Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9123

Search results for: theory of planned behavior

9123 Examining the Attitude and Behavior Towards Household Waste in China With the Theory of Planned Behavior and PEST Analysis

Authors: Yuxuan Liu, Jianli Hao, Ruoyu Zhang, Lin Lin, Nelsen Andreco Muljadi, Yu Song, Guobin Gong

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With the increased municipal waste of China, household waste management (HWM) has become a key issue for sustainable development. In this study, an online survey questionnaire was conducted with the aim of assessing the current attitudes and behaviors of the households in China towards waste separationand recycling practices. Related influential factors are also determined within the context of the theory of planned behavior and PEST analysis. The survey received a total of 551 valid respondents. Results showed that the sample has an overall positive attitudes and behavior toward participating in HWM, but only 16.3% of themregularly segregate their waste. Society and policy are also found to be the two most impactful factors.

Keywords: householde waste management, theory of planned behavior, attitude, behavior

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9122 Modeling Intention to Use 3PL Services: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Nasrin Akter, Prem Chhetri, Shams Rahman

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The present study tested Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to explain the formation of business customers’ intention to use 3PL services in Bangladesh. The findings show that the TPB model has a good fit to the data. Based on theoretical support and suggested modification indices, a refined TPB model was developed afterwards which provides a better predictive power for intention. Consistent with the theory, the results of a structural equation analysis revealed that the intention to use 3PL services is predicted by attitude and subjective norms but not by perceived behavioral control. Further investigation indicated that the paths between (attitude and intention) and (subjective norms and intention) did not statistically differ between 3PL user and non-user. Findings of this research provide an evidence base to formulate business strategies to increase the use of 3PL services in Bangladesh to enhance productivity and to gain economic efficiency.

Keywords: Bangladesh, intention, third-party logistics, Theory of Planned Behavior

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9121 Individualism/Collectivism and Extended Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Ela Ari, Aysi̇ma Findikoglu

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Consumers’ switching GSM operators’ has been an important research issue since the rise of their competitive offers. Recent research has looked at consumer switching behavior through the theory of planned behavior, but not yet extended the theory with identity, psycho-social and cultural influences within the service context. This research explores an extended version of the theory of planned behavior including social and financial risks and brand loyalty. Moreover, the role of individualism and collectivism at the individual level is investigated in a collectivistic culture that moves toward to individualism due to changing family relationships, use of technology and education. Our preliminary analysis showed that financial risk and vertical individualism prove to be a significant determinant of intention to switch. The study also investigates social risk and intention, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control relationship. The effect of individualism and collectivism and attitudes relationship has been also examined within a service industry. Implications for marketing managers and scholars are also discussed.

Keywords: attitude, individualism, intention, subjective norm

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9120 Predicting Halal Food Consumption for Muslim Turkish Immigrants Living in Germany

Authors: Elif Eroglu Hall, Nurdan Sevim

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The purposes of this research are to clarify the determinants of Muslim immigrants in consuming halal food by using components of Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was done by surveying Turkish immigrants living in Cologne Germany. The results of this study show that the intentions of Muslim Turkish immigrants in consuming halal food is influenced by attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.

Keywords: halal food, immigrants, religion, theory of planned behavior

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9119 Investigating the Critical Drivers of Behavior: The Case of Online Taxi Services

Authors: Rosa Hendijani, Mohammadhesam Hajighasemi

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As of late, the sharing economy has become an important type of business model. Online taxi services are one example that has grown rapidly around the world. This study examines the factors influencing the use of online taxis as one form of IT-enabled sharing services based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Based on the theory of planned behavior, these factors can be divided into three categories, including the ones related to attitude (e.g., image and perceived usefulness), normative believes (e.g., subjective norms), and behavioral control (e.g., technology facilitating conditions and self-efficacy). Three other factors were also considered based on the literature, including perceived economic benefits, openness towards using shared services, and perceived availability. The effect of all these variables was tested both directly and indirectly through intention as the mediating variable. A survey method was used to test the research hypotheses. In total, 361 individuals partook in the study. The results of a multiple regression analysis on behavior showed that perceived economic benefits, compatibility, and subjective norms were important factors influencing behavior among online taxi users. In addition, intention partially mediated the effect of perceived economic benefits and compatibility on behavior. It can be concluded that perceived economic benefits, compatibility, and subjective norms are the three main factors that influence behavior among online taxi users.

