Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 219

Search results for: antibodies

219 Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Synthetic Cannabinoids

Authors: Hiroshi Nakayama, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

Synthetic cannabinoids have attracted much public attention recently in Japan. 1-pentyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole (JWH-018), 1-pentyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl) indole (JWH-015), 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-3- (1-(2,2,3,3- tetramethylcyclopropyl)) indole (XLR-11) and 1-methyl-3- (1-admantyl) indole (JWH-018 adamantyl analog) are known as synthetic cannabinoids and are also considered dangerous illegal drugs in Japan. It has become necessary to develop sensitive and useful methods for detection of synthetic cannabinoids. We produced two monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against synthetic cannabinoids, named NT1 (IgG1) and NT2 (IgG1), using Hybridoma technology. The cross-reactivity of these produced MAbs was evaluated using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the results, we found both of these antibodies recognize many kinds of synthetic cannabinoids analog. However, neither of these antibodies recognizes naphtoic acid, 1-methyl-indole and indole known as a raw material of synthetic cannabinoid. Thus, the MAbs produced in this study could be a useful tool for the detection of synthetic cannabinoids.

Keywords: ELISA, monoclonal antibody, sensor, synthetic cannabinoid

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218 Pathogenic Effects of IgG and IgM Apoptotic Cell-Reactive Monoclonal Auto-Antibodies on Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Lupus

Authors: Monika Malik, Pooja Arora, Ruchi Sachdeva, Vishnampettai G. Ramachandran, Rahul Pal

Abstract:

Apoptotic debris is believed to be the antigenic trigger in lupus. Whether such debris and autoantibodies induced in lupus-prone mice which specifically recognize its constituents can mediate differential effects on innate and humoral responses in such mice was assessed. The influence of apoptotic blebs and apoptotic cell-reactive monoclonal antibodies on phenotypic markers expressed on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and secreted cytokines were evaluated. Sera from lupus-prone and healthy mice immunized with the antibodies were analyzed for anti-self reactivity. Apoptotic blebs, as well as somatically-mutated IgG and non-mutated IgM apoptotic-cell reactive monoclonal antibodies, induced the preferential maturation of BMDCs derived from lupus-prone mice relative to BMDCs derived from healthy mice; antibody specificity and cell genotype both influenced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Immunization of lupus-prone mice with IgM and IgG antibodies led to hypergammaglobulinemia; elicited antibodies were self-reactive, and exhibited enhanced recognition of lupus-associated autoantigens (dsDNA, Ro60, RNP68, and Sm) in comparison with adjuvant-induced sera. While ‘natural’ IgM antibodies are believed to contribute to immune homeostasis, this study reveals that apoptotic cell-reactive IgM antibodies can promote inflammation and drive anti-self responses in lupus. Only in lupus-prone mice did immunization with IgG auto-antibodies enhance the kinetics of humoral anti-self responses, resulting in advanced-onset glomerulosclerosis. This study reveals that preferential innate and humoral recognition of the products of cell death in an autoimmune milieu influences the indices associated with lupus pathology.

Keywords: antigen spreading, apoptotic cell-reactive pathogenic IgG, and IgM autoantibodies, glomerulosclerosis, lupus

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217 Surveillance for African Swine Fever and Classical Swine Fever in Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: A. Asambe, A. K. B. Sackey, L. B. Tekdek

Abstract:

A serosurveillance study was conducted to detect the presence of antibodies to African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Classical swine fever virus in pigs sampled from piggeries and Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, Nigeria. 416 pigs from 74 piggeries across 12 LGAs and 44 pigs at the Makurdi central slaughter slab were sampled for serum. The sera collected were analysed using Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit to test for antibodies to ASFV, while competitive ELISA test kit was used to test for antibodies to CSFV. Of the 416 pigs from piggeries and 44 pigs sampled from the slaughter slab, seven (1.7%) and six (13.6%), respectively, tested positive to ASFV antibodies and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). Out of the 12 LGAs sampled, Obi LGA had the highest ASFV antibody detection rate of (4.8%) and was significantly associated (p < 0.0001). None of the samples tested positive to CSFV antibodies. The study concluded that antibodies to CSFV were absent in the sampled pigs in piggeries and at the Makurdi central slaughter slab in Benue State, while antibodies to ASFV were present in both locations; hence, the need to keep an eye open for CSF too since both diseases may pose great risk in the study area. Further studies to characterise the ASFV circulating in Benue State and investigate the possible sources is recommended. Routine surveillance to provide a comprehensive and readily accessible data base to plan for the prevention of any fulminating outbreak is also recommended.

Keywords: African swine fever, classical swine fever, piggery, slaughter slab, surveillance

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216 Chikungunya Virus Infection among Patients with Febrile Illness Attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Authors: Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda, Saka Saheed Baba, Tawa Monilade Adisa, Mustapha Bala Abubakar

Abstract:

Background: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus, a previously anecdotally described arbovirus, is now assuming a worldwide public health burden. The CHIK virus infection is characterized by potentially life threatening and debilitating arthritis in addition to the high fever, arthralgia, myalgia, headache and rash. Method: Three hundred and seventy (370) serum samples were collected from outpatients with febrile illness attending University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, and was used to detect for Chikungunya (CHIK) virus IgG and IgM antibodies using the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs). Result: Out of the 370 sera tested, 39 (10.5%) were positive for presence of CHIK virus antibodies. A total of 24 (6.5%) tested positive for CHIK virus IgM only while none (0.0%) was positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG only and 15 (4.1%) of the serum samples were positive for both IgG and IgM antibodies. A significant difference (p<0.0001) was observed in the distribution of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to gender. The males had prevalence of 8.5% IgM antibodies as against 4.6% observed in females. On the other hand 4.6% of the females were positive for concurrent CHIK virus IgG and IgM antibodies when compared to a prevalence of 3.4% observed in males. Only the age groups ≤ 60 years and the undisclosed age group were positive for presence of CHIK virus IgG and/or IgM antibodies. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies among the study subjects Analysis of the prevalence of CHIK virus antibodies in relation to clinical presentation (as observed by Clinicians) of the patients revealed that headache and fever were the most frequently encountered ailments. Conclusion: The CHIK virus IgM and concurrent IgM and IgG antibody prevalence rates of 6.5% and 4.1% observed in this study indicates a current infection and the lack of IgG antibody alone observed shows that the infection is not endemic but sporadic. Recommendation: Further studies should be carried to establish the seasonal prevalence of CHIK virus infection vis-à-vis vector dynamics in the study area. A comprehensive study need to be carried out on the molecular characterization of the CHIK virus circulating in Nigeria with a view to developing CHIK virus vaccine.

