Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: socoal distancing

49 A Comparative Study of Cognitive Factors Affecting Social Distancing among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Filipinos

Authors: Emmanuel Carlo Belara, Albert John Dela Merced, Mark Anthony Dominguez, Diomari Erasga, Jerome Ferrer, Bernard Ombrog


Social distancing errors are a common prevalence between vaccinated and unvaccinated in the Filipino community. This study aims to identify and relate the factors on how they affect our daily lives. Observed factors include memory, attention, anxiety, decision-making, and stress. Upon applying the ergonomic tools and statistical treatment such as t-test and multiple linear regression, stress and attention turned out to have the most impact to the errors of social distancing.

Keywords: vaccinated, unvaccinated, socoal distancing, filipinos

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
48 The Positive Effects of Social Distancing on Individual Work Outcomes in the Context of COVID-19

Authors: Fan Wei, Tang Yipeng


The outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020 has been raging around the world, which has severely affected people's work and life. In today's post-pandemic era, although the pandemic has been effectively controlled, people still need to maintain social distancing at all times to prevent the further spread of the virus. Based on this, social distancing in the context of the pandemic has aroused widespread attention from scholars. At present, most studies exploring the influencing factors of social distancing are studying the negative impact of social distancing on the physical and mental state of special groups from the inter-individual level, and their more focus on the forced complete social distancing during the severe period of the pandemic. Few studies have focused on the impact of social distancing on working groups in the post-pandemic era from the within-individual level. In order to explore this problem, this paper constructs a cross-level moderating model based on resource conservation theory from the perspective of psychological resources. A total of 81 subjects were recruited to fill in the three-stage questionnaires each day for 10 working days, and 661valid questionnaires were finally obtained. Through the empirical tests, the following conclusions were finally obtained: (1) At the within-individual level, daily social distancing is positively correlated with the second day’s recovery, and the individual’s low sociability regulates the relationship between social distancing and recovery. The indirect effect of daily social distancing through recovery has positive relationship employees’ work engagement and work-goal progress only when the individual has low sociability. For individuals with high sociability, none of these paths are significant. (2) At the within-individual level, there is a significant relationship between individual's recovery and work engagement and work-goal progress, indicating that the recovery of resources can produce positive work outcomes. According to the results, this study believes that in the post-pandemic era, social distancing can not only effectively prevent and control the pandemic but also have positive impacts. Employees can use the time and energy originally saved for social activities through social distancing to invest in things that can provide resources and help them recover.

Keywords: social distancing, recovery, work engagement, work goal progress, sociability

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47 Impact of Social Distancing on the Correlation Between Adults’ Participation in Learning and Acceptance of Technology

Authors: Liu Yi Hui


The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has globally affected all aspects of life, with social distancing and quarantine orders causing turmoil and learning in community colleges being temporarily paused. In fact, this is the first time that adult education has faced such a severe challenge. It forces researchers to reflect on the impact of pandemics on adult education and ways to respond. Distance learning appears to be one of the pedagogical tools capable of dealing with interpersonal isolation and social distancing caused by the pandemic. This research aims to examine whether the impact of social distancing during COVID-19 will lead to increased acceptance of technology and, subsequently, an increase in adults ’ willingness to participate in distance learning. The hypothesis that social distancing and the desire to participate in distance learning affects learners’ tendency to accept technology is investigated. Teachers ’ participation in distance education and acceptance of technology are used as adjustment variables with the relationship to “social distancing,” “participation in distance learning,” and “acceptance of technology” of learners. A questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of twelve months for teachers and learners at all community colleges in Taiwan who enrolled in a basic unit course. Community colleges were separated using multi-stage cluster sampling, with their locations being metropolitan, non-urban, south, and east as criteria. Using the G*power software, 660 samples were selected and analyzed. The results show that through appropriate pedagogical strategies or teachers ’ own acceptance of technology, adult learners’ willingness to participate in distance learning could be influenced. A diverse model of participation can be developed, improving adult education institutions’ ability to plan curricula to be flexible to avoid the risk associated with epidemic diseases.

Keywords: social distancing, adult learning, community colleges, technology acceptance model

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46 Social Distancing as a Population Game in Networked Social Environments

Authors: Zhijun Wu


While social living is considered to be an indispensable part of human life in today's ever-connected world, social distancing has recently received much public attention on its importance since the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic. In fact, social distancing has long been practiced in nature among solitary species and has been taken by humans as an effective way of stopping or slowing down the spread of infectious diseases. A social distancing problem is considered for how a population, when in the world with a network of social sites, decides to visit or stay at some sites while avoiding or closing down some others so that the social contacts across the network can be minimized. The problem is modeled as a population game, where every individual tries to find some network sites to visit or stay so that he/she can minimize all his/her social contacts. In the end, an optimal strategy can be found for everyone when the game reaches an equilibrium. The paper shows that a large class of equilibrium strategies can be obtained by selecting a set of social sites that forms a so-called maximal r-regular subnetwork. The latter includes many well-studied network types, which are easy to identify or construct and can be completely disconnected (with r = 0) for the most-strict isolation or allow certain degrees of connectivity (with r > 0) for more flexible distancing. The equilibrium conditions of these strategies are derived. Their rigidity and flexibility are analyzed on different types of r-regular subnetworks. It is proved that the strategies supported by maximal 0-regular subnetworks are strictly rigid, while those by general maximal r-regular subnetworks with r > 0 are flexible, though some can be weakly rigid. The proposed model can also be extended to weighted networks when different contact values are assigned to different network sites.