Keywords: collaborative consumption, IT-enabled sharing services model, online taxi, sharing economy, theory of planned behavior

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9118 Effects of Safety Intervention Program towards Behaviors among Rubber Wood Processing Workers Using Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Junjira Mahaboon, Anongnard Boonpak, Nattakarn Worrasan, Busma Kama, Mujalin Saikliang, Siripor Dankachatarn

Abstract:

Rubber wood processing is one of the most important industries in southern Thailand. The process has several safety hazards for example unsafe wood cutting machine guarding, wood dust, noise, and heavy lifting. However, workers’ occupational health and safety measures to promote their behaviors are still limited. This quasi-experimental research was to determine factors affecting workers’ safety behaviors using theory of planned behavior after implementing job safety intervention program. The purposes were to (1) determine factors affecting workers’ behaviors and (2) to evaluate effectiveness of the intervention program. The sample of study was 66 workers from a rubber wood processing factory. Factors in the Theory of Planned Behavior model (TPB) were measured before and after the intervention. The factors of TPB included attitude towards behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior. Firstly, Job Safety Analysis (JSA) was conducted and Safety Standard Operation Procedures (SSOP) were established. The questionnaire was also used to collect workers’ characteristics and TPB factors. Then, job safety intervention program to promote workers’ behavior according to SSOP were implemented for a four month period. The program included SSOP training, personal protective equipment use, and safety promotional campaign. After that, the TPB factors were again collected. Paired sample t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data. The result revealed that attitude towards behavior and intention increased significantly after the intervention at p<0.05. These factors also significantly determined the workers’ safety behavior according to SSOP at p<0.05. However, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were not significantly changed nor related to safety behaviors. In conclusion, attitude towards behavior and workers’ intention should be promoted to encourage workers’ safety behaviors. SSOP intervention program e.g. short meeting, safety training, and promotional campaign should be continuously implemented in a routine basis to improve workers’ behavior.

Keywords: job safety analysis, rubber wood processing workers, safety standard operation procedure, theory of planned behavior

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9117 The Effects of Peer Education on Condom Use Intentions: A Comprehensive Sex Education Quality Improvement Project

Authors: Janell Jayamohan

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A pilot project based on the Theory of Planned Behavior was completed at a single sex female international high school in order to improve the quality of comprehensive sex education in a 12th grade classroom. The student sample is representative of a growing phenomenon of “Third Culture Kids” or global nomads; often in today’s world, culture transcends any one dominant influence and blends values from multiple sources. The Objective was to improve intentions of condom use during the students’ first or next intercourse. A peer-education session which focused on condom attitudes, social norms, and self-efficacy - central tenets of the Theory of Planned Behavior - was added to an existing curriculum in order to achieve this objective. Peer educators were given liberty of creating and executing the lesson to their homeroom, a sample of 23 senior students, with minimal intervention from faculty, the desired outcome being that the students themselves would be the best judge of what is culturally relevant and important to their peers. The school nurse and school counselor acted as faculty facilitators but did not assist in the creation or delivery of the lesson, only checked for medical accuracy. The participating sample of students completed a pre and post-test with validated questions assessing changes in attitudes and overall satisfaction with the peer education lesson. As this intervention was completed during the Covid-19 pandemic, the peer education session was completed in a virtual classroom environment, limiting the modes of information delivery available to the peer educators, but is planned to be replicated in an in-person environment in subsequent cycles.

Keywords: adolescents, condoms, peer education, sex education, theory of planned behavior, third culture kids

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9116 Attitude towards the Consumption of Social Media: Analyzing Young Consumers’ Travel Behavior

Authors: Farzana Sharmin, Mohammad Tipu Sultan, Benqian Li

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Advancement of new media technology and consumption of social media have altered the way of communication in the tourism industry, mostly for consumers’ travel planning, online purchase, and experience sharing activity. There is an accelerating trend among young consumers’ to utilize this new media technology. This paper aims to analyze the attitude of young consumers’ about social media use for travel purposes. The convenience random sample method used to collect data from an urban area of Shanghai (China), consists of 225 young consumers’. This survey identified behavioral determinants of social media consumption by the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). The instrument developed support on previous research to test hypotheses. The results of structural analyses indicate that attitude towards the use of social media is affected by external factors such as availability and accessibility of technology. In addition, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have partially influenced the attitude of respondents’. The results of this study could help to improve social media travel marketing and promotional strategies for respective groups.

Keywords: social media, theory of planned behavior, travel behavior, young consumer

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9115 Extending Theory of Planned Behavior to Modelling Chronic Patients’ Acceptance of Health Information: An Information Overload Perspective

Authors: Shu-Lien Chou, Chung-Feng Liu

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Self-health management of chronic illnesses plays an important part in chronic illness treatments. However, various kinds of health information (health education materials) which government or healthcare institutions provide for patients may not achieve the expected outcome. One of the critical reasons affecting patients’ use intention could be patients’ perceived Information overload regarding the health information. This study proposed an extended model of Theory of Planned Behavior, which integrating perceived information overload as another construct to explore patients’ use intention of the health information for self-health management. The independent variables are attitude, subject norm, perceived behavior control and perceived information overload while the dependent variable is behavior intention to use the health information. The cross-sectional study used a structured questionnaire for data collection, focusing on the chronic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), who are the potential users of the health information, in a medical center in Taiwan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of the basic information distribution of the questionnaire respondents, and the Partial Least Squares (PLS) structural equation model to study the reliability and construct validity for testing our hypotheses. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in this study and 106 valid questionnaires were collected. The PLS analysis result indicates that the patients’ perceived information overload of health information contributes the most critical factor influencing the behavioral intention. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control of TPB constructs had significant effects on patients’ intentions to use health information also, whereas the attitude construct did not. This study demonstrated a comprehensive framework, which extending perceived information overload into TPB model to predict patients’ behavioral intention of using heath information. We expect that the results of this study will provide useful insights for studying health information from the perspectives of academia, governments, and healthcare providers.

