wording, and images, this research explored how media coverage framed government and private sectors for their role in Harvey's response and recovery. Findings revealed that the human-interest frame received the most media attention, and the morality frame received less attention. Regarding tone, this study found that the media's overall tone for government response was neutral. However, the tone for the federal government was slightly negative, while the tone for city and state level of government was slightly positive. By examining the media's tone and frame, this research contributes to the literature on risk communication, mass media, and disaster studies.

Keywords: hurricane Harvey, mass media, risk communication, disaster response, media framing, crisis news coverage

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458 On Virtual Coordination Protocol towards 5G Interference Mitigation: Modelling and Performance Analysis

Authors: Bohli Afef

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The fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems is featured by extreme densities of cell stations to overcome the higher future demand. Hence, interference management is a crucial challenge in 5G ultra-dense cellular networks. In contrast to the classical inter-cell interference coordination approach, which is no longer fit for the high density of cell-tiers, this paper proposes a novel virtual coordination based on the dynamic common cognitive monitor channel protocol to deal with the inter-cell interference issue. A tractable and flexible model for the coverage probability of a typical user is developed through the use of the stochastic geometry model. The analyses of the performance of the suggested protocol are illustrated both analytically and numerically in terms of coverage probability.

Keywords: ultra dense heterogeneous networks, dynamic common channel protocol, cognitive radio, stochastic geometry, coverage probability

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457 Media Coverage of Cervical Cancer in Malawi: A National Sample of Newspapers and a Radio Station

Authors: Elida Tafupenji Kamanga

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Cancer of the cervix remains one of the high causes of death among Malawian women. Despite the government introduction of free screening services throughout the country, patronage still remains low and lack of knowledge high. Given the critical role mass media plays in relaying different information to the public including health and its influence on health behaviours, the study sought to analyse Malawi media coverage of the disease and its effectiveness. The findings of the study will help inform media advocacy directed at changing any coverage impeding the effective dissemination of cervical cancer message which consequently will help increase awareness and accessing of screening behaviours among women. A content analysis of 29 newspapers and promotional messages on cervical from a local radio station was conducted for the period from 2012 to 2015. Overall the results showed media coverage in terms of content and frequency increased for the four-year period. However, of concern was the quality of information both media presented to the public. The lapse in information provided means there is little education taking place through the media which could be contributing to the knowledge gap the women have thereby affecting their decision to screen. Also lack of adequate funding to media institutions and lack of collaboration between media institutions and stakeholders involved in the fight against the disease were noted as other contributing factors to low coverage of the disease. Designing messages that are not only informative and educative but also innovative may help increase awareness; improve the knowledge gap and potential adoption of preventive screening behaviour by Malawian women. Conversely, good communication between the media institutions and researchers involved in the fight against the disease through the channelling of new findings back to the public as well as increasing funding towards similar cause should be considered.

Keywords: cervical cancer, effectiveness, media coverage, screening

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456 The Coverage of Women's Sport of Greek Sports Websites