Keywords: social distancing, mitigation of spread of epidemics, populations games, networked social environments

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45 Modelling the Effect of Distancing and Wearing of Face Masks on Transmission of COVID-19 Infection Dynamics

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi


The COVID-19 is an infection caused by coronavirus, which has been designated as a pandemic in the world. In this paper, we proposed a model to study the effect of distancing and wearing masks on the transmission of COVID-19 infection dynamics. The invariant region of the model is established. The COVID-19 free equilibrium and the reproduction number of the model were obtained. The local and global stability of the model is determined using the linearization technique method and Lyapunov method. It was found that COVID-19 free equilibrium state is locally asymptotically stable in feasible region Ω if R₀ < 1 and globally asymptomatically stable if R₀ < 1, otherwise unstable if R₀ > 1. More so, numerical analysis and simulations of the dynamics of the COVID-19 infection are presented.

Keywords: distancing, reproduction number, wearing of mask, local and global stability, modelling, transmission

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44 The Concerns and Recommendations of Informal and Professional Caregivers for COVID-19 Policy for Homecare and Long-Term Care For People with Dementia: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Hanneke J. A. Smaling, Mandy Visser


One way to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection is by preventing close interpersonal contact with distancing measures. These social distancing measures presented challenges to the health and wellbeing of people with dementia and their informal and professional caregivers. This study describes the concerns and recommendations of informal and professional caregivers for COVID-19 policy for home care and long-term care for people with dementia during the first and second COVID-19 wave in the Netherlands. In this qualitative interview study, 20 informal caregivers and 20 professional caregivers from home care services and long-term care participated. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Both informal and professional caregivers worried about getting infected or infecting others with COVID-19, the consequences of the distancing measures, and quality of care. There was a general agreement that policy in the second wave was better informed compared to the first wave. At an organizational level, the policy was remarkably flexible. Recommendations were given for dementia care (need to offer meaningful activities, improve the organization of care, more support for informal caregivers), policy (national vs. locally organization, social isolation measures, visitor policy), and communication. Our study contributes to the foundation of future care decisions by (inter)national policymakers, politicians, and healthcare organizations during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, underlining the need for balance between safety and autonomy for people with dementia.

Keywords: covid-19, dementia, home care, long-term care, policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
43 Psychological Factors Predicting Social Distance during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Calogero Lo Destro


Numerous nations around the world are facing exceptional challenges in employing measures to stop the spread of COVID-19. Following the recommendations of the World Health Organization, a series of preventive measures have been adopted. However, individuals must comply with these rules and recommendations in order to make these measures effective. While COVID-19 was climaxing, it seemed of crucial importance to analyze which psychosocial factors contribute to the acceptance of such preventive behavior, thus favoring the management of COVID-19 worldwide health crisis. In particular, the identification of aspects related to obstacles and facilitation of adherence to social distancing has been considered crucial in the containment of the virus spread. Since the virus was firstly detected in China, Asian people could be considered a relevant outgroup targeted for exclusion. We also hypothesized social distance could be influenced by characteristics of the target, such as smiling or coughing. 260 participants participated in this research on a voluntary basis. They filled a survey designed to explore a series of COVID-19 measures (such as exposure to virus and fear of infection). We also assessed participants state and trait anxiety. The dependent variable was social distance, based on a measure of seating distance designed ad hoc for the present work. Our hypothesis that participants could report greater distance in response to Asian people was not confirmed. On the other hand, significantly lower distance in response to smiling compared to coughing targets was reported. Adopting a regression analysis model, we found that participants' social distance, in response to both coughing and smiling targets, was predicted by fear of infection and by the perception COVID-19 could become a pandemic. Social distance in response to the coughing target was also significantly and positively predicted by age and state anxiety. In summary, the present work has sought to identify a set of psychological variables, which may still be predictive of social distancing.

Keywords: COVID-19, social distancing, health, preventive behaviors, risk of infection

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42 Reflections on the Trajectory of an Online Literature Cafe through Its Music and Arts Activities

Authors: Mariko Hara, Mari Aoki, Takako Ito, Masao Sugita


Social distancing measures due to the COVID-19 crisis had a severe impact on music and art practices based in community settings. They had to re-think how to connect with their dispersed community using online tools. As the social distancing continues, there is an urgent need to investigate the possibilities of online community music and art practices. Are they sustainable actions that can have positive impacts on the community and the quality of lives of people over time? The Online Lindgren Café (hereafter ‘OLC’) is a monthly online literature event which started in June 2020. In the OLC, up to 14 members meet online to discuss the works of Astrid Lindgren and similar authors. Members come from various places in Japan and Norway, with a variety of expertise from music therapy, music education, psychotherapy, music sociology, storytelling, and theatre, and their family members join them. In these meetings, music and arts activities emerged in response to interests among the members. The resources and experiences of the members helped to develop these activities further. This paper first introduces one of the music and art activities in one specific event, a collaborative picture book-making with music, which was initiated and led by the second author. The third author chose the music, and the activity itself was recorded. This is followed by the description of a reflecting event, where the recording of the collaborative picture book-making activity was shared to facilitate further creations (drawings, haiku, and fabric weaving) as well as group reflections on the trajectories of the Online Lindgren Café. Finally, we will discuss the preliminary findings using the data collected at the reflecting event. Key findings suggest that the resource-driven approach of the OLC leveled the relationships among the intergenerational, multi-cultural, and interdisciplinary members. This enabled the members to set aside their professional and/or predominant identities, which allowed them to discover their own and others’ resources. The relaxed, unstructured, and liminal phenomenon at OLC can be regarded as a form of communitas, where members gain a sense of liberation and belonging in a different way from in-person communications. Participation from one’s home, as well as a video conferencing function that allowed the members to position themselves among the other participants in equal-sized windows, seems to have enabled members to feel safe to express themselves openly at the same time feel a sense of belonging. Furthermore, in the OLC, music and arts activities acted to inclusively connect and re-connect dispersed, intergenerational members with each other. For instance, in a music and drawing activity, music acted as a means for each member to engage in their own ‘drawing space’ while still feeling connected with the others. The positive experiences from these activities inspired the members to use similar approaches outside of the OLC. The finding suggests that, because of its resource-driven approach supported by the music and arts activities, the OLC could be developed further as a permeable and sustainable action even after any current social distancing measures are lifted.