Keywords: chronic patients, health information, information overload, theory of planned behavior

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9114 A Conceptual Model of Social Entrepreneurial Intention Based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory

Authors: Anh T. P. Tran, Harald Von Korflesch

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Entrepreneurial intention play a major role in entrepreneurship academia and practice. The spectrum ranges from the first model of the so-called Entrepreneurial Event, then the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Theory of Planned Behavior Entrepreneurial Model, and the Social Cognitive Career Theory to some typical empirical studies with more or less diverse results. However, little is known so far about the intentions of entrepreneurs in the social areas of venture creation. It is surprising that, since social entrepreneurship is an emerging field with growing importance. Currently, all around the world, there is a big challenge with a lot of urgent soaring social and environmental problems such as poor households, people with disabilities, HIV/AIDS infected people, the lonely elderly, or neglected children, some of them even actual in the Western countries. In addition, the already existing literature on entrepreneurial intentions demonstrates a high level of theoretical diversity in general, especially the missing link to the social dimension of entrepreneurship. Seeking to fill the mentioned gaps in the social entrepreneurial intentions literature, this paper proposes a conceptual model of social entrepreneurial intentions based on the Social Cognitive Career Theory with two main factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions namely self-efficacy and outcome expectation. Moreover, motives, goals and plans do not arise from empty nothingness, but are shaped by interacting with the environment. Hence, personalities (i.e., agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, openness) as well as contextual factors (e.g., role models, education, and perceived support) are also considered as the antecedents of social entrepreneurship intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intention, social cognitive career theory, social entrepreneurial intention, social entrepreneurship

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9113 Influencing Factors of Residents’ Intention to Participate in the Governance of Old Community Renewal: A Case Study of Nanjing

Authors: Tiantian Gu, Dezhi Li, Mian Zhang, Ying Jiang

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Considering the characteristics of residents’ participation in the governance of old community renewal (OCR), a theoretical model of the determinant of residents’ intention to participate in the governance of OCR has been built based on the theory of planned behavior. Seven old communities in Nanjing have been chosen as cases to conduct empirical analysis. The result indicates that participation attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have significant positive effects on residents’ intention to participate in the governance of the OCR. Recognition of the community, cognition of the OCR and perceived behavioral control have indirect positive effects on residents’ intention to participate in the OCR. In addition, the education level and the length of residence have positive effects on their participation intention, while the gender, age, and monthly income have little effect on it. The research result provides suggestions for the improvement of residents’ participation in the OCR.

Keywords: old community renewal, residents’ participation in governance, intention, theory of planned behavior

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9112 Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Predict Intention to Commute by Bicycle: Case Study of Mexico City

Authors: Magda Cepeda, Frances Hodgson, Ann Jopson

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There are different barriers people face when choosing to cycle for commuting purposes. This study examined the role of psycho-social factors predicting the intention to cycle to commute in Mexico City. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour was developed and utilized with a simple random sample of 401 road users. We applied exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and after identifying five factors, a structural equation model was estimated to find the relationships among the variables. The results indicated that cycling attributes, attitudes to cycling, social comparison and social image and prestige were the most important factors influencing intention to cycle. Although the results from this study are specific to Mexico City, they indicate areas of interest to transportation planners in other regions especially in those cities where intention to cycle its linked to its perceived image and there is political ambition to instigate positive cycling cultures. Moreover, this study contributes to the current literature developing applications of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

Keywords: cycling, latent variable model, perception, theory of planned behaviour

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9111 The Gap of Green Consumption Behavior: Driving from Attitude to Behavior

Authors: Yu Du, Jian-Guo Wang

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Green consumption is a key link to develop the ecological economy, and consumers are vital to carry out green consumption. With environmental awareness gradually being aroused, consumers often fail to turn their positive attitude into actual green consumption behavior. According to behavior reasoning theory, reasons for adoption have a direct (positive) influence on consumers’ attitude while reasons against adoption have a direct (negative) influence on consumers’ adoption intentions, the incongruous coexistence of which leads to the attitude-behavior gap of green consumption. Based on behavior reasoning theory, this research integrates reasons for adoption and reasons against adoption into a proposed model, in which reasons both for and against green consumption mediate the relationship between consumer’ values, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. It not only extends the conventional theory of reasoned action but also provides a reference for the government and enterprises to design the repairing strategy of green consumption attitude-behavior gap.