Keywords: Chikungunya virus, IgM and IgG antibodies, febrile patients, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay

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215 Evaluation of Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury

Authors: Hossein Barri Ghazani

Abstract:

Transfusion-related acute lung injury is the main reason of transfusion-related death, and it’s assigned to white blood cell reactive antibodies present in the blood product (anti-HLA class I and class II or anti granulocyte antibodies). TRALI may occur in the COVID-19 patients who are treated by convalescent plasma. The rate of TRALI’s reactions is the same in both males and females and can happen in all age groups. TRALI’s occurrence is higher for people who receive plasma from female donors because the parous female donors have multiple HLA antibodies in their plasma. Patients with chronic liver disease have an augmented risk of transfusion-related acute lung injuries from plasma containing blood products like FFP and PRP. The condition of TRALI suddenly starts with a non‐cardiogenic pulmonary Edema, often accompanied by marked systemic hypovolemic and hypotension. The conditions occur during or within a few hours of transfusion. Chest X-ray shows a nodular penetration or bats’ wing pattern of Edema which can be seen in acute respiratory distress syndrome as well. TRALI can occur with any type of blood products and can occur with as little as one unit. The blood donor center should be informed of the suspected TRALI reactions when the symptoms of TRALI are observed. After a review of the clinical data, the donors must be screened for granulocyte and HLA antibodies. The diagnosis and management of TRALI is not simple and is best done with a professional team and a specialty skilled nurse experienced with the upkeep of these patients.

Keywords: TRALI, transfusion-related death, anti-granulocyte antibodies, anti-HLA antibodies, COVID-19

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214 'Antibody Exception' under Dispute and Waning Usage: Potential Influence on Patenting Antibodies

Authors: Xiangjun Kong, Dongning Yao, Yuanjia Hu

Abstract:

Therapeutic antibodies have become the most valuable and successful class of biopharmaceutical drugs, with a huge market potential and therapeutic advantages. Antibody patents are, accordingly, extremely important. As the technological limitation of the early stage of this field, the U. S. Patent and Trademark Offices (USPTO) have issued guidelines that suggest an exception for patents claiming a genus of antibodies that bind to a novel antigen, even in the absence of any experimental antibody production. This 'antibody exception' allowed for a broad scope on antibody claims, and led a global trend to patent antibodies without antibodies. Disputes around the pertinent patentability and written description issues remain particularly intense. Yet the validity of such patents had not been overtly challenged until Centocor v. Abbott, which restricted the broad scope of antibody patents and hit the brakes on the 'antibody exception'. The courts tend to uphold the requirement for adequate description of antibodies in the patent specifications, to avoid overreaching antibody claims. Patents following the 'antibody exception' are at risk of being found invalid for inadequately describing what they have claimed. However, the relation between the court and USPTO guidelines remains obscure, and the waning of the 'antibody exception' has led to further disputes around antibody patents. This uncertainty clearly affects patent applications, antibody innovations, and even relevant business performance. This study will give an overview of the emergence, debate, and waning usage of the 'antibody exception' in a number of enlightening cases, attempting to understand the specific concerns and the potential influence of antibody patents. We will then provide some possible strategies for antibody patenting, under the current considerations on the 'antibody exception'.

Keywords: antibody exception, antibody patent, USPTO (U. S. Patent and Trademark Offices) guidelines, written description requirement

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213 Study on the Incidence of Chikungunya Infection in Swat Region

Authors: Nasib Zaman, Maneesha Kour, Muhammad Rizwan, Fazal Akbar

Abstract:

Abstract: Chikungunya fever is a re-emerging rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease cause by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. Currently, it is affecting millions of people globally. Objective: This study's main objective was to find the incidence of chikungunya fever in the Swat region and the factors associated with the spread of this infection. Method: This study was carried out in different areas of Swat. Blood samples and data were collected from selected patients, and a questionnaire was filled for each patient. 3-5ml of the specimen was taken from the patient's vein and serum, or plasma was separated by centrifugation. Chikungunya tests were performed for IgG and IgM antibodies. The data was analyzed by SPSS and Graph Paid Prism 5. Results: A total of 169 patients were included in this study, out of which 103 (60.9%) having age less than 30 years were positive for chikungunya infection and 66 (39.1%) having more than 30 years were negative for this infection. Only 1 (0.6%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibody. About 15 (8.9%) patients have diagnosed with positive IgG antibodies, and 25 (26.6%) patients were positive for IgM positive antibodies. The infection rate was significantly higher in males compared to females 71 (59.6%) vs. 14 (38%) P value=0.088, OR=1.7. Conclusion: This study concludes clinical knowledge and awareness that are necessary for a diagnosis of chikungunya infection properly. Therefore it is important to educate people for the eradication of this infection. Recommendation: This study also recommends investigating the other risk factors associated with this infection.

Keywords: Chikungunya, risk factor, Incidence, antibodies, mosquito

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212 ELISA Based hTSH Assessment Using Two Sensitive and Specific Anti-hTSH Polyclonal Antibodies

Authors: Maysam Mard-Soltani, Mohamad Javad Rasaee, Saeed Khalili, Abdol Karim Sheikhi, Mehdi Hedayati

Abstract:

Production of specific antibody responses against hTSH is a cumbersome process due to the high identity between the hTSH and the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family (FSH, LH and HCG) and the high identity between the human hTSH and host animals for antibody production. Therefore, two polyclonal antibodies were purified against two recombinant proteins. Four possible ELISA tests were designed based on these antibodies. These ELISA tests were checked against hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones, and their sensitivity and specificity were assessed. Bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the immunological properties. After the immunogen region selection from hTSH protein, c terminal of B hTSH was selected and applied. Two recombinant genes, with these cut pieces (first: two repeats of C terminal of B hTSH, second: tetanous toxin+B hTSH C terminal), were designed and sub-cloned into the pET32a expression vector. Standard methods were used for protein expression, purification, and verification. Thereafter, immunizations of the white New Zealand rabbits were performed and the serums of them were used for antibody titration, purification and characterization. Then, four ELISA tests based on two antibodies were employed to assess the hTSH and other glycoprotein hormones. The results of these assessments were compared with standard amounts. The obtained results indicated that the desired antigens were successfully designed, sub-cloned, expressed, confirmed and used for in vivo immunization. The raised antibodies were capable of specific and sensitive hTSH detection, while the cross reactivity with the other members of the glycoprotein hormone family was minimum. Among the four designed tests, the test in which the antibody against first protein was used as capture antibody, and the antibody against second protein was used as detector antibody did not show any hook effect up to 50 miu/l. Both proteins have the ability to induce highly sensitive and specific antibody responses against the hTSH. One of the antibody combinations of these antibodies has the highest sensitivity and specificity in hTSH detection.