Authors: Eleni Tsalkatidou

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Despite the fact that women's sport has flourished in recent years, its media coverage remains low, as it is observed that every day men’s sports stories dominate the most popular sports websites and the same doesn’t apply to women. Many studies in the past have demonstrated that the participation of women in sport is greatly underrepresented in the media and even when it does get covered, the focus is often on femininity and attractiveness, not athleticism. This means that female athletes are often portrayed in a sexist manner and, in general, they are more deserving of media coverage as celebrities rather than because of their sporting achievements. Scholars have argued that sport is a place where sexism is cultivated, as gender roles are constructed and disputed based on social context. Although images and information about women athletes are now more than ever, thanks to Social Media where they also act as 'producers', sport is still considered as «masculine». There are many reasons why this happens, the most important of which are: a. It is considered that females don’t have the physical and athletic qualifications such as men and b. Women's sport is less commercial than men’s, so the interest is lower. Moreover, scholars have pointed out that men journalists/reporters don’t cover the women’s sport: it is more common for a woman to write about a women's sport or a female athlete. This has its roots in the conception that sport is synonymous with masculinity - which is defined as the opposite of femininity – and so if men deal with women’s sport, this will probably menace their association with masculinity. Given the above, this paper seeks to examine the amount of women’s sport coverage of five Greek popular sports websites (metrosport.gr, gazzeta.gr, sport24.gr, sdna.gr, sport-fm.gr). The posted articles from these Greek websites from January to June 2020 were selected for my content analysis, which will be used to categorize the themes in order that the following research questions could be answered: 1) Are there any articles that cover women's sports or that refer to female athletes?, 2) And if so, are they articles/reports or is it a reproduction of the press release?, 3) What kind of sports do they refer to (individual-team sport)?, 4) Are the articles signed? And if so, are they written by men or women?, 5) What textual practices are used to cover women's sport/female athletes?, 6) Based on the findings, could we argue that we have entered a new age of media coverage of women’s sport in Greece with a shift towards greater gender equality or not?

Keywords: Coverage, Greek websites, Sport, Women

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455 Proposing a Boundary Coverage Algorithm ‎for Underwater Sensor Network

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii

Abstract:

Wireless underwater sensor networks are a type of sensor networks that are located in underwater environments and linked together by acoustic waves. The application of these kinds of network includes monitoring of pollutants (chemical, biological, and nuclear), oil fields detection, prediction of the likelihood of a tsunami in coastal areas, the use of wireless sensor nodes to monitor the passing submarines, and determination of appropriate locations for anchoring ships. This paper proposes a boundary coverage algorithm for intrusion detection in underwater sensor networks. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm, optimal deployment of nodes is done in the water. In the second phase, after the employment of nodes at the proper depth, clustering is executed to reduce the exchanges of messages between the sensors. In the third phase, the algorithm of "divide and conquer" is used to save energy and increase network efficiency. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: boundary coverage, clustering, divide and ‎conquer, underwater sensor nodes

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454 Low Pertussis Vaccine Coverage Rates among Polish Nurses

Authors: Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Sylwia Dyk, Izabela Gołebiak

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Background. Since 2014 the pertussis vaccine is recommended to Polish health care workers who have close contacts with infants. Although this recommendation is implemented into the National Immunization Programme, its realization has remained unknown. The Purpose: The aim of the study, conducted at the department of Social Medicine and Public Health (Medical University of Warsaw, Poland), was to describe a perception, knowledge and coverage rates regarding pertussis vaccination among nursing staff. According to the authors' knowledge, it was the first study related to this topic in our country. Material and Methods: A total number of 543 nurses who work at pediatric or neonatal wards was included into the study (501 women and 42 men), average age was 47 years. All nurses were asked to fulfill the anonymous survey, previously validated. Results: 1. Coverage rates: The analysis of results revealed that only 4% of responders reported they were vaccinated with Tdpa within past 10 years, while 8% declared they would plan the vaccine in the future. 35% of responders would consider the Tdpa vaccine whether there is some kind of the reimbursement. 2. Perception and knowledge of the disease and vaccination: The majority (82%) of nurses did not recognize pertussis as a re-emerging infectious disease. 54% of them believed that obligatory vaccinations in the childhood protect against the disease and the protection is a life-long one. Only 15% of nurses considered pertussis as a possible nosocomial infection. The current epidemiology of the disease was known to 6% of responders, while 24% of them were familiar with pertussis vaccination schedules for infants, children and adolescents, but only 9% of responders knew that adults older than 19 years are recommended to be vaccinated with Tdpa every 10 years. Many nurses (82%) would expect more educational activities related to pertussis and methods of its prophylaxis. Conclusions: The pertussis vaccine coverage rate among Polish nurses is extremely low. This is a result of not enough knowledge about the disease and its prevention. Educational activities addressed to health care workers and reimbursement of the pertussis vaccine are required to improve awareness and increase of vaccine coverage rates in the future.

