Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16387

Search results for: transdermal drug delivery system

16387 The Effect of Backing Layer on Adhesion Properties of Single Layer Ketoprofen Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Maryam Hamedanlou, Shahla Hajializadeh

Abstract:

The transdermal drug delivery system is one of the types of novel drug delivery system that the drug is absorbed into the skin. The major considerations for designing and producing transdermal patch are small size, suitable drug release and good adhering. In this study, drug-in-adhesive transdermal patch contained non-steroidal anti-inflammatory ketoprofen is prepared. Also, the effect of non-woven fabric and plastic backing layers on adhesion properties is assessed. The results of the test, demonstrated the use of plastic backing layer increases tack and peel rather than non-woven fabric type. The balance tack with plastic backing layer patch is 6.7 (N/mm2), and the fabric one is 3.8 (N/mm2), and their peel is 9.2 (N/25mm) and 8.3 (N/25mm) by arrangement.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery system, single layer patch of ketoprofen, plastic layer, fabric backing layer

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16386 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

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16385 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal

Abstract:

There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

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16384 Iontophoretic Drug Transport of Some Anti-Diabetic Agents

Authors: Ashish Jain, Satish Nayak

Abstract:

Transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery system is viable drug delivery platform technology and has a strong market worldwide. Transdermal drug delivery system is particularly desirable for therapeutic agents that need prolonged administration at controlled plasma level. This makes appropriateness to antihypertensive and anti-diabetic agents for their transdermal development. Controlled zero order absorption, easily termination of drug delivery and easy to administration also support for popularity of transdermal delivery. In this current research iontophoretic delivery of various anti diabetic agents like glipizide, glibenclamide and glimepiride were carried out. The experiments were carried out at different drug concentrations and different current densities using cathodal iontophoresis. Diffusion cell for iontophoretic permeation study was modified according to Glikfield Design. Pig skin was used for in vitro permeation study and for the in-vivo study New Zealand rabbits were used. At all concentration level iontophoresis showed enhanced permeation rate compared to passive controls. Iontophoretic transports of selected drugs were found to be increased with the current densities. Results showed that target permeation rate for selected drugs could be achieved with the aid of iontophoresis by increasing the area in an appreciable range.

Keywords: transdermal, iontophoresis, pig skin, rabbits, glipizide, glibeclamide

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16383 Transdermal Therapeutic System of Lercanıdipine Hydrochloride: Fabrication and in Vivo Evaluation

Authors: Jiji Jose, R. Narayanacharyulu, Molly Mathew, Jisha Prems

Abstract:

Introduction: Lercanidipine hydrochloride (LD), an effective calcium channel blocker, widely used for the treatment of chronic stable angina and hypertension seems to be potential transdermal therapeutic system candidate, mainly due to its low oral bio availability, short half life and high first-pass metabolism. Objective: To develop transdermal therapeutic systems for LD and to evaluate its in vivo performance in rabbits. Methodology: Transdermal patches of LD were formulated using the polymer blend of eudragit RL100 (ERL) and polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP) by casting method Propylene glycol (PG) and tween 80 were used as plasticizer and permeation enhancer respectively. The pharmaco kinetic parameters of LD after the administration of transdermal patches was compared with that of oral administration. The study was carried out in a two way crossover design in male New Zealand albino rabbits. Results: The formulation with ERL: PVP ratio 1:4 with 15% w/w PG as plasticizer and 4% w/w tween 80 as permeation enhancer showed the best drug release results. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax, tmax, mean residence time (MRT) and area under the curve (AUC 0-∞) were significantly different following transdermal administration compared to oral administration. The terminal half life of transdermally administered LD was found to similar that of oral administration. A sustained drug release over a period of 24 hrs was observed after transdermal administration. Conclusion: The fabricated transdermal delivery system have the potential to provide controlled and extended drug release, better bio availability and thus, this may improve the patient compliance.

