Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: diclofenac

39 Randomized Controlled Study of the Antipyretic Efficacy of Oral Paracetamol, Intravenous Paracetamol, and Intramuscular Diclofenac

Authors: Firjeeth C. Paramba, Vamanjore A. Naushad, Nishan K. Purayil, Osama H. Mohammed, Prem Chandra

Abstract:

Background: Fever is a common problem in adults visiting the emergency department. Extensive studies have been done in children comparing the efficacy of various antipyretics. However, studies on the efficacy of antipyretic drugs in adults are very scarce. To the best of our knowledge, no controlled trial has been carried out comparing the antipyretic efficacy of paracetamol (oral and intravenous) and intramuscular diclofenac in adults. Methods: In this parallel-group, open-label trial, participants aged 14–75 years presenting with fever who had a temperature of more than 38.5°C were enrolled and treated. Participants were randomly allocated to receive treatment with 1,000 mg oral paracetamol (n=145), 1,000 mg intravenous paracetamol (n=139), or 75 mg intramuscular diclofenac (n=150). The primary outcome was degree of reduction in mean oral temperature at 90 minutes. The efficacy of diclofenac versus oral and intravenous paracetamol was assessed by superiority comparison. Analysis was done using intention to treat principles. Results: After 90 minutes, all three groups showed a significant reduction in mean temperature, with intramuscular diclofenac showing the greatest reduction (−1.44 ± 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.4 to −2.5) and oral paracetamol the least (−1.08 ± 0.51, 95% CI −0.99 to −2.2). After 120 minutes, there was a significant difference observed in the mean change from baseline temperature between the three treatment groups (P, 0.0001). Significant changes in temperature were observed in favor of intramuscular diclofenac over oral and intravenous paracetamol at each time point from 60 minutes through 120 minutes inclusive. Conclusion: Both intramuscular diclofenac and intravenous paracetamol showed superior antipyretic activity than oral paracetamol. However, in view of its ease of administration, intramuscular diclofenac can be used as a first-choice antipyretic in febrile adults in the emergency department.

Keywords: antipyretic, intramuscular, intravenous, paracetamol, diclofenac, emergency department

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38 Histopathological Alterations in Liver of Mice Exposed to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium, a member of the acetic acid family of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, is used to retard inflammation, arthritis pain and ankylosing spondylitis. The drug is known to cause severe injury in different tissues due to formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study is focused on the effect of different doses of diclofenac (4 mg/kg/body weight and 14 mg/kg/body weight on histoarchitecture of the liver from 7-28 days of the investigation. Diclofenac administration resulted in distorted hepatic degeneration and formation of wide areas in the form of sinusoidal gaps. Hepatic fibrosis noticed in different stages of investigation could be attributed to chronic inflammation and reactive oxygen species which results in deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The abrupt degenerative changes observed during later stages of the experiment showed maximum damage to the liver, and there was enlargement of sinusoidal gaps accompanied by maximum necrosis in the tissues.

Keywords: arthritis, diclofenac, histoarchitecture, sinusoidal

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37 Development and In vitro Characterization of Diclofenac-Loaded Microparticles

Authors: Prakriti Diwan, S. Saraf

Abstract:

The present study involves preparation and evaluation of microparticles of diclofenac sodium. The microparticles were prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation techniques using ethylcellulose polymer. Four different batches of microspheres were prepared by varying the concentration of polymer from 50% to 80% w/w. The microspheres were characterized for drug content, percentage yield and encapsulation efficiency, particle size analysis and surface morphology. Microsphere prepared with high drug content produces higher percentage yield and encapsulation efficiency values. It was observed the increase in concentration of the polymer, increases the mean particle size of the microspheres. The effect of polymer concentration on the in vitro release of diclofenac from the microspheres was also studied. The production microparticles yield showed 98.74%, mean particle size 956.32µm and loading efficiency 97.15%. The results were found that microparticles prepared had slower release than microparticles (p>0.05). Therefore, it may be concluded that drug loaded microparticles are suitable delivery systems for diclofenac sodium.

Keywords: diclofenac sodium, emulsion solvent evaporation, ethylcellulose, microparticles

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36 Efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics and Diclofenac Spray in Attenuating Intravenous Cannulation Pain- Paeallel Randomized Trial

Authors: Anju Rani, Geeta, Sudha Rani, Choudhary, Puhal

Abstract:

Method- A total of 300 patients were studied, with 100 patients in each group. Patients aged 16-60 years, ASA grade I and II undergoing elective general surgical, urology and orthopedic procedures were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the three groups by Using Sealed envelopes. 1. Group A: EMLA (eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine with 2.5% prilocaine) - Patients receiving eutectic Lidocaine/ Prilocaine cream (2gm/10cm2) of Prilox cream), for 60- 70 min under occlusive dressing. 2. Group B - Patients receiving topical diclofenac 4 % spray gel for 60- 70 min, covering an absorption area of 50 cm2 3. Group C: control – Direct cannulation was done without any intervention. Results - Group B showed significantly least number of patients complaining pain on IV cannulation in comparison to group A and group C. The Mean VAS scores were found to be maximum in GROUP C: control-8.76 ± 4.14, then in GROUP A: EMLA- 2.54 ± 4.21.and least in GROUP B: Diclofenac 4% spray-1.13 ± 3.05. Erythema, induration and edema were significantly reported to be higher for the control group. Also group A patients reported adverse skin reactions more than patients in group B. Conclusion - It can be concluded that diclofenac spray 4 % and EMLA cream are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of venous cannulation pain as compared to the control group. However, a higher incidence of skin blanching, erythema, and oedema associated with EMLA cream and a lower incidence of these adverse effects favours the use of diclofenac spray 4%. They are promising agents for the treatment of venous cannulation pain.

