Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 142

Search results for: Afif Ben Salah

142 Ontology-Based Representation of Islamic Rules to Perform Salah

Authors: Hamza Zafar, Quratulain Rajput

Abstract:

Salah (نماز ) is one of five pillars of Islam and obligatory for every Muslims. However, due to the lack of Islamic knowledge it might be very difficult for a layperson to perform it correctly. This paper presents an ontology based representation of Islamic rules to perform Salah. The Salah ontology has been built under the guidance of domain expert in light of Quran and Hadith. The ontology consists of basic concepts as well as relationship among concepts and constraints on them. The basic concepts include cleanness, body cover, Salah timing and steps to perform Salah. The SWRL rule language has been used to represent rule to determine whether the Salah performed correctly or it should be repeated. Finally, we evaluate the use of the Salat ontology through user’s example queries using SPARQL queries.

Keywords: prayer, salah, ontology, SPARQL queries, reasoning

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141 Infection of Phlebotomus Sergenti with Leishmania Tropica in a Classical Focus of Leishmania Major in Tunisia

Authors: Kaouther Jaouadi, Jihene Bettaieb, Amira Bennour, Ghassen Kharroubi, Sadok Salem, Afif Ben Salah

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In Tunisia, chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (L) tropica is an important health problem. Its spreading has not been fully elucidated. Information on sandfly vectors, as well as their associated Leishmania species, is of paramount importance since vector dispersion is one of the major factors responsible for pathogen dissemination. In total, 650 sandflies were captured between June and August 2015 using sticky paper traps in the governorate of Sidi Bouzid, a classical focus of L. major in the Central-West of Tunisia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and sequencing were used for Leishmania detection and identification. Ninety-seven unfed females were tested for the presence of Leishmania parasite DNA. Six Phlebotomus sergenti were found positive for L. tropica. This finding enhances the understanding of the cycle extension of L. tropica outside its original focus of Tataouine in the South-East of the country.

Keywords: cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica, sandflies, Tunisia

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140 Influenza Vaccination Acceptance and Refusal Reasons among Tunisian Elderly

Authors: Ghassen Kharroubi, Ines Cherif, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret McCarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb

Abstract:

Influenza vaccination (IV) is recommended for elderly persons, especially those with underlying conditions. In countries where IV rates in the elderly remain unsatisfactory, exploring attitudes of older persons toward the flu vaccine could be useful to identify barriers and facilitators to IV. The aim of this study was to determine the reasons for IV acceptance or decline in the Tunisian elderly. A national cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019, among persons aged 60 years and over with chronic disease. Data were collected using a standard administered questionnaire. Of the 1191 older persons included, 19.4% received the influenza vaccine in the 2018-2019 flu season. The two main reasons that may lead to refusal of vaccination were concerns that the vaccine could cause side effects (71.5%) and a belief that the vaccine was ineffective (33.9%). The main reason that may lead to accepting vaccination was a doctor’s recommendation (41.1%). Doctors were by far the most trusted source for information regarding influenza vaccine (91.5%) followed by pharmacists (17.6%). Our results highlighted the important role that doctors could play in promoting IV among the Tunisian elderly. Physicians should correct misconceptions about adverse events and the efficiency of the vaccine. In fact, influenza vaccines are generally effective and safe among older persons.

Keywords: attitudes, influenza vaccination, older persons, Tunisia

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139 Seroprevalence of Hepatitis a Virus Infection among General Population in Central-West Tunisia

Authors: Jihene Bettaieb, Kaouther Ayouni, Ghassen Kharroubi, Rym Mallekh, Walid Hammemi, Afif Ben Salah, Henda Triki

Abstract:

In Tunisia, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) represents a public health concern. Due to the progress in sanitation and socio-economic conditions, the epidemiology of HAV has shown dynamic changes over the past years. This study aimed to investigate the current seroprevalence of HAV antibodies (anti-HAV) among the residents of Thala, a rural setting in central-west Tunisia, to determine the age-specific seroprevalence for HAV infection and co-infection with hepatitis C and B virus. A total of 1379 subjects (mean age: 25.0 ± 17.3 years, 555 males/ 824 females) were recruited between January and June 2014. The study population included 95 individuals previously known as hepatitis C positive. Serum samples were collected and screened for the detection of IgG anti-HAV, HBsAg, and HBcAb by the Elisa Test. The overall anti- HAV seroprevalence was about 84.7%. There was no statistically significant difference between males and females. On the 1379 tested individual, 219 were positive for HBcAb, and 67 were positive for HBsAg. IgG anti- HAV were positive in 80.6% of HBsAg-positive patients (54 out of 67), 81.3% of HBcAb-positive patients (178 out of 219), and in 95.8% of HCV-positive patients (91 out of 95). HBV infection and HCV infection were statistically associated with a greater risk of positive anti-HAV antibody (p < 0.001). Our study revealed that Thala represents an intermediate endemicity level and that the introduction of vaccination against HAV in this region is recommended, especially for the hepatitis B or C infected person seronegative for HAV.

Keywords: coinfection, hepatitis A, seroprevalence, Tunisia

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138 Influenza Vaccine Uptake Among Tunisian Physicians in the 2018-2019 Influenza Season

Authors: Ines Cherif, Ghassen Kharroubi, Leila Bouabid, Adel Gharbi, Aicha Boukthir, Margaret Mccarron, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Afif Ben Salah, Jihene Bettaieb

Abstract:

Healthcare workers' flu vaccination prevents influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. We aimed in this study to assess influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in 2018-2019 among Tunisian physicians and to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A cross sectional study was carried out in Tunisian primary and secondary health care facilities in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Physicians with direct patient contact were recruited according to a self-weighted multistage sampling. Data were collected through a face to face questionnaire containing questions on knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding IV. Bivariate analysis was used in order to determine factors associated with IV receipt. A total of 167 physicians were included in the study with a mean age of 48.2 ± 7.7 years and a sex-ratio (M: F) of 0.37. Among participants, 15.1% (95% CI: [9.7%-20.3%]) were vaccinated against influenza in the 2018-2019 influenza season. Bivariate analysis revealed that previous flu immunization in the four years preceding the 2018-2019 influenza season (OR=32.3; p < 10-3), belief that vaccinating healthcare workers may reduce work absenteeism (OR=4.7, p=0.028), belief that flu vaccine should be mandatory to healthcare workers (OR=3.3, p=0.01) and high confidence towards IV efficacy in preventing influenza among caregivers (OR= 4.5, p=0.01) were associated with a higher IV receipt in 2018-2019 among physicians. Less than one fifth of Tunisian physicians were vaccinated against influenza in 2018-2019. Higher vaccine uptake was related to a higher belief in vaccine efficacy in preventing influenza disease among both patients and caregivers. This underscores the need for periodic educational campaigns to raise physicians' awareness about IV efficacy. The switch to an IV mandatory policy should also be considered.

Keywords: influenza vaccine, physicians, Tunisia, vaccination uptake

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137 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Developed Clinical Pathway: Suggested Protocol

Authors: Maha Salah, Hanaa Hashem, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah

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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents a complex clinical syndrome and carries a high risk for mortality. The severity of the clinical course, the uncertainty of the outcome, and the reliance on the full spectrum of critical care resources for treatment mean that the entire health care team is challenged. Researchers and clinicians have investigated the nature of the pathological process and explored treatment options with the goal of improving outcome. Through this application of research to practice, we know that some previous strategies have been ineffective, and innovations in mechanical ventilation, sedation, nutrition, and pharmacological intervention remain important research initiatives. Developed Clinical pathway is multidisciplinary plans of best clinical practice for this specified groups of patients that aid in the coordination and delivery of high quality care. They are a documented sequence of clinical interventions that help a patient to move, progressively through a clinical experience to a desired outcome. Although there is a lot of heterogeneity in patients with ARDS, this suggested developed clinical pathway with alternatives was built depended on a lot of researches and evidence based medicine and nursing practices which may be helping these patients to improve outcomes, quality of life and decrease mortality.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), clinical pathway, clinical syndrome

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136 Prone Positioning and Clinical Outcomes of Mechanically Ventilated Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Authors: Maha Salah Abdullah Ismail, Mahmoud M. Alsagheir, Mohammed Salah Abd Allah

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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by permeability pulmonary edema and refractory hypoxemia. Lung-protective ventilation is still the key of better outcome in ARDS. Prone position reduces the trans-pulmonary pressure gradient, recruiting collapsed regions of the lung without increasing airway pressure or hyperinflation. Prone ventilation showed improved oxygenation and improved outcomes in severe hypoxemic patients with ARDS. This study evaluates the effect of prone positioning on mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS. A quasi-experimental design was carried out at Critical Care Units, on 60 patients. Two tools were utilized to collect data; Socio demographic, medical and clinical outcomes data sheet. Results of the present study indicated that prone position improves oxygenation in patients with severe respiratory distress syndrome. The study recommended that use prone position in patients with severe ARDS, as early as possible and for long sessions. Also, replication of this study on larger probability sample at the different geographical location is highly recommended.