Keywords: transdermal therapeutic system, lercanidipine hydrochloride, eudragit, skinpermeation

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16382 Combined Effect of Vesicular System and Iontophoresis on Skin Permeation Enhancement of an Analgesic Drug

Authors: Jigar N. Shah, Hiral J. Shah, Praful D. Bharadia

Abstract:

The major challenge faced by formulation scientists in transdermal drug delivery system is to overcome the inherent barriers related to skin permeation. The stratum corneum layer of the skin is working as the rate limiting step in transdermal transport and reduce drug permeation through skin. Many approaches have been used to enhance the penetration of drugs through this layer of the skin. The purpose of this study is to investigate the development and evaluation of a combined approach of drug carriers and iontophoresis as a vehicle to improve skin permeation of an analgesic drug. Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique for transporting charged molecules into and through tissues by a mild electric field. It has been shown to effectively deliver a variety of drugs across the skin to the underlying tissue. In addition to the enhanced continuous transport, iontophoresis allows dose titration by adjusting the electric field, which makes personalized dosing feasible. Drug carrier could modify the physicochemical properties of the encapsulated molecule and offer a means to facilitate the percutaneous delivery of difficult-to-uptake substances. Recently, there are some reports about using liposomes, microemulsions and polymeric nanoparticles as vehicles for iontophoretic drug delivery. Niosomes, the nonionic surfactant-based vesicles that are essentially similar in properties to liposomes have been proposed as an alternative to liposomes. Niosomes are more stable and free from other shortcoming of liposomes. Recently, the transdermal delivery of certain drugs using niosomes has been envisaged and niosomes have proved to be superior transdermal nanocarriers. Proniosomes overcome some of the physical stability related problems of niosomes. The proniosomal structure was liquid crystalline-compact niosomes hybrid which could be converted into niosomes upon hydration. The combined use of drug carriers and iontophoresis could offer many additional benefits. The system was evaluated for Encapsulation Efficiency, vesicle size, zeta potential, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), DSC, in-vitro release, ex-vivo permeation across skin and rate of hydration. The use of proniosomal gel as a vehicle for the transdermal iontophoretic delivery was evaluated in-vitro. The characteristics of the applied electric current, such as density, type, frequency, and on/off interval ratio were observed. The study confirms the synergistic effect of proniosomes and iontophoresis in improving the transdermal permeation profile of selected analgesic drug. It is concluded that proniosomal gel can be used as a vehicle for transdermal iontophoretic drug delivery under suitable electric conditions.

Keywords: iontophoresis, niosomes, permeation enhancement, transdermal delivery

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16381 The Study of Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Androgenetic Alopecia

Authors: Li-Yu Lee, Yu-Shuan Chen, Jun Sheng Wang, I-Ming Chu

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Microneedle patch is a painless transdermal drug delivery method, It could solve some problems in traditional drug delivery such as digestive system causing drug metabolism and subcutaneous injection causing some side effects. Coating drug on or loading drug in microneedle can carry active ingredient through stratum corneum, also can control dose well when microneedle patch apply on localized topical area. We used hyaluronic acid to fabricate dissolvable microneedle patch and encapsulated minoxidil into microneedles. Minoxdil is a drug for exterior use that can be used to treat Androgenetic alopecia, but related commercial products have some shortcomings, for example, propylene glycol which is used to soften stratum corneum cause skin allergic reaction, comparing chemical promotion, microneedle patch provide physical way to make drugs through nature barrier of skin. In this research, we designed a two-step process to fabricate microneedle patch, that can effectively reduce drug waste, and gentle production process could maintain drug activity well. We also do in vitro test on cadaver to make sure patch has enough mechanical strength to penetrate stratum corneum. In the release test and animal test, we found microneedle patch has higher delivery efficiency than tradition way. In this study, we may determine that germinal MNs patch is a potential commodity.

Keywords: dissolving microneedles, androgenetic alopecia, minoxidil, transdermal drug delivery

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16380 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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16379 Formulation, Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Transdermal Niosomal Gel of Atenolol

Authors: Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi

Abstract:

Atenolol, the widely used antihypertensive drug is ionisable and degrades in the acidic environment of the GIT lessening the bioavailability. Transdermal route may be selected as an alternative to enhance the bioavailability. Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours suggesting the requirement of prolonged release of the drug. The present work of transdermal niosomal gel aims to extend release of the drug and increase the bioavailability. Ethanol injection method was used for the preparation of niosomes using span-60 and cholesterol at different molar ratios following central composite design. The prepared niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation was selected by statistically analyzing the results obtained using the software Stat-Ease Design Expert. The optimized formulation also showed high drug retention inside the vesicles over a period of three months at a temperature of 4 °C indicating stability. Niosomes separated as a pellet were dried and incorporated into the hydrogel prepared using chitosan a natural polymer as a gelling agent. The effect of various chemical permeation enhancers was also studied over the gel formulations. The prepared formulations were characterized for viscosity, pH, drug release using Franz diffusion cells, and skin irritation test as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities. Atenolol niosomal gel preparations showed the prolonged release of the drug and pronounced antihypertensive activity indicating the suitability of niosomal gel for topical and systemic delivery of atenolol.