Keywords: hTSH, bioinformatics, protein expression, cross reactivity

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211 Evaluation of Existence of Antithyroid Antibodies, Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase and Anti-Thyroglobulin in Patients with Hepatitis C Viral Infections

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Sana Anwar, Sarah Sughra Asghar

Abstract:

Chronic hepatitis or Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection has been identified as one of the factors that could elicit autoimmune disease resulting in the development of auto-antibodies. Furthermore, HCV is implicated in contravening of forbearance to antigens, therefore, inciting auto-reactivity. In this regard, several near and past studies noted the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and production of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATAb) such as anti-thyroid peroxidase (AntiTPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (AntiTG) in patients with HCV. Likewise, one of the etiologies of augmentation of thyroid disease is basically interferon therapy for HCV infections, for which a number of autoimmune diseases have been noted including Grave’s disease, Hishimoto thyroiditis. A prospectively case-control study was therefore carried out at department of clinical biochemistry lab services and chemical pathology in collaboration with department of clinical microbiology, at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi Pakistan for the period January 2015 to December 2017. Two control groups were inducted for comparison purpose, control group 1 = without HCV infection and with thyroid disorders (n = 20), control group 2 = with HCV infection and without thyroid disorders (n = 20), whereas HCV infected were n = 40 where more than half were noted to be positive for either of HCV IgG and Ag. In HCV group, patients with existing sub-clinical hypothyroidism and clinical hyperthyroidism were less than 5%. Analysis showed the presence of AntiTG in 12 HCV patients (30%), AntiTPO in 15 (37.5%) and both AntiTG and antiTPO in 10 patients (25%). Only 3 patients were found with the history of anti-thyroid auto-antibodies (7.5%) and one with parents and relatives with auto-immune disorders (2.5%). Patients that remained untreated were 12 (30%), under treatment 18 (45%) and with complete-course of treatment 10 (25%). As per review of the literature, meta-analysis of evident data and cross-sectional studies of selective cohorts (as studied in presented research), thyroid connection is designated as one of the most recurrent endocrine ailment associated with chronic HCV infection. Moreover, it also represents an extrahepatic disease in the continuum of HCV syndrome. In conclusion, HCV patients were more likely to encompass thyroid disorders especially related to development of either of ATAb or both antiTG and AntiTPO.

Keywords: Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, anti-thyroid antibodies, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies

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210 Gold-Mediated Modification of Apoferritin Surface with Targeting Antibodies

Authors: Simona Dostalova, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek

Abstract:

Protein apoferritin seems to be a very promising structure for use as a nanocarrier. It is prepared from intracellular ferritin protein naturally found in most organisms. The role of ferritin proteins is to store and transport ferrous ions. Apoferritin is a hollow protein cage without ferrous ions that can be prepared from ferritin by reduction with thioglycolic acid or dithionite. The structure of apoferritin is composed of 24 protein subunits, creating a sphere with 12 nm in diameter. The inner cavity has a diameter of 8 nm. The drug encapsulation process is based on the response of apoferritin structure to the pH changes of surrounding solution. In low pH, apoferritin is disassembled into individual subunits and its structure is “opened”. It can then be mixed with any desired cytotoxic drug and after adjustment of pH back to neutral the subunits are reconnected again and the drug is encapsulated within the apoferritin particles. Excess drug molecules can be removed by dialysis. The receptors for apoferritin, SCARA5 and TfR1 can be found in the membrane of both healthy and cancer cells. To enhance the specific targeting of apoferritin nanocarrier, it is possible to modify its surface with targeting moieties, such as antibodies. To ensure sterically correct complex, we used a a peptide linker based on a protein G with N-terminus affinity towards Fc region of antibodies. To connect the peptide to the surface of apoferritin, the C-terminus of peptide was made of cysteine with affinity to gold. The surface of apoferritin with encapsulated doxorubicin (ApoDox) was coated either with gold nanoparticles (ApoDox-Nano) or gold (III) chloride hydrate reduced with sodium borohydride (ApoDox-HAu). The applied amount of gold in form of gold (III) chloride hydrate was 10 times higher than in the case of gold nanoparticles. However, after removal of the excess unbound ions by electrophoretic separation, the concentration of gold on the surface of apoferritin was only 6 times higher for ApoDox-HAu in comparison with ApoDox-Nano. Moreover, the reduction with sodium borohydride caused a loss of doxorubicin fluorescent properties (excitation maximum at 480 nm with emission maximum at 600 nm) and thus its biological activity. Fluorescent properties of ApoDox-Nano were similar to the unmodified ApoDox, therefore it was more suited for the intended use. To evaluate the specificity of apoferritin modified with antibodies, we used ELISA-like method with the surface of microtitration plate wells coated by the antigen (goat anti-human IgG antibodies). To these wells, we applied ApoDox without targeting antibodies and ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies (human IgG antibodies). The amount of unmodified ApoDox on antigen after incubation and subsequent rinsing with water was 5 times lower than in the case of ApoDox-Nano modified with targeting antibodies. The modification of non-gold ApoDox with antibodies caused no change in its targeting properties. It can therefore be concluded that the demonstrated procedure allows us to create nanocarrier with enhanced targeting properties, suitable for nanomedicine.