Keywords: green product, attitude-behavior gap, behavior reasoning theory, green consumption, SEM

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9110 A Factor-Analytical Approach on Identities in Environmentally Significant Behavior

Authors: Alina M. Udall, Judith de Groot, Simon de Jong, Avi Shankar

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There are many ways in which environmentally significant behavior can be explained. Dominant psychological theories, namely, the theory of planned behavior, the norm-activation theory, its extension, the value-belief-norm theory, and the theory of habit do not explain large parts of environmentally significant behaviors. A new and rapidly growing approach is to focus on how consumer’s identities predict environmentally significant behavior. Identity may be relevant because consumers have many identities that are assumed to guide their behavior. Therefore, we assume that many identities will guide environmentally significant behavior. Many identities can be relevant for environmentally significant behavior. In reviewing the literature, over 200 identities have been studied making it difficult to establish the key identities for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Therefore, this paper first aims to establish the key identities previously used for explaining environmentally significant behavior. Second, the aim is to test which key identities explain environmentally significant behavior. To address the aims, an online survey study (n = 578) is conducted. First, the exploratory factor analysis reveals 15 identity factors. The identity factors are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, environmental place identity, connectedness with nature identity, green space visitor identity, active ethical identity, carbon off-setter identity, thoughtful self-identity, close community identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, environmental group member identity, national identity, identification with developed countries, cyclist identity, and thoughtful organisation identity. Furthermore, to help researchers understand and operationalize the identities, the article provides theoretical definitions for each of the identities, in line with identity theory, social identity theory, and place identity theory. Second, the hierarchical regression shows only 10 factors significantly uniquely explain the variance in environmentally significant behavior. In order of predictive power the identities are namely, environmentally concerned identity, anti-environmental self-identity, thoughtful self-identity, environmental group member identity, anti-carbon off-setter identity, carbon off-setter identity, connectedness with nature identity, national identity, and green space visitor identity. The identities explain over 60% of the variance in environmentally significant behavior, a large effect size. Based on this finding, the article reveals a new, theoretical framework showing the key identities explaining environmentally significant behavior, to help improve and align the field.

Keywords: environmentally significant behavior, factor analysis, place identity, social identity

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9109 An Interpretive Study of Entrepreneurial Experience towards Achieving Business Growth Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Lens

Authors: Akunna Agunwah, Kevin Gallimore, Kathryn Kinmond

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Entrepreneurship is widely associated and seen as a vehicle for economic growth; however, different scholars have studied entrepreneurship from various perspectives, resulting in multiple definitions. It is surprising to know most entrepreneurship definition does not incorporate growth as part of their definition of entrepreneurship. Economic growth is engineered by the activities of the entrepreneurs. The purpose of the present theoretical study is to explore the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs towards achieving business growth by understanding the experiences of the entrepreneur using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a lens. Ten successful entrepreneurs in the North West of England in various business sectors were interviewed using semi-structured interview method. The recorded audio interviews transcribed and subsequently evaluated using the thematic deductive technique (qualitative approach). The themes were examined using Theory of Planned Behaviour to ascertain the presence of the three intentional antecedents (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control). The findings categorised in two folds, firstly, it was observed that the three intentional antecedents, which make up Theory of Planned Behaviour were evident in the transcript. Secondly, the entrepreneurs are most concerned with achieving a state of freedom and realising their visions and ambitions. Nevertheless, the entrepreneur employed these intentional antecedents to enhance business growth. In conclusion, the work presented here showed a novel way of understanding the working practices and experiences of the entrepreneur using the theory of planned behaviour in qualitative approach towards enhancing business growth. There exist few qualitative studies in entrepreneurship research. In addition, this work applies a novel approach to studying the experience of the entrepreneurs by examining the working practices of the successful entrepreneurs in the North-West England through the lens of the theory of planned behaviour. Given the findings regarding TPB as a lens in the study, the entrepreneur does not differentiate between the categories of the antecedents reasonably sees them as processes that can be utilised to enhance business growth.

Keywords: business growth, experience, interpretive, theory of planned behaviour

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9108 Understanding Workplace Behavior through Organizational Culture and Complex Adaptive Systems Theory

Authors: Péter Restás, Andrea Czibor, Zsolt Péter Szabó

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Purpose: This article aims to rethink the phenomena of employee behavior as a product of a system. Both organizational culture and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory emphasize that individual behavior depends on the specific system and the unique organizational culture. These two major theories are both represented in the field of organizational studies; however, they are rarely used together for the comprehensive understanding of workplace behavior. Methodology: By reviewing the literature we use key concepts stemming from organizational culture and CAS theory in order to show the similarities between these theories and create an enriched understanding of employee behavior. Findings: a) Workplace behavior is defined here as social cognition issue. b) Organizations are discussed here as complex systems, and cultures which drive and dictate the cognitive processes of agents in the system. c) Culture gives CAS theory a context which lets us see organizations not just as ever-changing and unpredictable, but as such systems that aim to create and maintain stability by recurring behavior. Conclusion: Applying the knowledge from culture and CAS theory sheds light on our present understanding of employee behavior, also emphasizes the importance of novel ways in organizational research and management.