Keywords: atenolol, chitosan, niosomes, transdermal

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16378 Formulation and Evaluation of TDDS for Sustained Release Ondansetron HCL Patches

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma

Abstract:

The skin can be used as the site for drug administration for continuous transdermal drug infusion into the systemic circulation. For the continuous diffusion/penetration of the drugs through the intact skin surface membrane-moderated systems, matrix dispersion type systems, adhesive diffusion controlled systems and micro reservoir systems have been developed. Various penetration enhancers are used for the drug diffusion through skin. In matrix dispersion type systems, the drug is dispersed in the solvent along with the polymers and solvent allowed to evaporate forming a homogeneous drug-polymer matrix. Matrix type systems were developed in the present study. In the present work, an attempt has been made to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system comprising of ondansetron-HCl with different ratios of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymeric combinations using solvent evaporation technique. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers was studied by infrared spectroscopy. The results obtained showed no physical-chemical incompatibility between the drug and the polymers. The patches were further subjected to various physical evaluations along with the in-vitro permeation studies using rat skin. On the basis of results obtained form the in vitro study and physical evaluation, the patches containing hydrophilic polymers i.e. polyvinyl alcohol and poly vinyl pyrrolidone with oleic acid as the penetration enhancer(5%) were considered as suitable for large scale manufacturing with a backing layer and a suitable adhesive membrane.

Keywords: transdermal drug delivery, penetration enhancers, hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, ondansetron HCl

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16377 Increasing Solubility and Bioavailability of Fluvastatin through Transdermal Nanoemulsion Gel Delivery System for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Makula Ajitha

Abstract:

Fluvastatin has been reported for increasing bone mineral density in osteoporosis since last decade. Systemically administered drug undergoes extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism, thus very small amount of drug reaches the bone tissue which is highly insignificant. The present study aims to deliver fluvastatin in the form of nanoemulsion (NE) gel directly to the bone tissue through transdermal route thereby bypassing hepatic first pass metabolism. The NE formulation consisted of isopropyl myristate as oil, tween 80 as surfactant, transcutol as co-surfactant and water as the aqueous phase. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using aqueous titration method and NE’s obtained were subjected to thermodynamic-kinetic stability studies. The stable NE formulations were evaluated for their droplet size, zeta potential, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nano-sized formulations were incorporated into 0.5% carbopol 934 gel matrix. Ex-vivo permeation behaviour of selected formulations through rat skin was investigated and compared with the conventional formulations (suspension and emulsion). Further, in-vivo pharmacokinetic study was carried using male Wistar rats. The optimized NE formulations mean droplet size was 11.66±3.2 nm with polydispersity index of 0.117. Permeation flux of NE gel formulations was found significantly higher than the conventional formulations i.e. suspension and emulsion. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed significant increase in bioavailability (1.25 fold) of fluvastatin than oral formulation. Thus, it can be concluded that NE gel was successfully developed for transdermal delivery of fluvastatin for the treatment of osteoporosis.

Keywords: fluvastatin, nanoemulsion gel, osteoporosis, transdermal

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16376 Fabrication and Characterization of Transdermal Spray Using Film Forming Polymer

Authors: Paresh Patel, Harshit Patel

Abstract:

Superficial fungal skin infection is among the most common skin disease. The drug administration through skin has received attention due to several advantages: Avoidance of significant pre-systemic metabolism, drug levels within the therapeutic window, drugs with short biological half-lives, decreased side effects, the non-invasive character, and very high acceptance.