Keywords: communitas, COVID-19, musical affordances, online community of practices, resource-driven approach

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41 A Qualitative Look at Mental Health Stressors in Response to COVID-19

Authors: Gabriel G. Gaft, Xayvinay Xiong, Amanda Sunday


The emergent pandemic from COVID-19 virus has forced people to adjust to major changes. These changes include all elements of family and work life and required people to engage in novel behaviors. For many people, the social norms to which they have been accustomed no longer prevail. Not surprisingly, such enormous changes in daily life have been associated with greater problems in mental health; and research regarding ways in which mental health professionals can support people is more necessary than ever before. It is often useful to assess people’s reactions through surveys and utilize quantitative data to answer questions about coping strategies etc. It is also likely, however, that a host of individual factors are going to contribute to what might be considered 'good' or 'bad' coping mechanisms to a worldwide pandemic. To this end, qualitative studies—where the individual’s subjective experience is highlighted—are likely to provide more vital information for mental health professionals interested in supporting the particular person in front of them. This study reports on qualitative data, where X participants were asked questions about social distancing, coping strategies, and general attitudes towards social changes resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. Informal interviews were conducted during the months of June-July 2020. Data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analyses. Themes were identified first for each participant and then compared across different individual participants. Several findings emerged. First, all participants understood major health messages being imparted by governing bodies such as the CDC and WHO. The researchers feel this finding is important as it suggests health messages are at least being effectively communicated. Second, there was a clear trend for themes which highlighted the conflicting emotions participants felt about the changes they were expected to endure: positive and negative elements were identified, although a participant who had pre-existing conditions placed greater emphasis on the negative elements. One participant who was particularly interested in impression management also exclusively emphasized negative emotions. Third, participants who were able to reevaluate priorities—what Lazarus might call secondary appraisals—experienced social distancing as a positive rather than negative phenomenon. Finally, participants who were able to develop specific strategies—such as boundaries for work and self-care—reported themes of adjustment and contentment. Taken together, these findings suggest mental health practitioners can assist people to adjust more positively through specific techniques focusing on re-evaluation of life priorities and strategic coping skills.

Keywords: COVID-19, pandemic, phenomenology, virus

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40 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla


The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Coronavirus, epidemiology, government intervention, public health, social distancing

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39 A Study of Gender Differences in Expressing Pain

Authors: A. Estaji


The first part of the present paper studies the role of language in expressing pain. Pain is usually described as a personal and mental experience, so language has an important role in describing, expressing and measuring pain and sometimes it is believed that language is the only device for accessing this personal experience. The second part of this paper studies gender differences in expressing pain. Considering the biological, psychological and social differences between men and women, we raise this question whether men and women express their pain in the same way or differently. To answer this question, we asked 44 Farsi speaking participants to write about the most painful experience they had in the past. Qualitative analysis of the data shows that women, have expressed their pain more severely, have expressed their feelings about pain instead of describing the pain itself, have made their pain more personal and have given more details about the circumstances in which they experienced pain, while men have given a more neutral description of their pain and have given a description of their pain by distancing themselves from the painful event. Knowing these gender differences in expressing pain can help medical practitioners in assessing the pain level.

Keywords: discourse analysis, expressing pain, measuring pain, gender

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38 The Use of Online Multimedia Platforms to Deliver a Regional Medical Schools Finals Revision Course During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Matthew Edmunds, Andrew Hunter, Clare Littlewood, Wisha Gul, Gabriel Heppenstall-Harris, Thomas Humphries


Background: Revision courses for medical students undertaking their final examinations are commonplace throughout the UK. Traditionally these take the form of a series of lectures over multiple weeks or a single day of intensive lectures. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, has required medical educators to create new teaching formats to ensure they adhere to social distancing requirements. It has provided an unexpected opportunity to accelerate the development of students proficiency in the use of ‘technology-enabled communication platforms’, as mandated in the 2018 GMC Outcomes of Graduates. Recent advances in technology have made distance learning possible, whilst also providing novel and more engaging learning opportunities for students. Foundation Year 2 doctors at Aintree University Hospital developed an online series of videos to help prepare medical students in the North West and byond for their final medical school examinations. Method: Eight hour-long videos covering the key topics in medicine and surgery were posted on the Peer Learning Liverpool Youtube channel. These videos were created using new technology such as the screen and audio recording platform, Loom. Each video compromised at least 20 single best answer (SBA) questions, in keeping with the format in most medical school finals. Explanations of the answers were provided, and additional important material was covered. Students were able to ask questions by commenting on the videos, with the authors replying as soon as possible. Feedback was collated using an online Google form. Results: An average of 327 people viewed each video, with 113 students filling in the feedback form. 65.5% of respondents were within one month of their final medical school examinations. The average rating for how well prepared the students felt for their finals was 6.21/10 prior to the course and 8.01/10 after the course. A paired t-test demonstrated a mean increase of 1.80 (95% CI 1.66-1.93). Overall, 98.2% said the online format worked well or very well, and 99.1% would recommend the course to a peer. Conclusions: Based on the feedback received, the online revision course was successful both in terms of preparing students for their final examinations, and with regards to how well the online format worked. Free-text qualitative feedback highlighted advantages such as; students could learn at their own pace, revisit key concepts important to them, and practice exam style questions via the case-based format. Limitations identified included inconsistent audiovisual quality, and requests for a live online Q&A session following the conclusion of the course. This course will be relaunched later in the year with increased opportunities for students to access live feedback. The success of this online course has shown the roll that technology can play in medical education. As well as providing novel teaching modes, online learning allows students to access resources that otherwise would not be available locally, and ensure that they do not miss out on teaching that was previously provided face to face, in the current climate of social distancing.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, Medical School, Online learning, Revision course