Keywords: acute respiratory distress syndrome, critical care, mechanical ventilation, prone position

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135 Factors Affecting Employee Performance: A Case Study in Marketing and Trading Directorate, Pertamina Ltd.

Authors: Saptiadi Nugroho, A. Nur Muhamad Afif

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Understanding factors that influence employee performance is very important. By finding the significant factors, organization could intervene to improve the employee performance that simultaneously will affect organization itself. In this research, four aspects consist of PCCD training, education level, corrective action, and work location were tested to identify their influence on employee performance. By using correlation analysis and T-Test, it was found that employee performance significantly influenced by PCCD training, work location, and corrective action. Meanwhile the education level did not influence employee performance.

Keywords: employee development, employee performance, performance management system, organization

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134 Performance Study of ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Afif Saleh Abugharsa

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The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPAN) with focus on enabling wireless sensor networks. It aims to give a low data rate, low power consumption, and low cost wireless networking on the device-level communication. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 based networks using simulation tool. In this project the network simulator 2 NS2 was used to several performance measures of wireless sensor networks. Three scenarios were considered, multi hop network with a single coordinator, star topology, and an ad hoc on demand distance vector AODV. Results such as packet delivery ratio, hop delay, and number of collisions are obtained from these scenarios.

Keywords: ZigBee, wireless sensor networks, IEEE 802.15.4, low power, low data rate

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133 Phosphorous Acid: An Efficient and Recyclable Liquid Catalyst for the Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonates

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Touafri Lasnouni

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A simple, efficient and general method has been developed for the high diastereoselective synthesis of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water through “one-pot” three-component reaction of aromatic aldehydes, aminophenols and dialkyl phosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount (10mol%) of phosphorous acid as highly stable catalyst is described.

Keywords: DFT, HOMO-LUMO, phosphonic acid, aminophenols

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132 Hyparrhenia hirta: A Potential Protective Agent against DNA Damage and Liver Toxicity of Sodium Nitrate in Adult Rats

Authors: Hanen Bouaziz-Ketata, Ghada Ben Salah, Hichem Ben Salah, Kamel Jamoussi, Najiba Zeghal

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The present study investigated the protective role of Hyparrhenia hirta on nitrate-induced liver damage. Experiments were carried out on adult rats divided into 3 groups, a control group and two treated groups. NaNO3 was administered daily by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg/kg bw in treated groups either alone or coadministered with Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract via drinking water at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw for 50 days. Liver toxicity induced by NaNO3 was characterized by higher serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride and lower serum total protein than those of controls. Transaminases and lactate deshydrogenase activities in serum were elevated indicating hepatic cells’ damage after treatment with NaNO3. The hyperbilirubinemia and the increased serum gamma glutamyl transferase activities suggested the presence of cholestasis in NaNO3 exposed rats. In parallel, NaNO3 caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the liver as reflected by the increased lipid peroxidation, the decreased total glutathione content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Nitrate caused also a significant induction of DNA fragmentation as evidenced by the presence of a smear without ladder formation on agarose gel. Hyparrhenia hirta supplementation showed an improvement of all parameters cited above. We conclude that the present work provides ethnopharmacological relevance of Hyparrhenia hirta against the toxic effect of nitrate, suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant.

Keywords: Hyparrhenia hirta, liver, nitrate toxicity, oxidative stress, rat

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131 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed

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Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

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130 A Novel Parametric Chaos-Based Switching System PCSS for Image Encryption

Authors: Mohamed Salah Azzaz, Camel Tanougast, Tarek Hadjem

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In this paper, a new low-cost image encryption technique is proposed and analyzed. The developed chaos-based key generator provides complex behavior and can change it automatically via a random-like switching rule. The designed encryption scheme is called PCSS (Parametric Chaos-based Switching System). The performances of this technique were evaluated in terms of data security and privacy. Simulation results have shown the effectiveness of this technique, and it can thereafter, ready for a hardware implementation.