Keywords: complex adaptive systems theory, employee behavior, organizational culture, stability

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9107 Television, Internet, and Internet Social Media Direct-To-Consumer Prescription Medication Advertisements: Intention and Behavior to Seek Additional Prescription Medication Information

Authors: Joshua Fogel, Rivka Herzog

Abstract:

Although direct-to-consumer prescription medication advertisements (DTCA) are viewed or heard in many venues, there does not appear to be any research for internet social media DTCA. We study the association of traditional media DTCA and digital media DTCA including internet social media of YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with three different outcomes. There was one intentions outcome and two different behavior outcomes. The intentions outcome was the agreement level for seeking additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. One behavior outcome was the agreement level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. The other behavior outcome was the frequency level for obtaining additional information about a prescription medication after seeing a DTCA. Surveys were completed by 635 college students. Predictors included demographic variables, theory of planned behavior variables, health variables, and advertisements seen or heard. Also, in the behavior analyses, additional predictors of intentions and sources for seeking additional prescription drug information were included. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted. We found that increased age was associated with increased behavior, women were associated with increased intentions, and Hispanic race/ethnicity was associated with decreased behavior. For the theory of planned behavior variables, increased attitudes were associated with increased intentions, increased social norms were associated with increased intentions and behavior, and increased intentions were associated with increased behavior. Very good perceived health was associated with increased intentions. Advertisements seen in spam mail were associated with decreased intentions. Advertisements seen on traditional or cable television were associated with decreased behavior. Advertisements seen on television watched on the internet were associated with increased behavior. The source of seeking additional information of reading internet print content was associated with increased behavior. No internet social media advertisements were associated with either intentions or behavior. In conclusion, pharmaceutical brand managers and marketers should consider these findings when tailoring their DTCA advertising campaigns and directing their DTCA advertising budget towards young adults such as college students. They need to reconsider the current approach for traditional television DTCA and also consider dedicating a larger advertising budget toward internet television DTCA. Although internet social media is a popular place to advertise, the financial expenditures do not appear worthwhile for DTCA when targeting young adults such as college students.

Keywords: brand managers, direct-to-consumer advertising, internet, social media

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9106 Effective Retirement Planning: Exploring Financial Planning Behavior in Malaysia

Authors: Stanley Yap Peng Lok, Chong Wei Ying, Leow Hon Wei, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper examines how people treat on the importance of financial planning for their retirement. There is lack of standard instrument that enable us to access the retirement planning behavior. This paper studies the reliability and validity of a proposed scale for accessing this behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The Retirement Planning Behavior scale (RPB) is developed from the results of reviewing different papers on this topic. A total of 900 Malaysians from the age of 18 and above are used as the sample. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the RPB meets all criteria from the instrument reliability and validity which based on the theory of planned behavior. Second, our findings propose two components for this RPB scale; attitude toward planning for retirement and intention towards retirement planning behavior. Practical implication: An effective retirement planning achieves financial independence after the retirement. Our findings have important implications for the scope and significance of the retirement planning behavior measurement, especially for retirees. Originality/value: This study proposes a new approach to cater consumers’ needs for retirement planning. Therefore, consumers are able to achieve financial independence in their retirement age.

Keywords: retirement planning behavior (RPB) scale, reliability, validity, retirement planning, financial independence

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9105 Analysis of Key Factors Influencing Muslim Women’s Buying Intentions of Clothes: A Study of UK’s Ethnic Minorities and Modest Fashion Industry

Authors: Nargis Ali

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Since the modest fashion market is growing in the UK, there is still little understanding and more concerns found among researchers and marketers about Muslim consumers. Therefore, the present study is designed to explore critical factors influencing Muslim women’s intention to purchase clothing and to identify the differences in the purchase intention of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The conceptual framework is designed using the theory of planned behavior and social identity theory. In order to satisfy the research objectives, a structured online questionnaire was published on Facebook from 20 November to 21 March. As a result, 1087 usable questionnaires were received and used to assess the proposed model fit through structural equation modeling. Results revealed that social media does influence the purchase intention of Muslim women. Muslim women search for stylish clothes that provide comfort during summer while they prefer soft and subdued colors. Furthermore, religious knowledge and religious practice, and fashion uniqueness strongly influence their purchase intention, while hybrid identity is negatively related to the purchase intention of Muslim women. This research contributes to the literature linked to Muslim consumers at a time when the UK's large retailers were seeking to attract Muslim consumers through modestly designed outfits. Besides, it will be helpful to formulate or revise product and marketing strategies according to UK’s Muslim women’s tastes and needs.