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37 Monocular 3D Person Tracking AIA Demographic Classification and Projective Image Processing

Authors: McClain Thiel


Object detection and localization has historically required two or more sensors due to the loss of information from 3D to 2D space, however, most surveillance systems currently in use in the real world only have one sensor per location. Generally, this consists of a single low-resolution camera positioned above the area under observation (mall, jewelry store, traffic camera). This is not sufficient for robust 3D tracking for applications such as security or more recent relevance, contract tracing. This paper proposes a lightweight system for 3D person tracking that requires no additional hardware, based on compressed object detection convolutional-nets, facial landmark detection, and projective geometry. This approach involves classifying the target into a demographic category and then making assumptions about the relative locations of facial landmarks from the demographic information, and from there using simple projective geometry and known constants to find the target's location in 3D space. Preliminary testing, although severely lacking, suggests reasonable success in 3D tracking under ideal conditions.

Keywords: monocular distancing, computer vision, facial analysis, 3D localization

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36 Covid -19 Pandemic and Impact on Public Spaces of Tourism and Hospitality in Dubai- an Exploratory Study from a Design Perspective

Authors: Manju Bala Jassi


The Covid 19 pandemic has badly mauled Dubai’s GDP heavily dependent on hospitality, tourism, entertainment, logistics, property and the retail sectors. In the context of the World Health protocols on social distancing for better maintenance of health and hygiene, the revival of the battered tourism and hospitality sectors has serious lessons for designers- interiors and public places. The tangible and intangible aesthetic elements and design –ambiance, materials, furnishings, colors, lighting and interior with architectural design issues of tourism and hospitality need a rethink to ensure a memorable tourist experience. Designers ought to experiment with sustainable places of tourism and design, develop, build and projects are aesthetic and leave as little negative impacts on the environment and public as possible. In short, they ought to conceive public spaces that makes use of little untouched materials and energy, and creates pollution and waste that are minimal. The spaces can employ healthier and more resource-efficient prototypes of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance, and demolition and thereby mitigate the environment impacts of the construction activities and it is sustainable These measures encompass the hospitality sector that includes hotels and restaurants which has taken the hardest fall from the pandemic. The paper sought to examine building energy efficiency and materials and design employed in public places, green buildings to achieve constructive sustainability and to establish the benefits of utilizing energy efficiency, green materials and sustainable design; to document diverse policy interventions, design and Spatial dimensions of tourism and hospitality sectors; to examine changes in the hospitality, aviation sector especially from a design perspective regarding infrastructure or operational constraints and additional risk-mitigation measures; to dilate on the nature of implications for interior designers and architects to design public places to facilitate sustainable tourism and hospitality while balancing convenient space and their operations' natural surroundings. The qualitative research approach was adopted for the study. The researcher collected and analyzed data in continuous iteration. Secondary data was collected from articles in journals, trade publications, government reports, newspaper/ magazine articles, policy documents etc. In depth interviews were conducted with diverse stakeholders. Preliminary data indicates that designers have started imagining public places of tourism and hospitality against the backdrop of the government push and WHO guidelines. For instance, with regard to health, safety, hygiene and sanitation, Emirates, the Dubai-based airline has augmented health measures at the Dubai International Airport and on board its aircraft. It has leveraged high tech/ Nano-tech, social distancing to encourage least human contact, flexible design layouts to limit the occupancy. The researcher organized the data into thematic categories and found that the Government of Dubai has initiated comprehensive measures in the hospitality, tourism and aviation sectors in compliance with the WHO guidelines.

Keywords: Covid 19, design, Dubai, hospitality, public spaces, tourism

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35 Systematic Review of Technology-Based Mental Health Solutions for Modelling in Low and Middle Income Countries

Authors: Mukondi Esther Nethavhakone


In 2020 World Health Organization announced the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To curb or contain the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID 19), global governments implemented social distancing and lockdown regulations. Subsequently, it was no longer business as per usual, life as we knew it had changed, and so many aspects of people's lives were negatively affected, including financial and employment stability. Mainly, because companies/businesses had to put their operations on hold, some had to shut down completely, resulting in the loss of income for many people globally. Finances and employment insecurities are some of the issues that exacerbated many social issues that the world was already faced with, such as school drop-outs, teenage pregnancies, sexual assaults, gender-based violence, crime, child abuse, elderly abuse, to name a few. Expectedly the majority of the population's mental health state was threatened. This resulted in an increased number of people seeking mental healthcare services. The increasing need for mental healthcare services in Low and Middle-income countries proves to be a challenge because it is a well-known fact due to financial constraints and not well-established healthcare systems, mental healthcare provision is not as prioritised as the primary healthcare in these countries. It is against this backdrop that the researcher seeks to find viable, cost-effective, and accessible mental health solutions for low and middle-income countries amid the pressures of any pandemic. The researcher will undertake a systematic review of the technology-based mental health solutions that have been implemented/adopted by developed countries during COVID 19 lockdown and social distancing periods. This systematic review study aims to determine if low and middle-income countries can adopt the cost-effective version of digital mental health solutions for the healthcare system to adequately provide mental healthcare services during critical times such as pandemics (when there's an overwhelming diminish in mental health globally). The researcher will undertake a systematic review study through mixed methods. It will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The mixed-methods uses findings from both qualitative and quantitative studies in one review study. It will be beneficial to conduct this kind of study using mixed methods because it is a public health topic that involves social interventions and it is not purely based on medical interventions. Therefore, the meta-ethnographic (qualitative data) analysis will be crucial in understanding why and which digital methods work and for whom does it work, rather than only the meta-analysis (quantitative data) providing what digital mental health methods works. The data collection process will be extensive, involving the development of a database, table of summary of evidence/findings, and quality assessment process lastly, The researcher will ensure that ethical procedures are followed and adhered to, ensuring that sensitive data is protected and the study doesn't pose any harm to the participants.