Keywords: chaos, encryption, security, image

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129 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cr Doped Ni-Zn Nanoferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: E. Ateia, L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony

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Physical properties of nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxCryFe2-yO4, (x=0.3, 0.5 and y=0.0, 0.1) with estimated crystallite size of 16.4 nm have been studied. XRD pattern of all prepared systems shows that, the nanosamples without Cr3+ have a cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks designated as a secondary phase. Magnetic constants such as saturation magnetization, (MS) remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were obtained and reported. The obtained data shows that, the addition of Cr3+ (0.1mol) decreases the saturation magnetization. This is due to the decrease of magnetic moment of Cr3+ ion (3.0 μB) with respect to Fe3+ ion (5.85 μB). The electrical properties of the investigated samples were also investigated.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, ferrites, grain size, sintering

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128 Improvement of the Numerical Integration's Quality in Meshless Methods

Authors: Ahlem Mougaida, Hedi Bel Hadj Salah

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Several methods are suggested to improve the numerical integration in Galerkin weak form for Meshless methods. In fact, integrating without taking into account the characteristics of the shape functions reproduced by Meshless methods (rational functions, with compact support etc.), causes a large integration error that influences the PDE’s approximate solution. Comparisons between different methods of numerical integration for rational functions are discussed and compared. The algorithms are implemented in Matlab. Finally, numerical results were presented to prove the efficiency of our algorithms in improving results.

Keywords: adaptive methods, meshless, numerical integration, rational quadrature

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127 Simultaneous Determination of Cefazolin and Cefotaxime in Urine by HPLC

Authors: Rafika Bibi, Khaled Khaladi, Hind Mokran, Mohamed Salah Boukhechem

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A high performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 264nm was developed and validate for quantitative determination and separation of cefazolin and cefotaxime in urine, the mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer pH4,2(15 :85) (v/v) pumped through ODB 250× 4,6 mm, 5um column at a flow rate of 1ml/min, loop of 20ul. In this condition, the validation of this technique showed that it is linear in a range of 0,01 to 10ug/ml with a good correlation coefficient ( R>0,9997), retention time of cefotaxime, cefazolin was 9.0, 10.1 respectively, the statistical evaluation of the method was examined by means of within day (n=6) and day to day (n=5) and was found to be satisfactory with high accuracy and precision.

Keywords: cefazolin, cefotaxime, HPLC, bioscience, biochemistry, pharmaceutical

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126 Comparative Study between Direct Torque Control and Sliding Mode Control of Sensorless Induction Machine

Authors: Fouad Berrabah, Saad Salah, Zaamouche Fares

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In this paper, the Direct Torque Control (DTC) Control and the Sliding Mode Control for induction motor are presented and compared. The performance of the two control schemes is evaluated in terms of torque and current ripple, and transient response to variations of the torque , speed and robustness, trajectory tracking. In order to identify the more suitable solution for any application, both techniques are analyzed mathematically and simulation results are compared which advantages and drawbacks are discussed.

Keywords: induction motor, DTC- MRAS control, sliding mode control, robustness, trajectory tracking

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125 Clustering the Wheat Seeds Using SOM Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Salah Ghamari

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In this study, the ability of self organizing map artificial (SOM) neural networks in clustering the wheat seeds varieties according to morphological properties of them was considered. The SOM is one type of unsupervised competitive learning. Experimentally, five morphological features of 300 seeds (including three varieties: gaskozhen, Md and sardari) were obtained using image processing technique. The results show that the artificial neural network has a good performance (90.33% accuracy) in classification of the wheat varieties despite of high similarity in them. The highest classification accuracy (100%) was achieved for sardari.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, clustering, self organizing map, wheat variety

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124 Bi-Functional Natural Carboxylic Acid Catalysts for the Synthesis of Diethyl α-Aminophosphonates in Aqueous Media

Authors: Hellal Abdelkader, Chafaa Salah, Boudjemaa Fouzia

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A new, convenient, and high yielding procedure for the preparation of diethyl α-aminophosphonates in water via Kabachnik-Fields reaction by one-pot reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ortho-aminophenols, and dialkylphosphites in the presence of a low catalytic amount of citric, malic, tartaric, and oxalic acids as a natural, bi-functional, and highly stable catalyst is described, the obtained products were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, FTIR, Uv-Vis spectral data, NMR-C, NMR-H, and NMR-P analyses.