Keywords: apoferritin, doxorubicin, nanocarrier, targeting antibodies

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209 The Arabian Camel (Camelus dromedarius) as a Major Reservoir of Q Fever in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Mansour F. Hussein, Mohammed A. Alshaikh, Riyadh S. Al-Jumaah, A. GarelNabi, I. Al-Khalifa, Osama B. Mohammed

Abstract:

Serum samples from 489 male and female camels were tested for antibodies against C. burnetii using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibodies to C. burnetii were recorded in sera of 252 (51.64%) camels. Significant differences in prevalence were found between male and female camels, juvenile and adult camels, different ecotypes and different sampling locations. 307 camels were simultaneously tested for C. burnetii antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA). Close agreement was found between the results of the two tests. A high prevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was also recorded in milk samples tested by ELISA. Clinical samples from serologically positive camels were subjected to PCR analysis using primers which amplify the repetitive transposon-like and transposase gene regions of C. burnetii. Positive DNA amplification was obtained from both regions, with highest shedding of C. burnetii in faecal samples (27.59%) followed, in descending order, by urine (23.81%), blood (15.85%) and milk (6.5%). The present results indicate that camels are a major reservoir of C. burnetii in Saudi Arabia. The high prevalence of infection in camels, the poor sanitary standards under which the animals are kept and the consumption of raw camel milk indicate that camels could also be a major source of transmission of Q fever to humans in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius, Coxiella brunetii, ELISA, immunofluoresence, PCR

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208 Dicarbonyl Methylglyoxal Induces Structural Perturbations, Aggregation and Immunogenicity in IgG with Implications in Auto-Immune Response in Diabetes

Authors: Sidra Islam, Moin Uddin, Mir A. Rouf

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A wide variety of pathological disorders owing to hyperglycemic conditions involves structural rearrangements and condensations of proteins. The implication of methylglyoxal (MG) modified immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the onset and progression of diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is studied in the present study. Using biophysical and biochemical approaches MG was found to perturb the structure of IgG, effect its microenvironment and leads to aggregate formation. Furthermore, MG-IgG was found to be highly immunogenic inducing high titre antibodies in female rabbits. Clinical studies revealed the presence of circulating anti-MG-IgG antibodies as analyzed by direct binding ELISA. The circulating auto antibodies were highly specific for MG-IgG as revealed by inhibition ELISA. Thus it can be concluded that MG is a powerful agent with a high damaging potential. To IgG. It is highly capable of generating immune response that contributes to the immunopathology associated with diabetes. Dicarbonyl adducts may emerge as potential biomarkers for T2DM.

Keywords: immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin G, methylglyoxal, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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207 Raising Antibodies against Epoxyscillirosidine, the Toxic Principle Contained in Moraea pallida Bak. in Rabbits

Authors: Hamza I. Isa, Gezina C. H. Ferreira, Jan E. Crafford, Christoffel J. Botha

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Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulip) poisoning is the most important plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. Cardiac glycoside poisonings collectively account for about 33 and 10 % mortalities due to plants, in large and small stock respectively, in South Africa. The toxic principle is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, a bufadienolide. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine and the related bufadienolides proscillaridin and bufalin, which are commercially available, were conjugated to the carrier proteins [Hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)], rendering them immunogenic. Adult male New Zealand White rabbits were immunized. In Trials 1 and 2, rabbits (n=6) were, each assigned to two groups. Experimental animals (n=3; n=4) were vaccinated with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA conjugate, while the control (n=3; n=2) were vaccinated with OVA, using Freund’s complete and incomplete and Montanide adjuvants, for Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 3, rabbits (n=15), randomly allocated to 5 equal groups (I, II, III, IV and V), were vaccinated with proscillaridin-BSA, bufalin-BSA, epoxyscillirosidine-KLH, epoxyscillirosidine-BSA conjugates, and BSA respectively, using Montanide as adjuvant. Vaccination was on Days 0, 21 and 42. Additional vaccinations were done on Day 56 and 63 for Trial 1. Vaccination was by intradermal injection of 0.4 ml of the immunogen (4 mg/ml [Trial 1] and 8 mg/ml for Trials 2 and Trial 3, respectively). Blood was collected pre-vaccination and at 3 week intervals following each vaccination. Antibody response was determined using an indirect ELISA. There was poor immune response associated with the dose (0.4 mg per rabbit) and adjuvant used in Trial 1. Antibodies were synthesized against the conjugate administered in Trial 2. For Trail 3, antibodies against the immunogens were successfully raised in rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-KLH inducing the highest immune response. The antibodies raised against proscillaridin and bufalin cross-reacted with epoxyscillirosidine when used as antigen in the ELISA. The study successfully demonstrated the synthesis of antibodies against the bufadienolide conjugates administered. The cross-reactivity of proscillaridin and bufalin with epoxyscillirosidine could potentially be utilized as alternative to epoxyscillirosidine in future studies to prevent yellow tulp poisoning by vaccination.

Keywords: antibodies , bufadienolides, cross-reactivity, epoxyscillirosidine, Moraea pallida, poisoning

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206 Targeting Trypanosoma brucei Using Antibody Drug Conjugates against the Transferrin Receptor

Authors: Camilla Trevor, Matthew K. Higgins, Andrea Gonzalez-Munoz, Mark Carrington

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Trypanosomiasis is a devastating disease affecting both humans and livestock in sub-Saharan Africa. The diseases are caused by infection with African trypanosomes, protozoa transmitted by tsetse flies. Treatment currently relies on the use of chemotherapeutics with ghastly side effects. Here, we describe the development of effective antibody-drug conjugates that target the T. brucei transferrin receptor. The receptor is essential for trypanosome growth in a mammalian host but there are approximately 12 variants of the transferrin receptor in the genome. Two of the most divergent variants were used to generate recombinant monoclonal immunoglobulin G using phage display and we identified cross-reactive antibodies that bind both variants using phage ELISA, fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays and surface plasmon resonance. Fluorescent antibodies were used to demonstrate uptake into trypanosomes in culture. Toxin-conjugated antibodies were effective at killing trypanosomes at sub-nanomolar concentrations. The approach of using antibody-drug conjugates has proven highly effective.

Keywords: antibody-drug conjugates, phage display, transferrin receptor, trypanosomes

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205 Comparative Evaluation of Pharmacologically Guided Approaches (PGA) to Determine Maximum Recommended Starting Dose (MRSD) of Monoclonal Antibodies for First Clinical Trial

Authors: Ibraheem Husain, Abul Kalam Najmi, Karishma Chester

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First-in-human (FIH) studies are a critical step in clinical development of any molecule that has shown therapeutic promise in preclinical evaluations, since preclinical research and safety studies into clinical development is a crucial step for successful development of monoclonal antibodies for guidance in pharmaceutical industry for the treatment of human diseases. Therefore, comparison between USFDA and nine pharmacologically guided approaches (PGA) (simple allometry, maximum life span potential, brain weight, rule of exponent (ROE), two species methods and one species methods) were made to determine maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD) for first in human clinical trials using four drugs namely Denosumab, Bevacizumab, Anakinra and Omalizumab. In our study, the predicted pharmacokinetic (pk) parameters and the estimated first-in-human dose of antibodies were compared with the observed human values. The study indicated that the clearance and volume of distribution of antibodies can be predicted with reasonable accuracy in human and a good estimate of first human dose can be obtained from the predicted human clearance and volume of distribution. A pictorial method evaluation chart was also developed based on fold errors for simultaneous evaluation of various methods.