Keywords: digital, mental health, covid, low and middle-income countries

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34 Overuse Equals to Low Proficiency Level in English: A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Linking Adverbials between Male and Female Speakers

Authors: Tsungming Wu


The present paper investigates the use of linking adverbials between native male speakers and female speakers in their presentation. From previous studies, overuse of linking adverbials may be an indicator of the low proficiency level in English. In this study, female speakers are found to use more linking adverbials in general. However, the overuse of linking adverbials found in female speakers’ speeches does not imply female speakers’ lower English proficiency, but imply different approaches that male and female speakers adopt in dealing with their presentation tasks. Female speakers are found to be more interactional, leading to their more uses of interactive devices in the presenting process. On the other hand, male speakers take different approaches in dealing with their tasks. Male speakers try to be authoritative and amicable at the same time, resulting in the uses of both interactive devices and distancing devices in their speeches. The paper specifically presents and compares the use of the linking adverbial items, actually and so, in male speakers’ and female speakers’ speeches.

Keywords: LAs, linking adverbial, low proficiency, overuse

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33 Communication About Health and Fitness in Media and Its Hidden Message About Objectification

Authors: Emiko Suzuki


Although fitness is defined as the body’s ability to respond to the demand of physical activity without undue fatigue in health science, in media oftentimes physical activity is presented as means to an attractive body rather than a fit and healthy one. Of all types of media, Instagram is becoming an increasingly persuasive source of information and advice on health and fitness, where individuals conceptualize what health and fitness mean for them. However, this user-generated and unregulated platform can be problematic, as it can communicate misleading information about health and fitness and possibly leading individuals to psychological problems such as eating disorders. In fact, previous research has shown that some messages that were posted with a tag that related to inspire others to do fitness, in fact, encouraged distancing the self from the internal needs of the body. For this reason, this present study aims to explore how health and fitness are communicated on Instagram by analyzing images and texts. A content analysis of images that were labeled with particular hashtags was performed, followed by a thematic analysis of texts from the same set of images. The result shows an interesting insight about messages about how health and fitness are communicated from companies through media, then digested and further shared among communities on Instagram. The study explores how the use of visual focused way of communicating health and fitness can lead to the dehumanization of human bodies.

Keywords: Instagram, fitness, dehumanization, body image, embodiment

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32 A Simulation of Patient Queuing System on Radiology Department at Tertiary Specialized Referral Hospital in Indonesia

Authors: Yonathan Audhitya Suthihono, Ratih Dyah Kusumastuti


The radiology department in a tertiary referral hospital faces service operation challenges such as huge and various patient arrival, which can increase the probability of patient queuing. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it is mandatory to apply social distancing protocol in the radiology department. A strategy to prevent the accumulation of patients at one spot would be required. The aim of this study is to identify an alternative solution which can reduce the patient’s waiting time in radiology department. Discrete event simulation (DES) is used for this study by constructing several improvement scenarios with Arena simulation software. Statistical analysis is used to test the validity of the base case scenario model and to investigate the performance of the improvement scenarios. The result of this study shows that the selected scenario is able to reduce patient waiting time significantly, which leads to more efficient services in a radiology department, be able to serve patients more effectively, and thus increase patient satisfaction. The result of the simulation can be used by the hospital management to improve the operational performance of the radiology department.

Keywords: discrete event simulation, hospital management patient queuing model, radiology department services

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31 Group Boundaries against and Due to Identity Threat

Authors: Anna Siegler, Sara Bigazzi, Sara Serdult, Ildiko Bokretas


Social identity emerging from group membership defines the representational processes of our social reality. Based on our theoretical assumption the subjective perception of identity threat leads to an instable identity structure. The need to re-establish the positive identity will lead us to strengthen group boundaries. Prejudice in our perspective offer psychological security those who thinking in exclusive barriers, and we suggest that those who identify highly with their ingroup/national identity and less with superordinate identities take distance from others and this is related to their perception of threat. In our study we used a newly developed questionnaire, the Multiple Threat and Prejudice Questionnaire (MTPQ) which measure identity threat at different dimensions of identification (national, existential, gender, religious) and the distancing of different outgroups, over and above we worked with Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Identification with All Humanity Scale (IWAH). We conduct one data collection (N=1482) in a Hungarian sample to examine the connection between national threat and distance-taking, and this survey includes the investigation (N=218) of identification with different group categories. Our findings confirmed that those who feel themselves threatened in their national identity aspects are less likely to identify themselves with superordinate groups and this correlation is much stronger when they think about the nation as a bio-cultural unit, while if nation defined as a social-economy entity this connection is less powerful and has just the opposite direction.