Keywords: α-aminophosphonates, aminophenols, natural acids, aqueous media, Kabachnik-Fields reaction

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123 Performance Evaluation of Vermiculite as Adsorbent Material for Solar-Assisted Air-Conditioning in Tropical Climate

Authors: Norhayati Mat Wajid, Abdul Murad Zainal Abidin, Hasila Jarimi, Kamaruzaman Sopian, Adnan Ibrahim, Ahmad Fazlizan, Afif Safwan

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Solar-adsorption air-conditioning system (SADCS) is an alternative to the conventional vapor compression system (VCS). SADCS have advantages over VCS system, such as 1) a green cooling technology which utilizes solar energy to drive the adsorption/desorption cycle, 2) can be operated using green refrigerant HFC free pure water, 3) mechanically simpler, and 4) lower operating noise level since it has no moving parts other than the magnetic valves. Several advancements have been achieved in these fields in the last decade, but further research is still needed to escalate this technology to a practical level. Hence, this paper presents a literature survey and a review that add insights into the current state-of-the-art of SADCS technologies with emphasis on the practical researches that were conducted at the laboratory scale and commercial level. In this paper, the performance evaluation of vermiculite as adsorbent material for SADCS in tropical climate discussed in comparison to other adsorbent material such as silica gel.

Keywords: adsorption cooling, solar-assisted cooling, HVAC, tropical climate, solar thermal

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122 Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Daucus Gracilis Extracts

Authors: El Kolli Meriem, Laouer Hocine, Sahli Farida, Akkal Salah, El Kolli Hayet

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The aerial parts of Daucus gracilis (Apiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation by a Clevenger apparatus to obtain the essential oil (EO) which has been analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The antioxidant properties of this EO and D. gracilis methanolic extract were studied by both of the free diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and the reducing power techniques. The dominant constituents of the EO were the elemicin (35.3 %) and the geranyl acetate (26.8 %). Both of EO and methanolic extract showed important antioxidant properties with respectively IC50 of 0,002 mg/ml and 0.06 mg/ml. They showed also a reducing power dose-dependent.

Keywords: daucus gracilis, apiaceae, essential oil, antioxidant activity

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121 Production of Ultra-Low Temperature by the Vapor Compression Refrigeration Cycles with Environment Friendly Working Fluids

Authors: Sameh Frikha, Mohamed Salah Abid

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We investigate the performance of an integrated cascade (IC) refrigeration system which uses environment friendly zeotropic mixtures. Computational calculation has been carried out by varying pressure level at the evaporator and the condenser of the system. Effects of mass flow rate of the refrigerant on the coefficient of performance (COP) are presented. We show that the integrated cascade system produces ultra-low temperatures in the evaporator by using environment friendly zeotropic mixture.

Keywords: coefficient of performance, environment friendly zeotropic mixture, integrated cascade, ultra low temperature, vapor compression refrigeration cycles

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120 MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs

Authors: Khaled Salah

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In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.

Keywords: bug localization, error correction, mutation, mutants

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119 The Exploitation of Balancing an Inverted Pendulum System Using Sliding Mode Control

Authors: Sheren H. Salah, Ahmed Y. Ben Sasi

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The inverted pendulum system is a classic control problem that is used in universities around the world. It is a suitable process to test prototype controllers due to its high non-linearities and lack of stability. The inverted pendulum represents a challenging control problem, which continually moves toward an uncontrolled state. This paper presents the possibility of balancing an inverted pendulum system using sliding mode control (SMC). The goal is to determine which control strategy delivers better performance with respect to pendulum’s angle and cart's position. Therefore, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) is used for comparison. Results have proven SMC control produced better response compared to PID control in both normal and noisy systems.