Keywords: transdermal spray, ketoconazole, Eudragit® RLPO, therapeutic window

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16375 Development of an Erodable Matrix Drug Delivery Platform for Controled Delivery of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatory Drugs Using Melt Granulation Process

Authors: A. Hilsana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

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Even though a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available with different chemistries, they share a common solubility characteristic that is they are relatively more soluble in alkaline environment and practically insoluble in acidic environment. This work deals with developing a wax matrix drug delivery platform for controlled delivery of three model NSAIDS, Diclofenac sodium (DNa), Mefenamic acid (MA) and Naproxen (NPX) using the melt granulation technique. The aim of developing the platform was to have a general understanding on how an erodible matrix system modulates drug delivery rate and extent and how it can be optimized to give a delivery system which shall release the drug as per a common target product profile (TPP). Commonly used waxes like Cetostearyl alcohol and stearic acid were used singly an in combination to achieve a TPP of not 15 to 35% in 1 hour and not less than 80% Q in 24 hours. Full factorial design of experiments was followed for optimization of the formulation.

Keywords: NSAIDs, controlled delivery, target product profile, melt granulation

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16374 Development and Evaluation of Simvastatin Based Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hardeep

Abstract:

The aim of this research work to improve the solubility and bioavailability of Simvastatin using a self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Validation of a method for accuracy, repeatability, Interday and intraday precision, ruggedness, and robustness were within acceptable limits. The liquid SNEDDS was prepared and optimized using a ternary phase diagram, thermodynamic, centrifugation and cloud point studies. The globule size of optimized formulations was less than 200 nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The mean droplet size, drug loading, PDI and zeta potential were found to be 141.0 nm, 92.22%, 0.23 and -10.13 mV and 153.5nm, 93.89 % ,0.41 and -11.7 mV and 164.26 nm, 95.26% , 0.41 and -10.66mV respectively.

Keywords: simvastatin, self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, solubility, bioavailability

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16373 Synthesis and Characterisation of Starch-PVP as Encapsulation Material for Drug Delivery System

Authors: Nungki Rositaningsih, Emil Budianto

Abstract:

Starch has been widely used as an encapsulation material for drug delivery system. However, starch hydrogel is very easily degraded during metabolism in human stomach. Modification of this material is needed to improve the encapsulation process in drug delivery system, especially for gastrointestinal drug. In this research, three modified starch-based hydrogels are synthesized i.e. Crosslinked starch hydrogel, Semi- and Full- Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) starch hydrogel using Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone). Non-modified starch hydrogel was also synthesized as a control. All of those samples were compared as biomaterials, floating drug delivery, and their ability in loading drug test. Biomaterial characterizations were swelling test, stereomicroscopy observation, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Buoyancy test and stereomicroscopy scanning were done for floating drug delivery characterizations. Lastly, amoxicillin was used as test drug, and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy for loading drug observation. Preliminary observation showed that Full-IPN has the most dense and elastic texture, followed by Semi-IPN, Crosslinked, and Non-modified in the last position. Semi-IPN and Crosslinked starch hydrogel have the most ideal properties and will not be degraded easily during metabolism. Therefore, both hydrogels could be considered as promising candidates for encapsulation material. Further analysis and issues will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: biomaterial, drug delivery system, interpenetrating polymer network, poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone), starch hydrogel

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16372 Hybrid-Nanoengineering™: A New Platform for Nanomedicine

Authors: Mewa Singh

Abstract:

Nanomedicine, a fusion of nanotechnology and medicine, is an emerging technology ideally suited to the targeted therapies. Nanoparticles overcome the low selectivity of anti-cancer drugs toward the tumor as compared to normal tissue and hence result-in less severe side-effects. Our new technology, HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™, uses a new molecule (MR007) in the creation of nanoparticles that not only helps in nanonizing the medicine but also provides synergy to the medicine. The simplified manufacturing process will result in reduced manufacturing costs. Treatment is made more convenient because hybrid nanomedicines can be produced in oral, injectable or transdermal formulations. The manufacturing process uses no protein, oil or detergents. The particle size is below 180 nm with a narrow distribution of size. Importantly, these properties confer great stability of the structure. The formulation does not aggregate in plasma and is stable over a wide range of pH. The final hybrid formulation is stable for at least 18 months as a powder. More than 97 drugs, including paclitaxel, docetaxel, tamoxifen, doxorubicinm prednisone, and artemisinin have been nanonized in water soluble formulations. Preclinical studies on cell cultures of tumors show promising results. Our HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ platform enables the design and development of hybrid nano-pharmaceuticals that combine efficacy with tolerability, giving patients hope for both extended overall survival and improved quality of life. This study would discuss or present this new discovery of HYBRID-NANOENGINEERING™ which targets drug delivery, synergistic, and potentiating effects, and barriers of drug delivery and advanced drug delivery systems.