Keywords: group boundaries, identity threat, prejudice, superordinate groups

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30 Fraud Detection in Credit Cards with Machine Learning

Authors: Anjali Chouksey, Riya Nimje, Jahanvi Saraf


Online transactions have increased dramatically in this new ‘social-distancing’ era. With online transactions, Fraud in online payments has also increased significantly. Frauds are a significant problem in various industries like insurance companies, baking, etc. These frauds include leaking sensitive information related to the credit card, which can be easily misused. Due to the government also pushing online transactions, E-commerce is on a boom. But due to increasing frauds in online payments, these E-commerce industries are suffering a great loss of trust from their customers. These companies are finding credit card fraud to be a big problem. People have started using online payment options and thus are becoming easy targets of credit card fraud. In this research paper, we will be discussing machine learning algorithms. We have used a decision tree, XGBOOST, k-nearest neighbour, logistic-regression, random forest, and SVM on a dataset in which there are transactions done online mode using credit cards. We will test all these algorithms for detecting fraud cases using the confusion matrix, F1 score, and calculating the accuracy score for each model to identify which algorithm can be used in detecting frauds.

Keywords: machine learning, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, decision tree, k nearest neighbour, random forest, XGBOOST, logistic regression, support vector machine

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29 Early Intervention and Teletherapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Stephen Hernandez, Nikita Sharma


The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged as a worldwide pandemic at the beginning of 2020. The pandemic and its impact reached the shores of the United States by the second week of March. Once infections started to grow in numbers, early intervention programs, including those providing home-based services, recognized that to reduce the spread of the virus, many traditional in-person therapeutic interventions were going to be impossible due to social distancing and self-quarantine requirements. Initially, infants, toddlers, and their families were left without any services from their educators and therapists, but within a few weeks of the public health emergency, various states, including New York, approved the use of teletherapy/virtual visits for early intervention service provision. This paper will detail the results of a survey from over 400 E.I. service providers about their experiences utilizing teletherapy to deliver services to children in early intervention programs. The survey questions focused on how did COVID-19 stay-at-home orders impact E.I. services for young children with special needs? Sub-questions included topics such as availability of the parents, the amount of time that babies remained engaged, as well as the perceived success of teletherapy as a viable option to provide service by both parent and professional. The results of this study found that therapists found teletherapy to be a viable manner of providing services and could be very effective on a case by case basis.

Keywords: early intervention, teletheraphy, telehealth, COVID-19

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28 Opinion Mining to Extract Community Emotions on Covid-19 Immunization Possible Side Effects

Authors: Yahya Almurtadha, Mukhtar Ghaleb, Ahmed M. Shamsan Saleh


The world witnessed a fierce attack from the Covid-19 virus, which affected public life socially, economically, healthily and psychologically. The world's governments tried to confront the pandemic by imposing a number of precautionary measures such as general closure, curfews and social distancing. Scientists have also made strenuous efforts to develop an effective vaccine to train the immune system to develop antibodies to combat the virus, thus reducing its symptoms and limiting its spread. Artificial intelligence, along with researchers and medical authorities, has accelerated the vaccine development process through big data processing and simulation. On the other hand, one of the most important negatives of the impact of Covid 19 was the state of anxiety and fear due to the blowout of rumors through social media, which prompted governments to try to reassure the public with the available means. This study aims to proposed using Sentiment Analysis (AKA Opinion Mining) and deep learning as efficient artificial intelligence techniques to work on retrieving the tweets of the public from Twitter and then analyze it automatically to extract their opinions, expression and feelings, negatively or positively, about the symptoms they may feel after vaccination. Sentiment analysis is characterized by its ability to access what the public post in social media within a record time and at a lower cost than traditional means such as questionnaires and interviews, not to mention the accuracy of the information as it comes from what the public expresses voluntarily.

Keywords: deep learning, opinion mining, natural language processing, sentiment analysis

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27 Virtual Life: Fashion, Expression, and Identity in the Digital World

Authors: Elizabeth Bourgeois


During social distancing, fashion and self-expression have been pushed further into virtual environments. In VR spaces, identities can be curated easily, untethered from the necessities of life and work. Personal styles reach a wider audience and follow new rules. Digital platforms leave some, but not all, 'real world' clothing constraints behind. Virtual aesthetics are set by the user and the software. Gen Z is a native user, applying face filters on Instagram and Snapchat and styling outfits and skins in apps like Gacha Life, Roblox, and Fortnite. These games cultivate space for community and personal style. Loosely tied to human forms, each app has physical aesthetics, with clear vernacular dress defining it. There are ecosystems of makers, consumers, and critics. Designer-modelers create original assets, brands, and luxury items. Fashion and beauty are ephemeral but always reflect the idealization of form and self. Online communities have already established new beauty ideals that impact live fashion trends. Fashion houses develop AR filters, gaming hairstyles challenge real-world colorists, and musicians perform virtual concerts in their avatar forms. In these times, social media and gaming communities promote the expression of public identity. The online dress is no longer tied to 'real' bodies or cloth. In virtual worlds, there are still tribes, status symbols, gender identities, and roles, but free of fabric, form, and static social structure, there is room for fantastic invention.