Keywords: clinical pharmacology (CPH), clinical research (CRE), clinical trials (CTR), maximum recommended starting dose (MRSD), clearance and volume of distribution

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204 Production of Single-Chain Antibodies against Common Epitopes of ErbB1 and ErbB2 Using Phage Display Antibody Library

Authors: Gholamreza Hashemitabr, Reza Valadan, Alireza Rafiei, Mohammad Reza Bassami

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. Cancer cells use a complex multilayer network of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) signaling pathways to support their survival and growth. The overlapping networks of EGFRs signaling pathways account for the failure of most ErbB-targeted therapies. The aim of this study was to enrich a pool of recombinant antibody fragments against common epitopes of ErbB1 and ErbB2 in order to simultaneous blockade of ErbBs signaling pathways. ErbB1 and ErbB2 were expressed stably in VERO cells. Selection of recombinant antibodies was performed on live cells expressing either of ErbB1 and ErbB2 receptors using subtractive phage display approach. The results of PCR and DNA fingerprinting in the last round of panning showed that most clones contained insert (80% and 85% for ErbB1 and ErbB2 respectively) with an identical restriction pattern. The selected clones showed positive reaction to both ErbB1 and ErbB2 receptors in phage-ELISA test. Furthermore, the resulting soluble antibody fragments recognized common epitopes of both immunoprecipitated ErbB1 and ErbB2 in western blot. Additionally, the antibodies directed against the dimerization domain of ErbB1 demonstrated a significant absorbance in EGF-stimulated VERO/ErbB1 cells than non-stimulated cells (1.91 and 1.09 respectively). Moreover, the results of dimerization inhibition test showed that these antibodies blocked ErbB1 and ErbB2 dimerization on the surface of ErbB1 and ErbB2 expressing VERO cells. Regarding the importance of pan-ErbB approach to cancer therapy, the antibodies developed here might provide novel therapeutics for simultaneous blockade of ErbBs signaling pathways.

Keywords: breast cancer, single-chain antibody, ErbB1, ErbB2, epitope

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203 Investigation of Suspected Viral Hepatitis Outbreaks in North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Manasi Majumdar, Kapil Goyal, Pvm Lakshmi, Deepak Bhatia, Radha Kanta Ratho

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India is endemic for Hepatitis E virus and frequent water borne outbreaks are reported. The conventional diagnosis rests on the detection of serum anti-HEV IgM antibodies which may take 7-10 days to develop. Early diagnosis in such a situation is desirable for the initiation of prompt control measures. The present study compared three diagnostic methods in 60 samples collected during two suspected HEV outbreaks in the vicinity of Chandigarh, India. The anti-HEV IgM, HEV antigen and HEV-RNA could be detected in serum samples of 52 (86.66%), 16 (26.66%) and 18 (30%) patients respectively. The suitability of saliva samples for antibody detection was also evaluated in 21 paired serum- saliva samples. A total of 15 serum samples showed the presence of anti HEV IgM antibodies, out of which 10 (10/15; 66.6%) were also positive for these antibodies in saliva samples (χ2 = 7.636, p < 0.0057), thus showing a concordance of 76.91%. The positivity of reverse transcriptase PCR and HEV antigen detection was 100% within one week of illness which declined to 5-10% thereafter. The outbreak was attributed to HEV Genotype 1, Subtype 1a and the clinical and environmental strains clustered together. HEV antigen and RNA were found to be an early diagnostic marker with 96.66% concordance. The results indicate that the saliva samples can be used as an alternative to serum samples in an outbreak situation.

Keywords: HEV-antigen, outbreak, phylogenetic analysis, saliva

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202 Capability of a Single Antigen to Induce Both Protective and Disease Enhancing Antibody: An Obstacle in the Creation of Vaccines and Passive Immunotherapies

Authors: Parul Kulshreshtha, Subrata Sinha, Rakesh Bhatnagar

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This study was conducted by taking B. anthracis as a model pathogen. On infecting a host, B. anthracis secretes three proteins, namely, protective antigen (PA, 83kDa), edema factor (EF, 89 kDa) and lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa). These three proteins are the components of two anthrax toxins. PA binds to the cell surface receptors, namely, tumor endothelial marker (TEM) 8 and capillary morphogenesis protein (CMG) 2. TEM8 and CMG2 interact with LDL-receptor related protein (LRP) 6 for endocytosis of EF and LF. On entering the cell, EF acts as a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that causes a prolonged increase of cytosolic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). LF is a metalloprotease that cleaves most isoforms of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKK/MEK) close to their N-terminus. By secreting these two toxins, B.anthracis ascertains death of the host. Once the systemic levels of the toxins rise, antibiotics alone cannot save the host. Therefore, toxin-specific inhibitors have to be developed. In this wake, monoclonal antibodies have been developed for the neutralization of toxic effects of anthrax toxins. We created hybridomas by using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor of B. anthracis) to obtain anti-toxin antibodies. Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immunized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies from all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). The protective efficacy of H7, H8, H10 and H11 was investigated. H7, H8 and H10 were found to be protective. H11 was found to have disease enhancing characteristics in-vitro and in mouse model of challenge with B. anthracis. In this study the disease enhancing character of H11 monoclonal antibody and anti-rLFn polyclonal sera was investigated. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature both in-vitro and in-vivo. But combination of H11 with LETscFv (an scFv with VH and VL identical to H10 but lacking Fc region) could not abrogate the disease-enhancing character of H11 mAb. Therefore it was concluded that for suppression of disease enhancement, Fc portion was absolutely essential for interaction of H10 with H11. Our study indicates that the protective potential of an antibody depends equally on its idiotype/ antigen specificity and its isotype. A number of monoclonal and engineered antibodies are being explored as immunotherapeutics but it is absolutely essential to characterize each one for their individual and combined protective potential. Although new in the sphere of toxin-based diseases, it is extremely important to characterize the disease-enhancing nature of polyclonal as well as monoclonal antibodies. This is because several anti-viral therapeutics and vaccines have failed in the face of this phenomenon. The passive –immunotherapy thus needs to be well formulated to avoid any contraindications.