Keywords: fashion uniqueness, hybrid identity, religiosity, social media, social identity theory, structural equation modeling, theory of planned behavior

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9104 A Preliminary Study of Local Customers' Perception towards the Image of the Spa and Their Intention to Visit

Authors: Felsy J. Sandi

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There is a potential of growth in the spa industry due to the influx of domestic and international tourist coming to Sabah, Malaysia. It is a good opportunity to venture into this industry for the country’s economic future growth, and therefore, it is essential for this area to be researched. Being one of the fastest growing industries in the world, has led to enormous challenges, which need to be addressed. Malaysia is also riding with this phenomenon. The President of the Malaysian Association of Wellness and Spa stated that the misconception about the Spa industry’s image, especially amongst the elderly is the biggest challenge faced by the industry, as they perceived the spa industry is equivalent to a prostitution center. Therefore, the objective of this study is to explore the issue by analyzing whether image can be added in the theory of planned behavior to better understand the consumer’s intention to visit, in the spa context. The Theory of Planned Behavior by Ajzen, a theory or model in predicting intention, has three constructs; such as Attitude as the first construct, the second construct is Subjective Norm and the third construct is Perceived Behavioral Control. Qualitative research is used as this is an exploratory research. The site of study will be at Jari Jari Spa, located in Kota Kinabalu, the only spa in Sabah that was awarded as the Center of Excellence (CoE) by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture in Malaysia. The findings propose to provide useful information to the relevant stakeholders on ways to approach local customers to convince them to visit the spa and for spa marketers to help them develop and design effective marketing strategies. Future investigation should consider more on the perception and loyalty of the local customers.

Keywords: consumer's perception, image, local customer, spa, visit intention

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9103 An Empirical Investigation of Mobile Banking Services Adoption in Pakistan

Authors: Aijaz A. Shaikh, Richard Glavee-Geo, Heikki Karjaluoto

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Adoption of Information Systems (IS) is receiving increasing attention such that its implications have been closely monitored and studied by the IS management community, industry and professional gatekeepers. Building on previous research regarding the adoption of technology, this paper develops and validates an integrated model of the adoption of mobile banking. The model originates from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). This paper intends to offer a preliminary scrutiny of the antecedents of the adoption of mobile banking services in the context of a developing country. Data was collected from Pakistan. The findings showed that an integrated TAM and TPB model greatly explains the adoption intention of mobile banking; and perceived behavioural control and its antecedents play a significant role in predicting adoption Theoretical and managerial implications of findings are presented and discussed.

Keywords: developing country, mobile banking service adoption, technology acceptance model, theory of planned behavior

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9102 Factors Influencing the General Public Intention to Be Vaccinated: A Case of Botswana

Authors: Meng Qing Feng, Otsile Morake

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Background: Successful implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination ensures the prevention of virus infection. Postponement and refusal of the vaccination will threaten public health, which is now common among the general public across the world. In addition, an acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine appears as a decisive factor in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Purpose: This study's objective is to explore the factors influencing the public intention to be vaccinated (ITBV). Design/methodology/approach: The web-based survey included socio-demographics and questions related to the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and the health belief model (HBM). An online survey was administered using Google Form to collect data from participants of Botswana. The sample included 339 participants, half-half of the participants were female. Data analysis was run using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Findings: The study results highlight that perceived severity, perceived barriers, health motivation, and attitude have a positive and significant effect on ITBV, while perceived susceptibility, benefits, subjective norms, and perceived behavior control do not affect ITBV. Among all of the predictors, perceived barriers have the most significant influence on ITBV. Conclusion: Theoretically, this research stated that both HBM and TPB are effective in predicting and explaining the general public ITBV. Practically, this study offers insights to the government and health departments to arrange and launch health awareness programs and provide a better guide to vaccination so that doubts about vaccine confidence and the level of uncertainty can be decreased.

Keywords: COVID-19, Omicron, intention to be COVID-19 vaccine, health behavior model, theory of planned behavior, Botswana

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9101 The Impact of Project Management Approaches in Enhancing Entrepreneurial Growth: A Study Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour as a Lens to Understand

Authors: Akunna Agunwah, Kevin Gallimore, Kathryn Kinnmond

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Entrepreneurship and project management are widely associated and seen as a vehicle for economic growth, but are studied separately. A few authors have considered the interconnectivity existing between these two fields, but relatively little empirical data currently exist in the literature. The purpose of the present empirical study is to explore whether successful entrepreneurs utilise project management approaches in enhancing enterprise growth by understanding the working practices and experiences of the entrepreneurs’ using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a lens. In order to understand those experiences, ten successful entrepreneurs in various business sectors in the North West of England were interviewed through a face-to-face semi-structured interview method. The collected audio tape-recorded data was transcribed and analysed using the deductive thematic technique (qualitative approach). The themes were viewed through the lens of Theory of Planned Behaviour to identify the three intentional antecedents (attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control) and to understand how they relate to the project management approaches (Planning, execution, and monitoring). The findings are twofold, the first evidence of the three intentional antecedents, which make up Theory of Planned Behaviour was present. Secondly, the analysis of project management approaches themes (planning, execution, and monitoring) using the lens of the theory of planned behaviour shows evidence of the three intentional antecedents. There were more than one intentional antecedents found in a particular project management theme, which indicates that the entrepreneur does utilise these approaches without categorising them into definite themes. However, the entrepreneur utilised these intentional antecedents as processes to enhanced business growth. In conclusion, the work presented here showed a way of understanding the interconnectivity between entrepreneurship and project management towards enhancing enterprise growth by examining the working practices and experiences of the successful entrepreneurs in the North-West England.