Keywords: nano-medicine, nano-particles, drug delivery system, pharmaceuticals

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16371 Development of Nanoparticulate Based Chimeric Drug Delivery System Using Drug Bioconjugated Plant Virus Capsid on Biocompatible Nanoparticles

Authors: Indu Barwal, Shloka Thakur, Subhash C. Yadav

Abstract:

The plant virus capsid protein based nanoparticles are extensively studied for their application in biomedical research for development of nanomedicines and drug delivery systems. We have developed a chimeric drug delivery system by controlled in vitro assembly of separately bioconjugated fluorescent dye (as reporting molecule), folic acid (as receptor binding biomolecule for targeted delivery) and doxorubicin (as anticancer drug) using modified EDC NHS chemistry on heterologously overexpressed (E. coli) capsid proteins of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). This chimeric vehicle was further encapsidated on gold nanoparticles (20nm) coated with 5≠ thiolated DNA probe to neutralize the positive charge of capsid proteins. This facilitates the in vitro assembly of modified capsid subunits on the gold nanoparticles to develop chimeric GNPs encapsidated targeted drug delivery system. The bioconjugation of functionalities, number of functionality on capsid subunits as well as virus like nanoparticles, structural stability and in vitro assembly were confirmed by SDS PAGE, relative absorbance, MALDI TOF, ESI-MS, Circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, zeta particle size analyzer and TEM imaging. This vehicle was stable at pH 4.0 to 8.0 suitable for many organelles targeting. This in vitro assembled chimeric plant virus like particles could be suitable for ideal drug delivery vehicles for subcutaneous cancer treatment and could be further modified for other type of cancer treatment by conjugating other functionalities (targeting, drug) on capsids.

Keywords: chimeric drug delivery vehicles, bioconjugated plant, virus, capsid

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16370 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

Abstract:

The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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16369 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

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16368 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

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16367 Intelligent Drug Delivery Systems

Authors: Shideh Mohseni Movahed, Mansoureh Safari

Abstract:

Intelligent drug delivery systems (IDDS) are innovative technological innovations and clinical way to advance current treatments. These systems differ in technique of therapeutic administration, intricacy, materials and patient compliance to address numerous clinical conditions that require different pharmacological therapies. IDDS capable of releasing an active molecule at the proper site and at a amount that adjusts in response to the progression of the disease or to certain functions/biorhythms of the organism is particularly appealing. In this paper, we describe the most recent advances in the development of intelligent drug delivery systems.

Keywords: drug delivery systems, IDDS, medicine, health

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16366 Development of Mucoadhesive Multiparticulate System for Nasal Drug Delivery

Authors: K. S. Hemant Yadav, H. G. Shivakumar

Abstract:

The present study investigation was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive multi-particulate system for nasal drug delivery of anti-histaminic drug. Ebastine was chosen as the model drug. Drug loaded nanoparticles of Ebastine were prepared by ionic gelation method using chitosan as polymer using the drug-polymer weight ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3. Sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) was used as the cross-linking agent in the range of 0.5 and 0.7% w/v. FTIR and DSC studies indicated that no chemical interaction occurred between the drug and polymers. Particle size ranged from 169 to 500 nm. The drug loading and entrapment efficiency was found to increase with increase in chitosan concentration and decreased with increase in poloxamer 407 concentration. The results of in vitro mucoadhesion carried out showed that all the prepared formulation had good mucoadhesive property and mucoadhesion increases with increase in the concentration of chitosan. The in vitro release pattern of all the formulations was observed to be in a biphasic manner characterized by slight burst effect followed by a slow release. By the end of 8 hrs, formulation F6 showed a release of only 86.9% which explains its sustained behaviour. The ex-vivo permeation of the pure drug ebastine was rapid than the optimized formulation(F6) indicating the capability of the chitosan polymer to control drug permeation rate through the sheep nasal mucosa. The results indicated that the mucoadhesive nanoparticulate system can be used for the nasal delivery of antihistaminic drugs in an effective manner.