Keywords: coverage, nurse, pertussis, vaccine

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453 Analysis of Impact of Flu Vaccination on Acute Respiratory Viral Infections (ARVI) Morbidity among Population in South Kazakhstan Region, 2010-2015

Authors: Karlygash Tulendieva

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Presently vaccination is the most effective method of prevention of flu and its complications. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of the increase of coverage of the population of South Kazakhstan region with flu vaccination and decrease of the ARVI morbidity. The analysis was performed on the data of flu vaccination of risk groups, including children under one year and pregnant women. Data on ARVI morbidity during 2010-2015 and data on vaccination were taken from the reports of the Epidemiological Surveillance Unit of Department of Consumers’ Rights Protection of South Kazakhstan region. Coverage with flu vaccination of the risk groups was annually increasing and in 2015 it reached 16% (450,000/2,800,682) from the total population. The ARVI morbidity rate in the entire population in 2010 was 2,010.4 per 100,000 of the population and decreased 3.2 times to 609.9 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Annual growth was observed from 2010 to 2015 of specific weight of the vaccinated main risk groups: healthcare workers by 51% (from 17,331 in 2010 to 33,538 in 2015), children with chronic pulmonary and cardio-vascular diseases, immune deficiency, weak and sickly children above six months by 39% (from 63,122 in 2010 to 158,023 in 2015), adults with chronic co-morbidities by 27% (from 44,271 in 2010 to 162,595 in 2015), persons above 65 by 17% (from 10,276 in 2010 to 57,875 in 2015), and annual coverage of pregnant women on second or third trimester from 34,443 in 2010 to 37,969 in 2015. Starting from 2013 and until 2015 vaccination was performed in the region with coverage of at least 90% of children from 6 months to one year. The ARVI morbidity in this age group decreased 3.3 times from 8,687.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2010 to 2,585.8 per 100,000 of the population in 2015. Vaccination of pregnant women on 2-3 trimester was started in the region in 2012. Annual increase of vaccination coverage of pregnant women from 86.1% (34,443/40,000) in 2012 to 95% (37,969/40,000) in 2015 decreased the morbidity 1.5 times from 4,828.8 per 100,000 of population in 2012 to 3,022.7 per 100,000 of population in 2015. Following the increase of vaccination coverage of the population in South Kazakhstan region, the trend was observed of decrease of ARVI morbidity rates among the population and main risk groups, among pregnant women and children under one year.

Keywords: acute respiratory viral infections, flu, risk groups, vaccination

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452 Asymptotic Confidence Intervals for the Difference of Coefficients of Variation in Gamma Distributions

Authors: Patarawan Sangnawakij, Sa-Aat Niwitpong

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In this paper, we proposed two new confidence intervals for the difference of coefficients of variation, CIw and CIs, in two independent gamma distributions. These proposed confidence intervals using the close form method of variance estimation which was presented by Donner and Zou (2010) based on concept of Wald and Score confidence interval, respectively. Monte Carlo simulation study is used to evaluate the performance, coverage probability and expected length, of these confidence intervals. The results indicate that values of coverage probabilities of the new confidence interval based on Wald and Score are satisfied the nominal coverage and close to nominal level 0.95 in various situations, particularly, the former proposed confidence interval is better when sample sizes are small. Moreover, the expected lengths of the proposed confidence intervals are nearly difference when sample sizes are moderate to large. Therefore, in this study, the confidence interval for the difference of coefficients of variation which based on Wald is preferable than the other one confidence interval.