Keywords: virtual reality, fashion, Gen Z, social media, gaming

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26 Tracking Subjectivity in Political Socialization: University Students' Perceptions of Citizenship Learning Experiences in Chinese Higher Education

Authors: Chong Zhang


There is widespread debate about the nationalistic top-down approach to citizenship education. Employing the notion of cultural citizenship as a useful theoretical lens, citizenship education research tends to focus on the process of subjectivity construction among students’ citizenship learning process. As the Communist Party of China (CPC) plays a dominant role in cultivating citizens through ideological and political education (IaPE) in Chinese universities, the research problem herein focuses on the dynamics and complexity of how Chinese university students construct their subjectivities regarding citizenship learning through IaPE, mediated by the interaction between the state and university teachers. Drawing on questionnaire data from 212 students and interview data from 25 students in one university in China, this paper examines the ways in which students understand and respond to dominant discourses. Its findings reveal there is a deficit of citizenship learning in IaPE, and that students feel ideologically pressurized. From its analysis of social contexts’ influence, the article suggests Chinese higher education students act as either mild changemakers or active self-motivators to enact complex subjectivities, in that they must involve themselves in IaPE for personal academic and career development, yet adopt covert strategies to realise their self-conscious citizenship learning expectations. These strategies take the form of passive and active freedoms, ranging from obediently completing basic curriculum requirements and distancing themselves by studying abroad, to actively searching for learning opportunities from other courses and social media. This paper contributes to the research on citizenship education by recognizing the complexities of how subjectivities are formed in formal university settings.

Keywords: university students, citizenship learning, cultural citizenship, subjectivity, Chinese higher education

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25 The Reality of the Digital Inequality and Its Negative Impact on Virtual Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The South African Perspective

Authors: Jacob Medupe


Life as we know it has changed since the global outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and business as usual will not continue. The human impact of the COVID-19 crisis is already immeasurable. Moreover, COVID-19 has already negatively impacted economies, livelihoods and disrupted food systems around the world. The disruptive nature of the Corona virus has affected every sphere of life including the culture and teaching and learning. Right now the majority of education research is based around classroom management techniques that are no longer necessary with digital delivery. Instead there is a great need for new data about how to make the best use of the one-on-one attention that is now becoming possible (Diamandis & Kotler, 2014). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated an environment where the South African learners are focused to adhere to social distancing in order to minimise the wild spread of the Corona virus. This arrangement forces the student to utilise the online classroom technologies to continue with the lessons. The historical reality is that the country has not made much strides on the closing of the digital divide and this is particularly a common status quo in the deep rural areas. This will prove to be a toll order for most of the learners affected by the Corona Virus to be able to have a seamless access to the online learning facilities. The paper will seek to look deeply into this reality and how the Corona virus has brought us to the reality that South Africa remains a deeply unequal society in every sphere of life. The study will also explore the state of readiness for education system around the online classroom environment.

Keywords: virtual learning, virtual classroom, COVID-19, Corona virus, internet connectivity, blended learning, online learning, distance education, e-learning, self-regulated Learning, pedagogy, digital literacy

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24 Identitarian Speech in Exile by Representatives of Central Europe

Authors: Georgiana Ciobotaru


The experience of exile is a defining one for the mittleeuropean writers, which is also the generator of an identity discourse manifested in the plan of fiction. In exile, the authors often build their marginality in opposition to that deserted mundi center. The Polish Gombrowicz carried out his existence, for more than twenty-three years, in a geographical exile, distancing himself from his country, and, from a cultural point of view, the writing meant a possibility of escape, of plunge into a literary exile that often constituted a way of conditioning the practice of writers. He opted for one of the attitudes that a writer in exile may have, namely he preferred to continue speaking Polish, although he was far from his homeland, turning to the public in his homeland, his entire literary creation in exile being promoted through Kulturia, the Paris-based immigration magazine. The problem of exile must be constantly related to three essential aspects, namely: territory, identity and language. The exile, both the writer and his characters, displays a characteristic attitude towards the abandoned land, but also towards the adoptive, towards the mother tongue, but also towards the idiom encountered, thus proving an original manner in terms of how it asserts, de-builds or re-builds its identity. In these texts written after leaving Poland, a series of open works by Trans-Atlantic, Gombrowicz assumes and internalizes the inadequacy between his self and the reality outside to make it the principle of his perception of the world. The expression of marginality that characterized the texts developed when the writer was still in Poland seems to acquire a certain coherence against the background of a logic imposed on the new experience, namely that of exile. Texts created during his exile in Argentina appear in a different context, in other words, in a situation of inadequacy towards the world: ignorance of the language, poverty, isolation that characterizes especially the first years spent there. This study aims to highlight how the Polish author de-builds and reconstructs his Mittel-European identity profile through language.

Keywords: discourse, exile, identity, immigration

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23 Public Perception and Willingness to Undergo Cosmetic Procedures during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Questionnaire-Based Study Applied to Asymptomatic Individuals

Authors: Ibrahim Alreshidi, Aseel Albrekeit, Ruaa Alharthi


Background: As a result of the spread of COVID-19 at the beginning of 2020, many governments, including Saudi Arabia, have suspended operations in many agencies. Most dermatologists have restricted their practice, including cosmetic procedures, to ensure social distancing. On the 7th of May 2020, Saudi authorities reduced the restriction of COVID-19 virus preventative measures, allowing clinics to start accepting patients following the ministry of health protocols. Objectives: Evaluation of the public's perception and willingness to undergo cosmetic procedures during COVID-19 outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was carried out among the individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection in Saudi Arabia. A self-designed web-based questionnaire was developed; content face validity and a pilot study were done. The questionnaire was distributed electronically from the 8th of May until the 31st of May 2020. Results: A total of 656 individuals who lack typical symptoms of COVID-19 infection were included in this analysis. Only 10.5% of participants expressed their will to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than 90% of the participants believed that the COVID-19 pandemic was either somewhat serious (52.9%) or very serious (38.7%). The willingness to do cosmetic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic remained unaltered when the price was discounted (p<0.001) and when infection control measures were ensured (p<0.001). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic had a negative impact on the practice of cosmetic dermatology. Fear of transferring the infection to a beloved home member is the main reason to avoid these procedures. Generating well-structured safety guidelines to decrease the risk of this unusual virus transmission in dermatology practice and creating financial incentives may help increase the public willingness to do these cosmetic procedures during this pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, cosmetic procedures, questionnaire, dermatology