Keywords: inverted pendulum (IP), proportional-integral derivative (PID), sliding mode control (SMC), systems and control engineering

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118 Limits and Barriers of Value Creation and Projects Development: The Case of Tunisian SMEs

Authors: Samira Boussema, Ben Hamed Salah

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship was always considered to be the most appropriate remedy for various economies’ symptoms. It is presented as a complex process that faces several barriers thereby inhibiting a project’s implementation phase. In fact, after a careful review of the literature, we noticed that empirical researches on reasons behind non-developing entrepreneurial projects are very rare, suggesting a lack in modeling the process in general and the pre-start phase in particular. Therefore, in this study we try to identify the main environmental barriers to developing business projects in Tunisia through the study of a representative sample of undeveloped projects. To this end, we used a quantitative approach which allowed us to examine the various barriers encountered by young entrepreneurs during their projects’ implementation. Indeed, by modeling the phenomenon we found that these managers face barriers of legal, financial, educational and government support dimensions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, environmental barriers, non-implementation of projects, structural modeling

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117 Stimuli Responsives of Crosslinked Poly on 2-HydroxyEthyl MethAcrylate – Optimization of Parameters by Experimental Design

Authors: Tewfik Bouchaour, Salah Hamri, Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Ulrich Maschke

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Stimuli-responsive materials based on UV crosslinked acrylic polymer networks are fabricated. A various kinds of polymeric systems, hydrophilic polymers based on 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate have been widely studied because of their ability to simulate biological tissues, which leads to many applications. The acrylic polymer network PHEMA developed by UV photopolymerization has been used for dye retention. For these so-called smart materials, the properties change in response to an external stimulus. In this contribution, we report the influence of some parameters (initial composition, temperature, and nature of components) in the properties of final materials. Optimization of different parameters is examined by experimental design.

Keywords: UV photo-polymerization, PHEMA, external stimulus, optimization

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116 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

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This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: behavior, shear strength, sand, silt, friction angle, cohesion, fines content, moisture content

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115 Swelling Behavior of Cross-Linked Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)

Authors: Salah Hamri, Tewfik Bouchaour, Ulrich Maschke

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The aim of this works is the study of swelling ratio of cross-linked polymer networks poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA). The system composed of erythrosine and Triethanolamine, in aqueous medium, is used as photo-initiator and 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate as cross-linker. The analysis of UV-visible and infrared spectra, which were taken at different times during polymerization/cross linking, makes it possible to obtain useful information on the reaction mechanism. The swelling behavior was study by changing the nature of solvent, dye sensitizer (erythrosine, rose Bengal and eosin), and pH of the medium. The exploitation of experimental results using Fick diffusion model is also expected and shows a good correlation between theoretical and experimental results.

Keywords: cross-linker, photo-sensitizer, polymer network, swelling ratio

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114 TNF-Kinoid® in Autoimmune Diseases

Authors: Yahia Massinissa, Melakhessou Med Akram, Mezahdia Mehdi, Marref Salah Eddine

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Cytokines are natural proteins which act as true intercellular communication signals in immune and inflammatory responses. Reverse signaling pathways that activate cytokines help to regulate different functions at the target cell, causing its activation, its proliferation, the differentiation, its survival or death. It was shown that malfunctioning of the cytokine regulation, particularly over-expression, contributes to the onset and development of certain serious diseases such as chronic rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, lupus. The action mode of Kinoid® technology is based on the principle vaccine: The patient's immune system is activated so that it neutralizes itself and the factor responsible for the disease. When applied specifically to autoimmune diseases, therapeutic vaccination allows the body to neutralize cytokines (proteins) overproduced through a highly targeted stimulation of the immune system.

Keywords: cytokines, Kinoid tech, auto-immune diseases, vaccination

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113 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of PbS Thin Films Deposited by CBD at Different Bath pH

Authors: Lynda Beddek, Nadhir Attaf, Mohamed Salah Aida

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PbS thin films were grown on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The precursor aqueous bath contained 1 mole of lead nitrate, 1 mole of Thiourea and complexing agents (triethanolamine (TEA) and NaOH). Bath temperature and deposition time were fixed at 60°C and 3 hours, respectively. However, the PH of bath was varied from 10.5 to 12.5. Structural properties of the deposited films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The preferred direction was revealed to be along (111) and the PbS crystal structure was confirmed. Strains and grains sizes were also calculated. Optical studies showed that films thicknesses do not exceed 600nm. Energy band gap values of films decreases with increase in pH and reached a value ~ 0.4eV at pH equal 12.5. The small value of the energy band gap makes PbS one of the most interesting candidate for solar energy conversion near the infrared ray.

Keywords: CBD, PbS, pH, thin films, x-ray diffraction

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