Keywords: confidence interval, score’s interval, wald’s interval, coefficient of variation, gamma distribution, simulation study

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451 Electrochemical Properties of Bimetallic Silver-Platinum Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: Fredrick O. Okumu, Mangaka C. Matoetoe

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Silver-platinum (Ag-Pt) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with varying mole fractions (1:1, 1:3 and 3:1) were prepared by co-reduction of hexachloroplatinate and silver nitrate with sodium citrate. Upon successful formation of both monometallic and bimetallic (BM) core shell nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetry (CV) was used to characterize the NPs. The drop coated nanofilms on the GC substrate showed characteristic peaks of monometallic Ag NPs; Ag+/Ag0 redox couple as well as the Pt NPs; hydrogen adsorption and desorption peaks. These characteristic peaks were confirmed in the bimetallic NPs voltammograms. The following varying current trends were observed in the BM NPs ratios; GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 > GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 > GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1. Fundamental electrochemical properties which directly or indirectly affects the applicability of films such as; diffusion coefficient (D), electroactive surface coverage, electrochemical band gap, electron transfer coefficient (α) and charge (Q) were assessed using Randles - Sevcik plot and Laviron’s equations . High charge and surface coverage was observed in GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 which supports its enhanced current. GCE/Ag-Pt 3:1 showed high diffusion coefficient while GCE/Ag-Pt 1:1 possessed high electron transfer coefficient that is facilitated by its high apparent heterogeneous rate constant relative to other BM NPs ratios. Surface redox reaction was determined as adsorption controlled in all modified GCEs. Surface coverage is inversely proportional to size; therefore the surface coverage data suggests that Ag-Pt 1:1 NPs have a small particle size. Generally, GCE/Ag-Pt 1:3 depicts the best electrochemical properties.

Keywords: characterization, core-shell, electrochemical, nanoparticles

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450 Dislocation Density-Based Modeling of the Grain Refinement in Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment

Authors: Reza Miresmaeili, Asghar Heydari Astaraee, Fereshteh Dolati

Abstract:

In the present study, an analytical model based on dislocation density model was developed to simulate grain refinement in surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The correlation between SMAT time and development in plastic strain on one hand, and dislocation density evolution, on the other hand, was established to simulate the grain refinement in SMAT. A dislocation density-based constitutive material law was implemented using VUHARD subroutine. A random sequence of shots is taken into consideration for multiple impacts model using Python programming language by utilizing a random function. The simulation technique was to model each impact in a separate run and then transferring the results of each run as initial conditions for the next run (impact). The developed Finite Element (FE) model of multiple impacts describes the coverage evolution in SMAT. Simulations were run to coverage levels as high as 4500%. It is shown that the coverage implemented in the FE model is equal to the experimental coverage. It is depicted that numerical SMAT coverage parameter is adequately conforming to the well-known Avrami model. Comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements for residual stresses and depth of deformation layers confirms the performance of the established FE model for surface engineering evaluations in SMA treatment. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of grain refinement, including resultant grain size and dislocation density, were conducted to validate the established model. The full width at half-maximum in XRD profiles can be used to measure the grain size. Numerical results and experimental measurements of grain refinement illustrate good agreement and show the capability of established FE model to predict the gradient microstructure in SMA treatment.

Keywords: dislocation density, grain refinement, severe plastic deformation, simulation, surface mechanical attrition treatment

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449 Monitoring Cellular Networks Performance Using Crowd Sourced IoT System: My Operator Coverage (MOC)

Authors: Bassem Boshra Thabet, Mohammed Ibrahim Elsabagh, Mohammad Adly Talaat

Abstract:

The number of cellular mobile phone users has increased enormously worldwide over the last two decades. Consequently, the monitoring of the performance of the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) in terms of network coverage and broadband signal strength has become vital for both of the MNOs and regulators. This monitoring helps telecommunications operators and regulators keeping the market playing fair and most beneficial for users. However, the adopted methodologies to facilitate this continuous monitoring process are still problematic regarding cost, effort, and reliability. This paper introduces My Operator Coverage (MOC) system that is using Internet of Things (IoT) concepts and tools to monitor the MNOs performance using a crowd-sourced real-time methodology. MOC produces robust and reliable geographical maps for the user-perceived quality of the MNOs performance. MOC is also meant to enrich the telecommunications regulators with concrete, and up-to-date information that allows for adequate mobile market management strategies as well as appropriate decision making.

Keywords: mobile performance monitoring, crowd-sourced applications, mobile broadband performance, cellular networks monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 256