Keywords: business growth, entrepreneurship, project management approaches, theory of planned behaviour

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9100 Application of a Theoretical framework as a Context for a Travel Behavior Change Policy Intervention

Authors: F. Moghtaderi, M. Burke, J. Troelsen

Abstract:

There has been a significant decline in active travel as well as the massive increase use of car-dependent travel mode in many countries during past two decades. Evidential risks for people’s physical and mental health problems are followed by this increased use of motorized travel mode. These problems range from overweight and obesity to increasing air pollution. In response to these rising concerns, local councils and other interested organizations around the world have introduced a variety of initiatives regarding reduce the dominance of cars for the daily journeys. However, the nature of these kinds of interventions, which related to the human behavior, make lots of complexities. People’s travel behavior and changing this behavior, has two different aspects. People’s attitudes and perceptions toward the sustainable and healthy modes of travel, and motorized travel modes (especially private car use) is one these two aspects. The other one related to people’s behavior change processes. There are no comprehensive model in order to guide policy interventions to increase the level of succeed of such interventions. A comprehensive theoretical framework is required in accordance to facilitate and guide the processes of data collection and analysis to achieve the best possible guidelines for policy makers. Regarding this gaps in the travel behavior change research, this paper attempted to identify and suggest a multidimensional framework in order to facilitate planning interventions. A structured mixed-method is suggested regarding the expand the scope and improve the analytic power of the result according to the complexity of human behavior. In order to recognize people’s attitudes, a theory with the focus on people’s attitudes towards a particular travel behavior was needed. The literature around the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was the most useful, and had been proven to be a good predictor of behavior change. Another aspect of the research, related to the people’s decision-making process regarding explore guidelines for the further interventions. Therefore, a theory was needed to facilitate and direct the interventions’ design. The concept of the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) was used regarding reach a set of useful guidelines for the further interventions with the aim to increase active travel and sustainable modes of travel. Consequently, a combination of these two theories (TTM and TPB) had presented as an appropriate concept to identify and design implemented travel behavior change interventions.

Keywords: behavior change theories, theoretical framework, travel behavior change interventions, urban research

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9099 The Effects of Negative Electronic Word-of-Mouth and Webcare on Thai Online Consumer Behavior

Authors: Pongsatorn Tantrabundit, Lersak Phothong, Ong-art Chanprasitchai

Abstract:

Due to the emergence of the Internet, it has extended the traditional Word-of-Mouth (WOM) to a new form called “Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM).” Unlike traditional WOM, eWOM is able to present information in various ways by applying different components. Each eWOM component generates different effects on online consumer behavior. This research investigates the effects of Webcare (responding message) from product/ service providers on negative eWOM by applying two types of products (search and experience). The proposed conceptual model was developed based on the combination of the stages in consumer decision-making process, theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the information integration theory and the elaboration likelihood model. The methodology techniques used in this study included multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and multiple regression analysis. The results suggest that Webcare does slightly increase Thai online consumer’s perceptions on perceived eWOM trustworthiness, information diagnosticity and quality. For negative eWOM, we also found that perceived eWOM Trustworthiness, perceived eWOM diagnosticity and quality have a positive relationship with eWOM influence whereas perceived valence has a negative relationship with eWOM influence in Thai online consumers.

Keywords: consumer behavior, electronic word-of-mouth, online review, online word-of-mouth, Thai online consumer, webcare

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9098 Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions among Undergraduates Using Theory of Planned Behaviour

Authors: Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

Abstract:

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a useful tool for predicting entrepreneurial intentions among individuals or groups of people. In view of the Nigerian government’s renewed educational policies and programs to prepare Nigerian undergraduates towards self-reliance and employers of labor after graduation, it becomes pertinent to empirically examine and predict the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions at graduation. Thus, this study primarily examines the undergraduates entrepreneurial intentions using TPB, which includes perceived desirability, perceived social norm, and perceived feasibility factors. In so doing, a questionnaire research method was adopted in which 219 copies of a questionnaire distributed to final year undergraduates were belonging to five departments with a total population of 487 students. A combination of relative frequency, mean standard deviation and multiple regression statistical tools were employed for data analysis. The study found that TPB components exert a significant composite effect on undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. Based on individual contribution of the independent variables, Perceived Desirability is the strongest predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions, while Perceived Social Norm is a strong predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. However, Perceived Feasibility is not a strong predictor of student’s entrepreneurial intentions. The study therefore, recommends that the Perceived desirability, which is formed and shaped by ones level of education and skills acquisition, be improved upon to create the expected positive impact on graduates entrepreneurial intentions and possible venture creation.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intentions, planned behaviour, prediction, Nigeria