Keywords: immunotherapy, polyclonal, monoclonal, antibody-dependent disease enhancement

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201 Comparison of the Effectiveness of Neisseria gonorrhea Crude Protein Injections with Intravenous, Intracutaneous, and Subcutaneous

Authors: Annisa Amalina, Lintang Sekar Sari, Khairunnisa Salsabila, Astya Gema Ramadhan, M. Fatkhi, Andani Eka Putra

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Gonorrhea is one of the sexually transmitted diseases by genito-genital, oro-genital and anogenital. Gonorrhea disease will cause complications if not treated properly. The diagnostic tool that has been used nowadays is microscopic. Thus a rapid diagnostic tool for gonorrhea is required, using polyclonal antibodies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of injections of intravenous, subcutaneous and intracutaneous crude protein gonorrhea. The research method used in this research is experimental explorative. This research was conducted in Molecular Microbiology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine, Andalas University for 3 months from April to June 2017. This study used 3 groups of rabbit with intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous injections. Each group was treated on days 1, 7, 21, and 28 with crude protein injection. After that, the examination of antibody levels held by using ELISA, followed by the antibody comparative tests contained in all three groups. The results examined by One Way ANOVA test on SPSS 21 and showed that there is no significant difference between intravenous, subcutaneous, and intracutaneous use p=0.69 (p < 0.05). However, there is an increased level (0.047 to 1.171) in antibodies from day 1 to day 14. In addition, subcutaneous use is preferred because it has minimal side effects compared to intravenous and intracutaneous use.

Keywords: crude protein, Neisseria gonorrhea, polyclonal antibodies, subcutaneous

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200 Determining the Presence of Brucella abortus Antibodies by the Indirect Elisa Method in Bovine Bulk Milk and Risk Factors in the Peri-Urban Zones of Bamenda Cameroon

Authors: Cha-ah C. N., Awah N. J., Mouiche M. M. M.

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Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease of animals and man caused by bacteria of genus Brucella. Though eradicated in some parts of the world, it remains endemic in sub-Saharan Africa including Cameroon. The aim of this study was to contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis in the North-West region of Cameroon by detecting the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in bovine bulk milk as this serves as a route of transmission from animals to man. A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk in the peri-urban zones of Bamenda. One hundred bulk milk samples were collected from 100 herds and tested by milk I-ELISA test. The conducted study revealed the presence of anti-Brucella abortus antibodies in bovine bulk milk. The study revealed that bovine brucellosis is widespread in animal production systems in this area. The animal infection pressure in these systems has remained strong due to movement of livestock in search of pasture, co-existence of animal husbandry, communal sharing of grazing land, concentration of animals around water points, abortions in production systems, locality of production systems and failure to quarantine upon introduction of new animals. The circulation of Brucella abortus antibodies in cattle farms recorded in the study revealed potential public health implication and suggest economic importance of brucellosis to the cattle industry in the Northwest region of Cameroon. The risk for re-emergence and transmission of brucellosis is evident as a result of the co-existence of animal husbandry activities and social-cultural activities that promote brucellosis transmission. Well-designed countrywide, evidence-based studies of brucellosis are needed. These could help to generate reliable frequency and potential impact estimates, to identify Brucella reservoirs, and to propose control strategies of proven efficacy.

Keywords: brucellosis, bulk milk, northwest region Cameroon, prevalence

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199 Leptospira Lipl32-Specific Antibodies: Therapeutic Property, Epitopes Characterization and Molecular Mechanisms of Neutralization

Authors: Santi Maneewatchararangsri, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Patcharin Saengjaruk, Urai Chaisri

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Leptospirosis is a globally neglected disease that continues to be a significant public health and veterinary burden, with millions of cases reported each year. Early and accurate differential diagnosis of leptospirosis from other febrile illnesses and the development of a broad spectrum of leptospirosis vaccines are needed. The LipL32 outer membrane lipoprotein is a member of Leptospira adhesive matrices and has been found to exert hemolytic activity to erythrocytes in vitro. Therefore, LipL32 is regarded as a potential target for diagnosis, broad-spectrum leptospirosis vaccines, and for passive immunotherapy. In this study, we established LipL32-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies, mAbLPF1 and mAbLPF2, and their respective mouse- and humanized-engineered single chain variable fragment (ScFv). Their antibodies’ neutralizing activities against Leptospira-mediated hemolysis in vitro, and the therapeutic efficacy of mAbs against heterologous Leptospira infected hamsters were demonstrated. The epitope peptide of mAb LPF1 was mapped to a non-contiguous carboxy-terminal β-turn and amphipathic α-helix of LipL32 structure contributing to phospholipid/host cell adhesion and membrane insertion. We found that the mAbLPF2 epitope was located on the interacting loop of peptide binding groove of the LipL32 molecule responsible for interactions with host constituents. Epitope sequences are highly conserved among Leptospira spp. and are absent from the LipL32 superfamily of other microorganisms. Both epitopes are surface-exposed, readily accessible by mAbs, and immunogenic. However, they are less dominant when revealed by LipL32-specific immunoglobulins from leptospirosis-patient sera and rabbit hyperimmune serum raised by whole Leptospira. Our study also demonstrated an adhesion inhibitory activity of LipL32 protein to host membrane components and cells mediated by mAbs as well as an anti-hemolytic activity of the respective antibodies. The therapeutic antibodies, particularly the humanized-ScFv, have a potential for further development as non-drug therapeutic agent for human leptospirosis, especially in subjects allergic to antibiotics. The epitope peptides recognized by two therapeutic mAbs have potential use as tools for structure-function studies. Finally, protective peptides may be used as a target for epitope-based vaccines for control of leptospirosis.

Keywords: leptospira lipl32-specific antibodies, therapeutic epitopes, epitopes characterization, immunotherapy

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198 Gluten Intolerance, Celiac Disease, and Neuropsychiatric Disorders: A Translational Perspective