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22 Organizational Inertia: As a Control Mechanism for Organizational Creativity And Agility In Disruptive Environment

Authors: Doddy T. P. Enggarsyah, Soebowo Musa


Covid-19 pandemic has changed business environments and has spread economic contagion rapidly, as the stringent lockdowns and social distancing, which were initially intended to cut off the spread, have instead cut off the flow of economies. With no existing experience or playbook to deal with such a crisis, the prolonged pandemic can lead to bankruptcies, despite the fact that there are cases of companies that are not only able to survive but also to increase sales and create more jobs amid the economic crisis. This quantitative research study clarifies conflicting findings on organizational inertia whether it is a better strategy to implement during a disruptive environment. 316 respondents who worked in diverse firms operating in various industry types in Indonesia have completed the survey with a response rate of 63.2%. Further, this study clarifies the roles and relationships between organizational inertia, organizational creativity, organizational agility, and organizational resilience that potentially have determinants factors on firm performance in a disruptive environment. The findings of the study confirm that the organizational inertia of the firm will set up strong protection on the organization's fundamental orientation, which eventually will confine organizations to build adequate creative and adaptability responses—such fundamental orientation built from path dependency along with past success and prolonged firm performance. Organizational inertia acts like a control mechanism to ensure the adequacy of the given responses. The term adequate is important, as being overly creative during a disruptive environment may have a contradictory result since it can burden the firm performance. During a disruptive environment, organizations will limit creativity by focusing more on creativity that supports the resilience and new technology adoption will be limited since the cost of learning and implementation are perceived as greater than the potential gains. The optimal path towards firm performance is gained through organizational resilience, as in a disruptive environment, the survival of the organization takes precedence over firm performance.

Keywords: disruptive environment, organizational agility, organizational creativity, organizational inertia, organizational resilience

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21 Exploring the Perspective of Service Quality in mHealth Services during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Wan-I Lee, Nelio Mendoza Figueredo


The impact of COVID-19 has a significant effect on all sectors of society globally. Health information technology (HIT) has become an effective health strategy in this age of distancing. In this regard, Mobile Health (mHealth) plays a critical role in managing patient and provider workflows during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the users' perception of service quality about mHealth services plays a significant role in shaping confidence and subsequent behaviors regarding the mHealth users' intention of use. This study's objective was to explore levels of user attributes analyzed by a qualitative method of how health practitioners and patients are satisfied or dissatisfied with using mHealth services; and analyzed the users' intention in the context of Taiwan during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research explores the experienced usability of a mHealth services during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study uses qualitative methods that include in-depth and semi-structured interviews that investigate participants' perceptions and experiences and the meanings they attribute to them. The five cases consisted of health practitioners, clinic staff, and patients' experiences using mHealth services. This study encourages participants to discuss issues related to the research question by asking open-ended questions, usually in one-to-one interviews. The findings show the positive and negative attributes of mHealth service quality. Hence, the significant importance of patients' and health practitioners' issues on several dimensions of perceived service quality is system quality, information quality, and interaction quality. A concept map for perceptions regards to emergency uses' intention of mHealth services process is depicted. The findings revealed that users pay more attention to "Medical care", "ease of use" and "utilitarian benefits" and have less importance for "Admissions and Convenience" and "Social influence". To improve mHealth services, the mHealth providers and health practitioners should better manage users' experiences to enhance mHealth services. This research contributes to the understanding of service quality issues in mHealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: COVID-19, mobile health, service quality, use intention

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20 An Integral Sustainable Design Evaluation of the 15-Minute City and the Processes of Transferability to Cities of the Global South

Authors: Chitsanzo Isaac


Across the world, the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has challenged urban systems and policy frameworks, highlighting societal vulnerabilities and systemic inequities among many communities. Measures of confinement and social distancing to contain the Covid-19 virus have fragmented the physical and social fabric of cities. This has caused urban dwellers to reassess how they engage with their urban surroundings and maintain social ties. Urbanists have presented strategies that would allow communities to survive and even thrive, in extraordinary times of crisis like the pandemic. Tactical Urbanism, particularly the 15-Minute City, has gained popularity. It is considered a resilient approach in the global north, however, it’s transferability to the global south has been called into question. To this end, this paper poses the question: to what extent is the 15-Minute City framework integral sustainable design, and are there processes that make it adoptable by cities in the global south? This paper explores four issues using secondary quantitative data analysis and convergence analysis in the Paris and Blantyre urban regions. First, it questions how the 15-Minute City has been defined and measured, and how it impacts urban dwellers. Second, it examines the extent to which the 15-minute city performs under the lens of frameworks such as Wilber’s integral theory and Fleming’s integral sustainable design theory. Thirdly this work examines the processes that can be transferred to developing cities which foster community resilience through the perspectives of experience, behaviors, cultures, and systems. Finally, it reviews the principal ways in which a multi-perspective reality can be the basis for resilient community design and sustainable urban development. This work will shed a light on the importance of a multi-perspective reality as a means of achieving sustainable urban design goals in developing urban areas.

Keywords: 15-minute city, developing cities, global south, community resilience, integral sustainable design, systems thinking, complexity, tactical urbanism

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