Keywords: nasal, nanoparticles, ebastine, anti-histaminic drug, mucoadhesive multi-particulate system

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16365 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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16364 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
16363 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Hydrocortisone Nanoshell for Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Suyeon Kwon, Ik Joong Kang, Wang Bingjie

Abstract:

Chitosan is a polymer that is usually produced from N-deacetylation of chitin. It is emerging as a promising biocompatible polymer that is harmless to humans. For the reason that many merits such as good adsorptive, biodegradability, many researches are being done on the chitosan for drug delivery system. Drug delivery system (DDS) has been developed for the control of drug. It makes the drug can be delivered effectively and safely into the targeted human body. The drug used in this work is hydrocortisone that is used in Rheumatism, skin diseases, allergy treatment. In this work, hydrocortisone was used to make allergic rhinitis medicine. Our study focuses on drug delivery through the nasal mucosa by using hydrocortisone impregnated chitosan nanoshells. This study has performed an investigation in order to establish the optimal conditions, changing concentration, quantity of hydrocortisone. DLS, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV spectrum were used to analyze the manufactured chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell and silver nanoshell, whose function as drug carriers. This study has performed an investigation on new drug carriers and delivery routes for hydrocortisone. Various methods of manufacturing chitosan-hydrocortisone nanoshells were attempted in order to establish the optimal condition. As a result, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 80 nm. So, chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is suitable as drug carriers because optimal size of drug carrier in human body is less than 120 nm. UV spectrum of Chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell shows the characteristic peak of silver nanoshell at 420 nm. Likewise, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 100nm. It is also suitable for drug carrier in human body. Also, multi-layered silver shell over chitosan nanoshells induced the red-shift of absorption peak and increased the intensity of absorption peak. The resultant chitosan–silver nanocomposites (or nanoshells) exhibited the absorption peak around 430nm attributed to silvershell formation. i.e. the absorption peak was red-shifted by ca. 40 nm in reference to 390 nm of silver nanoshells.

Keywords: chitosan, drug delivery, hydrocortisone, rhinitis, nanoshell

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
16362 Tunable Control of Therapeutics Release from the Nanochannel Delivery System (nDS)

Authors: Thomas Geninatti, Bruno Giacomo, Alessandro Grattoni

Abstract:

Nanofluidic devices have been investigated for over a decade as promising platforms for the controlled release of therapeutics. The nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS), a membrane fabricated with high precision silicon techniques, capable of zero-order release of drugs by exploiting diffusion transport at the nanoscale originated from the interactions between molecules with nanochannel surfaces, showed the flexibility of the sustained release in vitro and in vivo, over periods of time ranging from weeks to months. To improve the implantable bio nanotechnology, in order to create a system that possesses the key features for achieve the suitable release of therapeutics, the next generation of nDS has been created. Platinum electrodes are integrated by e-beam deposition onto both surfaces of the membrane allowing low voltage (<2 V) and active temporal control of drug release through modulation of electrostatic potentials at the inlet and outlet of the membrane’s fluidic channels. Hence, a tunable administration of drugs is ensured from the nanochannel drug delivery system. The membrane will be incorporated into a peek implantable capsule, which will include drug reservoir, control hardware and RF system to allow suitable therapeutic regimens in real-time. Therefore, this new nanotechnology offers tremendous potential solutions to manage chronic disease such as cancer, heart disease, circadian dysfunction, pain and stress.

Keywords: nanochannel membrane, drug delivery, tunable release, personalized administration, nanoscale transport, biomems

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16361 In vitro Evaluation of Capsaicin Patches for Transdermal Drug Delivery

Authors: Alija Uzunovic, Sasa Pilipovic, Aida Sapcanin, Zahida Ademovic, Berina Pilipović

Abstract:

Capsaicin is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from capsicum fruit extracts of different of Capsicum species. It has been employed topically to treat many diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cancer pain and nerve pain in diabetes. The high degree of pre-systemic metabolism of intragastrical capsaicin and the short half-life of capsaicin by intravenous administration made topical application of capsaicin advantageous. In this study, we have evaluated differences in the dissolution characteristics of capsaicin patch 11 mg (purchased from market) at different dissolution rotation speed. The proposed patch area is 308 cm2 (22 cm x 14 cm; it contains 36 µg of capsaicin per square centimeter of adhesive). USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) is used for transdermal patch testing. The dissolution study was conducted using USP apparatus 5 (n=6), ERWEKA DT800 dissolution tester (paddle-type) with addition of a disc. The fabricated patch of 308 cm2 is to be cut into 9 cm2 was placed against a disc (delivery side up) retained with the stainless-steel screen and exposed to 500 mL of phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. All dissolution studies were carried out at 32 ± 0.5 °C and different rotation speed (50± 5; 100± 5 and 150± 5 rpm). 5 ml aliquots of samples were withdrawn at various time intervals (1, 4, 8 and 12 hours) and replaced with 5 ml of dissolution medium. Withdrawn were appropriately diluted and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). A Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (RP-LC) method has been developed, optimized and validated for the separation and quantitation of capsaicin in a transdermal patch. The method uses a ProntoSIL 120-3-C18 AQ 125 x 4,0 mm (3 μm) column maintained at 600C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile: water (50:50 v/v), the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, the injection volume 10 μL and the detection wavelength 222 nm. The used RP-LC method is simple, sensitive and accurate and can be applied for fast (total chromatographic run time was 4.0 minutes) and simultaneous analysis of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in a transdermal patch. According to the results obtained in this study, we can conclude that the relative difference of dissolution rate of capsaicin after 12 hours was elevated by increase of dissolution rotation speed (100 rpm vs 50 rpm: 84.9± 11.3% and 150 rpm vs 100 rpm: 39.8± 8.3%). Although several apparatus and procedures (USP apparatus 5, 6, 7 and a paddle over extraction cell method) have been used to study in vitro release characteristics of transdermal patches, USP Apparatus 5 (Paddle Over Disc) could be considered as a discriminatory test. would be able to point out the differences in the dissolution rate of capsaicin at different rotation speed.

Keywords: capsaicin, in vitro, patch, RP-LC, transdermal

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
16360 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang

Abstract:

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
16359 Drug Delivery to Solid Tumor: Effect of Dynamic Capillary Network Induced by Tumor

Authors: Mostafa Sefidgar, Kaamran Raahemifar, Hossein Bazmara, Madjid Soltani

Abstract:

The computational methods provide condition for investigation related to the process of drug delivery, such as convection and diffusion of drug in extracellular matrices, and drug extravasation from microvascular. The information of this process clarifies the mechanisms of drug delivery from the injection site to absorption by a solid tumor. In this study, an advanced numerical method is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport equations simultaneously to show how capillary network structure induced by tumor affects drug delivery. The effect of heterogeneous capillary network induced by tumor on interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery is investigated by this multi scale method. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network induced by tumor. Fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network and fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues. The Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. Finally, convection-diffusion-reaction equation is used to simulate drug delivery. The dynamic approach which changes the capillary network structure based on signals sent by hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli is used in this study for more realistic assumption. The study indicates that drug delivery to solid tumors depends on the tumor induced capillary network structure. The dynamic approach generates the irregular capillary network around the tumor and predicts a higher interstitial pressure in the tumor region. This elevated interstitial pressure with irregular capillary network leads to a heterogeneous distribution of drug in the tumor region similar to in vivo observations. The investigation indicates that the drug transport properties have a significant role against the physiological barrier of drug delivery to a solid tumor.

Keywords: solid tumor, physiological barriers to drug delivery, angiogenesis, microvascular network, solute transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
16358 Proniosomes as a Drug Carrier for Topical Delivery of Tolnaftate

Authors: Mona Mahmoud Abou Samra, Alaa Hamed Salama, Ghada Awad, Soheir Said Mansy

Abstract:

Proniosomes are well documented for topical drug delivery and preferred over other vesicular systems because they are biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, possess skin penetration ability and prolong the release of drugs by acting as depot in deeper layers of skin. Proniosome drug delivery was preferred due to improved stability of the system than niosomes. The present investigation aimed at formulation development and performance evaluation of proniosomal gel as a vesicular drug carrier system for antifungal drug tolnaftate. Proniosomes was developed using different nonionic surfactants such as span 60 and span 65 with cholesterol in different molar ratios by the Coacervation phase separation method in presence or absence of either lecithin or phospholipon 80 H. Proniosomal gel formulations of tolnaftate were characterized for vesicular shape & size, entrapment efficiency, rheological properties and release study. The effect of surfactants and additives on the entrapment efficiency, particle size and percent of drug released was studied. The selected proniosomal formulations for topical delivery of tolnaftate was subjected to a microbiological study in male rats infected with Trichophyton rubrum; the main cause of Tinea Pedis compared to the free drug and a market product and the results was recorded.

Keywords: fungal infection, proniosome, tolnaftate, trichophyton rubrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 439