Authors: Jessica A. Hellings, Piyushkumar Jani

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Background: Systemic autoimmune disorders are increasingly implicated in neuropsychiatric illness, especially in the setting of treatment resistance in individuals of all ages. Gluten allergy in fullest extent results in celiac disease, affecting multiple organs including central nervous system (CNS). Clinicians often lack awareness of the association between neuropsychiatric illness and gluten allergy, partly since many such research studies are published in immunology and gastroenterology journals. Methods: Following a Pubmed literature search and online searches on celiac disease websites, 40 articles are critically reviewed in detail. This work reviews celiac disease, gluten intolerance and current evidence of their relationship to neuropsychiatric and systemic illnesses. The review also covers current work-up and diagnosis, as well as dietary interventions, gluten restriction outcomes, and future research directions. Results: Gluten allergy in susceptible individuals damages the small intestine, producing a leaky gut and malabsorption state, as well as allowing antibodies into the bloodstream, which attack major organs. Lack of amino acid precursors for neurotransmitter synthesis together with antibody-associated brain changes and hypoperfusion may result in neuropsychiatric illness. This is well documented; however, studies in neuropsychiatry are often small. In the large CATIE trial, subjects with schizophrenia had significantly increased antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TTG), and antigliadin antibodies, both significantly greater gluten antibodies than in control subjects. On later follow up, TTG-6 antibodies were identified in these subjects’ brains but not in their intestines. Significant evidence mostly from small studies also exists for gluten allergy and celiac-related depression, anxiety disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, ataxia, and epilepsy. Dietary restriction of gluten resulted in remission in several published cases, including for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Conclusions: Ongoing and larger studies are needed of the diagnosis and treatment efficacy of the gluten-free diet in neuropsychiatric illness. Clinicians should ask about the patient history of anemia, hypothyroidism, irritable bowel syndrome and family history of benefit from the gluten-free diet, not limited to but especially in cases of treatment resistance. Obtaining gluten antibodies by a simple blood test, and referral for gastrointestinal work-up in positive cases should be considered.

Keywords: celiac, gluten, neuropsychiatric, translational

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197 Production of Camel Nanobodies against of Anti-Morphine-3-Glucuronide for the Development of a Biosensor for Detecting Illicit Drug

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Sadegh Hasannia, Hadi Shirzad, Afshin Khara

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Morphine is one of the most medicinally important analgesics and narcotics. Structurally, it is classified as an alkaloid because of the presence of nitrogen. Its structure is similar to that of codeine, thebaine, and heroin. An immunoassay to accurately discriminate between these analogous alkaloids would be highly beneficial. A key factor for such an assay is specificity with high sensitivity, which is totally dependent on the antibody employed. However, most antibodies against haptens are polyclonal serum antibodies that exhibit significant cross-reactivities with closely related compounds. The camel-derived single-chain antibody fragments (VHH) are the smallest molecules with antigen-binding capacity, possessing unique properties compared to other conventional antibodies. In this study, a library containing the VHH genes of a camel immunized with with morphine conjugated BSA following phage display technology was generated. By screening the camel-derived variable region of the heavy chain cDNA phage display library with the ability to bind the desired hapten, we obtained some nanobodies that recognize this hapten. Phage display expression of the Nbs from this library and pannings against this hapten resulted in a clear enrichment of four distinct Nb-displaying phages with specificity for morphine that could be a potential target site for the development of new strategies for the development of a biosensor for detecting illicit drug.

Keywords: phage display, nanobody, Morphine-3, glucuronide, ELISA, biosensor

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196 New Test Algorithm to Detect Acute and Chronic HIV Infection Using a 4th Generation Combo Test

Authors: Barun K. De

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by two types of human immunodeficiency viruses, collectively designated HIV. HIV infection is spreading globally particularly in developing countries. Before an individual is diagnosed with HIV, the disease goes through different phases. First there is an acute early phase that is followed by an established or chronic phase. Subsequently, there is a latency period after which the individual becomes immunodeficient. It is in the acute phase that an individual is highly infectious due to a high viral load. Presently, HIV diagnosis involves use of tests that do not detect the acute phase infection during which both the viral RNA and p24 antigen are expressed. Instead, these less sensitive tests detect antibodies to viral antigens which are typically sero-converted later in the disease process following acute infection. These antibodies are detected in both asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals as well as AIDS patients. Studies indicate that early diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection can reduce medical costs, improve survival, and reduce spreading of infection to new uninfected partners. Newer 4th generation combination antigen/antibody tests are highly sensitive and specific for detection of acute and established HIV infection (HIV1 and HIV2) enabling immediate linkage to care. The CDC (Center of Disease Control, USA) recently recommended an algorithm involving three different tests to screen and diagnose acute and established infections of HIV-1 and HIV-2 in a general population. Initially a 4th generation combo test detects a viral antigen p24 and specific antibodies against HIV -1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins. If the test is positive it is followed by a second test known as a differentiation assay which detects antibodies against specific HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope proteins confirming established infection of HIV-1 or HIV-2. However if it is negative then another test is performed that measures viral load confirming an acute HIV-1 infection. Screening results of a Phoenix area population detected 0.3% new HIV infections among which 32.4% were acute cases. Studies in the U.S. indicate that this algorithm effectively reduces HIV infection through immediate treatment and education following diagnosis.

Keywords: new algorithm, HIV, diagnosis, infection

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195 Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis among Hemato-Oncology Patients in Tertiary Hospital of East Cost Malaysia

Authors: Aisha Khodijah Kholib Jati, Suharni Mohamad, Azlan Husin, Wan Suriana Wan Ab Rahman

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Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). It is commonly asymptomatic in normal individual, but it can be fatal to immunocompromised patients as it can lead to severe complications such as encephalitis, chorioetinitis and myocarditis. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and its association with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 56 hemato-oncology patients were screened for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidity of T. gondii by using ELISA Kit (BioRad, USA). For anti-T. gondii IgG antibody, titer ≥ 9 IU/ml was considered as recent infection, while for IgM, ratio ≥ 1.00 was considered as reactive for the anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Low avidity index is considered as recent infection within 20 weeks while high avidity considered as past infection. T. gondii exposure, socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics was assessed by a questionnaire and interview. Results: A total of 28 (50.0%) hemato-oncology patients were seropositive for T. gondii antibodies. Out of that total, 27 (48.21%) patients were IgG+/IgM- and one patient (1.79%) was IgG+/IgM+ with high avidity index. Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, employment status, stem cell transplant, blood transfusion, close contact with cats, water supply, and consumption of undercooked meat were not significantly associated with Toxoplasma seropositivity rate. Discussion: The seropositivity rate of IgG anti-T. gondii was high among hemato-oncology patients in Hospital USM. With impaired immune system, these patients might have a severe consequence if the infection reactivated. Therefore, screening for anti-T. gondii may be considered in the future. Moreover, health programme towards healthy food and good hygiene practice need to be implemented.