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9097 A Comparison between Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Fuzzy Analytic Network Process for Rationality Evaluation of Land Use Planning Locations in Vietnam

Authors: X. L. Nguyen, T. Y. Chou, F. Y. Min, F. C. Lin, T. V. Hoang, Y. M. Huang

Abstract:

In Vietnam, land use planning is utilized as an efficient tool for the local government to adjust land use. However, planned locations are facing disapproval from people who live near these planned sites because of environmental problems. The selection of these locations is normally based on the subjective opinion of decision-makers and is not supported by any scientific methods. Many researchers have applied Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) methods in which Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is the most popular techniques in combination with Fuzzy set theory for the subject of rationality assessment of land use planning locations. In this research, the Fuzzy set theory and Analytic Network Process (ANP) multi-criteria-based technique were used for the assessment process. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process was also utilized, and the output results from two methods were compared to extract the differences. The 20 planned landfills in Hung Ha district, Thai Binh province, Vietnam was selected as a case study. The comparison results indicate that there are different between weights computed by AHP and ANP methods and the assessment outputs produced from these two methods also slight differences. After evaluation of existing planned sites, some potential locations were suggested to the local government for possibility of land use planning adjusts.

Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process, Analytic Network Process, Fuzzy set theory, land use planning

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9096 Muslim Consumer Purchase Behavior on Doubtful Halal Packed Food

Authors: Aliffaizi Arsat, Nur Ida Fatihah, Che Shalifullizam

Abstract:

Malaysia is well known as a Muslim country and is quickly becoming a Global Halal-hub of Halal business in promoting Halal food products in both Muslim countries and non-Muslim countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food by using theory of planned behaviour, to examine the mediating effects between certification, and Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. The relevant questionnaires have been distributed in Kuala Selangor. Among the 300 Muslim participants from Kuala Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia, only 107 of them have returned the questionnaire with complete answers. The respondent’s rate was discovered to be at 35.67%. The data have been analysed by using SPSS version 22 and Structural equation modelling Partial Least Square SEM-PLS. There are three dimensions needed to identify Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. They are attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and perceived behavioural. All the results from this study show that the hypothesis has been supported. However, subjective norm had shown that there is a negative relationship towards Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food.

Keywords: Muslim consumer purchase behaviour, theory planned behaviour, doubtful Halal, certification

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9095 The Effect of Socio-Affective Variables in the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Paula A. Cruise, Carvell McLeary

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Employee turnover leads to lowered productivity, decreased morale and work quality, and psychological effects associated with employee separation and replacement. Yet, it remains unknown why talented employees willingly withdraw from organizations. This uncertainty is worsened as studies; a) priorities organizational over individual predictors resulting in restriction in range in turnover measurement; b) focus on actual rather than intended turnover thereby limiting conceptual understanding of the turnover construct and its relationship with other variables and; c) produce inconsistent findings across cultures, contexts and industries despite a clear need for a unified perspective. The current study addressed these gaps by adopting the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework to examine socio-cognitive factors in organizational trust and individual turnover intentions among bankers and energy employees in Jamaica. In a comparative study of n=369 [nbank= 264; male=57 (22.73%); nenergy =105; male =45 (42.86)], it was hypothesized that organizational trust was a predictor of employee turnover intention, and the effect of individual, group, cognitive and socio-affective variables varied across industry. Findings from structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesis, with a model of both cognitive and socio-affective variables being a better fit [CMIN (χ2) = 800.067, df = 364, p ≤ .000; CFI = 0.950; RMSEA = 0.057 with 90% C.I. (0.052 - 0.062); PCLOSE = 0.016; PNFI = 0.818 in predicting turnover intention. The findings are discussed in relation to socio-cognitive components of trust models and predicting negative employee behaviors across cultures and industries.

Keywords: context-specific organizational trust, cross-cultural psychology, theory of planned behavior, employee turnover intention

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9094 The Factors Influencing Consumer Intentions to Use Internet Banking and Apps: A Case of Banks in Cambodia

Authors: Tithdanin Chav, Phichhang Ou

Abstract:

The study is about the e-banking consumer behavior of five major banks in Cambodia. This work aims to examine the relationships among job relevance, trust, mobility, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude toward using, and intention to use of internet banking and apps. Also, the research develops and tests a conceptual model of intention to use internet banking by integrating the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and job relevance, trust, and mobility which were supported by Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The proposed model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), which was processed by using SPSS and AMOS with a sample size of 250 e-banking users. The results showed that there is a significant positive relationship among variables and attitudes toward using internet banking, and apps are the most factor influencing consumers’ intention to use internet banking and apps with the importance level in SEM 0.82 accounted by 82%. Significantly, all six hypotheses were accepted.

Keywords: bank apps, consumer intention, internet banking, technology acceptance model, TAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 64