Keywords: immunocompromised, seroprevalence, socio-demographic, toxoplasmosis

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194 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chrmoatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

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The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved in obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
193 Removal of Aggregates of Monoclonal Antibodies by Ion Exchange Chromatography

Authors: Ishan Arora, Anurag Rathore

Abstract:

The primary objective of this work was to study the effect of resin chemistry, pH and molarity of binding and elution buffer on aggregate removal using Cation Exchange Chromatography and find the optimum conditions which can give efficient aggregate removal with minimum loss of yield. Four different resins were used for carrying out the experiments: Fractogel EMD SO3-(S), Fractogel EMD COO-(M), Capto SP ImpRes and S Ceramic HyperD. Runs were carried out on the AKTA Avant system. Design of Experiments (DOE) was used for analysis using the JMP software. The dependence of the yield obtained using different resins on the operating conditions was studied. Success has been achieved by obtaining yield greater than 90% using Capto SP ImpRes and Fractogel EMD COO-(M) resins. It has also been found that a change in the operating conditions generally has different effects on the yields obtained using different resins.

Keywords: aggregates, cation exchange chromatography, design of experiments, monoclonal antibodies

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192 Anti-DNA Antibodies from Patients with Schizophrenia Hydrolyze DNA

Authors: Evgeny A. Ermakov, Lyudmila P. Smirnova, Valentina N. Buneva

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Schizophrenia associated with dysregulation of neurotransmitter processes in the central nervous system and disturbances in the humoral immune system resulting in the formation of antibodies (Abs) to the various components of the nervous tissue. Abs to different neuronal receptors and DNA were detected in the blood of patients with schizophrenia. Abs hydrolyzing DNA were detected in pool of polyclonal autoantibodies in autoimmune and infectious diseases, such catalytic Abs were named abzymes. It is believed that DNA-hydrolyzing abzymes are cytotoxic, cause nuclear DNA fragmentation and induce cell death by apoptosis. Abzymes with DNAase activity are interesting because of the mechanism of formation and the possibility of use as diagnostic markers. Therefore, in our work we have set following goals: to determine the level anti-DNA Abs in the serum of patients with schizophrenia and to study DNA-hydrolyzing activity of IgG of patients with schizophrenia. Materials and methods: In our study there were included 41 patients with a verified diagnosis of paranoid or simple schizophrenia and 24 healthy donors. Electrophoretically and immunologically homogeneous IgGs were obtained by sequential affinity chromatography of the serum proteins on protein G-Sepharose and gel filtration. The levels of anti-DNA Abs were determined using ELISA. DNA-hydrolyzing activity was detected as the level of supercoiled pBluescript DNA transition in circular and linear forms, the hydrolysis products were analyzed by agarose electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide stain. To correspond the registered catalytic activity directly to the antibodies we carried out a number of strict criteria: electrophoretic homogeneity of the antibodies, gel filtration (acid shock analysis) and in situ activity. Statistical analysis was performed in ‘Statistica 9.0’ using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results: The sera of approximately 30% of schizophrenia patients displayed a higher level of Abs interacting with single-stranded (ssDNA) and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) compared with healthy donors. The average level of Abs interacting with ssDNA was only 1.1-fold lower than that for interacting with dsDNA. IgG of patient with schizophrenia were shown to possess DNA hydrolyzing activity. Using affinity chromatography, electrophoretic analysis of isolated IgG homogeneity, gel filtration in acid shock conditions and in situ DNAse activity analysis we proved that the observed activity is intrinsic property of studied antibodies. We have shown that the relative DNAase activity of IgG in patients with schizophrenia averaged 55.4±32.5%, IgG of healthy donors showed much lower activity (average of 9.1±6.5%). It should be noted that DNAase activity of IgG in patients with schizophrenia with a negative symptoms was significantly higher (73.3±23.8%), than in patients with positive symptoms (43.3±33.1%). Conclusion: Anti-DNA Abs of patients with schizophrenia not only bind DNA, but quite efficiently hydrolyze the substrate. The data show a correlation with the level of DNase activity and leading symptoms of patients with schizophrenia.

Keywords: anti-DNA antibodies, abzymes, DNA hydrolysis, schizophrenia

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191 Diagnostic Value of Different Noninvasive Criteria of Latent Myocarditis in Comparison with Myocardial Biopsy

Authors: Olga Blagova, Yuliya Osipova, Evgeniya Kogan, Alexander Nedostup

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Purpose: to quantify the value of various clinical, laboratory and instrumental signs in the diagnosis of myocarditis in comparison with morphological studies of the myocardium. Methods: in 100 patients (65 men, 44.7±12.5 years) with «idiopathic» arrhythmias (n = 20) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, n = 80) were performed 71 endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), 13 intraoperative biopsy, 5 study of explanted hearts, 11 autopsy with virus investigation (real-time PCR) of the blood and myocardium. Anti-heart antibodies (AHA) were also measured as well as cardiac CT (n = 45), MRI (n = 25), coronary angiography (n = 47). The comparison group included of 50 patients (25 men, 53.7±11.7 years) with non-inflammatory heart diseases who underwent open heart surgery. Results. Active/borderline myocarditis was diagnosed in 76.0% of the study group and in 21.6% of patients of the comparison group (p < 0.001). The myocardial viral genome was observed more frequently in patients of comparison group than in study group (group (65.0% and 40.2%; p < 0.01. Evaluated the diagnostic value of noninvasive markers of myocarditis. The panel of anti-heart antibodies had the greatest importance to identify myocarditis: sensitivity was 81.5%, positive and negative predictive value was 75.0 and 60.5%. It is defined diagnostic value of non-invasive markers of myocarditis and diagnostic algorithm providing an individual assessment of the likelihood of myocarditis is developed. Conclusion. The greatest significance in the diagnosis of latent myocarditis in patients with 'idiopathic' arrhythmias and DCM have AHA. The use of complex of noninvasive criteria allows estimate the probability of myocarditis and determine the indications for EMB.

Keywords: myocarditis, "idiopathic" arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial biopsy, viral genome, anti-heart antibodies

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190 Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus among Pregnant Women in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Waseem

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is ubiquitously distributed viral agent responsible for different clinical manifestations that may vary according to the immunologic status of the patient. CMV can cause morbidity and mortality among fetuses and patients with compromised immune system. A cross-sectional study was carried out in Islamabad to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with CMV infection among pregnant women. Blood samples of 172 pregnant women visiting Mother and Child Healthcare, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) Islamabad were taken. In present study, serum samples of the women were checked for CMV-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical, obstetrical and socio-demographical characteristics of the women were collected by using structured questionnaires. Out of 172 pregnant women included in the study, 171 (99.4%) were CMV specific IgG positive and 30 (17.4%) were found positive for CMV-IgM antibodies. The CMV has taken an endemic form in Pakistan so, routine screening of CMV among pregnant women is recommended.

Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, blood transfusion, ELISA, seroprevalence

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