Keywords: diclofenac spray, EMLA, intravenous, pain

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35 Electrophoretic Changes in Testis and Liver of Mice after Exposure to Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma, Mohammad Asif

Abstract:

Diclofenac sodium being one of the most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is normally used as painkiller and to reduce inflammation. The drug is known to alter the enzymatic activities of acid and alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminases. The drug also results in change in the concentration of proteins and lipids in the body. The present study is an attempt to study different biochemical changes electrophoretically due to administration of different doses of diclofenac (4mg/kg/body weight and 14mg/kg/body weight) on liver and testes of mice from 7-28 days of investigation. Homogenization of the tissue was done, supernatant separated was loaded in the gel and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was conducted. Diclofenac administration resulted in alterations of all these biochemical parameters which were observed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic studies. The severe degenerative changes as observed during later stages of the experiment showed correlation with increase or decrease in the activities of all the enzymes studied in the present investigation. Image analysis of gel in liver showed a decline of 7.4 and 5.3 % in low and high dose group after 7 days whereas a decline of 9.6 and 7.5% was registered after 28 days of investigation. Similar analysis for testis also showed an appreciable decline in the activity of alkaline phosphatase after 28 days. Gel analysis of serum was also performed to find a correlation in the enzymatic activities between the tissue and blood.

Keywords: diclofenac, inflammation, polyacrylamide, phosphatase

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34 Therapeutic Effect of Diisopropyldithiocarbamate Sodium Salt Against Diclofenac Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rats

Authors: Tella Toluwani, Adegbegi Ademuyiwa, Musei Chiedu, Adekunle Odola, Joseph Woods, Adaramoye Oluwatosin

Abstract:

Dithiocarbamates are very useful biological agents with antioxidant properties. Diclofenac (DIC) is a non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent. The use of diclofenac has been linked with reproductive toxicity/damage. The purpose of this study is (i) To investigate the therapeutic potential of diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E (VIT E) against diclofenac induced toxicity in the testes of male Wistar rats. (ii) To investigate the effect of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E on ameliorating damage done to the testes through histological analysis of the testes. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were used for the experiment, they were divided into six (6) groups, the animals in group 1 served as control, animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 received DIC only, DIC and (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)), DIC and VIT E, (Na(i-Pr₂dtc) only and VIT E only respectively. A single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of DIC was administered to male Wistar rats, while 30 mg/kg body weight of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) was used to treat both normal and DIC treated animals, control animals were treated with the vehicle, after 24 hrs of treatment the animals were euthanized and the testes were removed for analysis. The treatment of rats with Na(i-Pr₂dtc) significantly restored catalase (CAT) activity depressed by diclofenac. (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) also restored glutathione levels reduced by DIC treatment and this was also accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. VIT E significantly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with DIC only treated animals. Photomicrographs of testes from (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) treated rats showed seminiferous epithelium with no lesions. We conclude that (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) has an antioxidant effect, which might be related to the dose and duration of administration.

Keywords: Diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt, diclofenac, vitamin E, testes

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33 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka

Abstract:

Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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32 Impect of Human on Prey of Birds in North West Rajasthan

Authors: Dau Lal Bohra, Sradha Vyas

Abstract:

Bird species are already showing climate-related changes in the dates they migrate and breed, and in the timing of other key life-history events. Treats of feeding managements raptors have performed important ecological, traditional and aesthetic functions throughout the Indian subcontinent. The declines in India result from elevated adult and juvenile mortality, and low breeding success. The widespread and rapid pattern of declines, i.e. in all areas irrespective of habitat or protection status suggest that persecution through shooting or poisoning, whilst important at a local scale, are unlikely to have caused the declines. A mass killing of several species of vultures in the Indian subcontinent over the last two decades is largely blamed on the presence of a drug. Veterinary diclofenac caused an unprecedented decline in South Asia’s Gyps vulture populations, with some species declining by more than 97% between 1992 and 2007. Veterinary diclofenac causes renal failure in vultures, and killed tens of millions of such birds in the Indian sub-continent. The drug was finally banned there for veterinary purposes in 2006. This drug is now ‘a global problem’ threatening many vulnerable birds of prey. Recently, stappe eagles are also susceptible to veterinary diclofenac, effectively increasing the potential threat level, and the risks for European biodiversity. Steppe eagles are closely related with golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetus), imperial eagles (Aquila heliaca) and Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti), and all these species scavenge opportunistically on carcasses throughout their range. The Spanish imperial eagle, considered Vulnerable at global level, is now particularly at risk, due to the availability of diclofenac in Spain. These findings strengthen the case for banning veterinary diclofenac across. From year 2011 to 2014 more than 300 hundred birds dead in jorbeer, Bikaner. Now, with unequivocal evidence that this veterinary drug can cause a much wider impact on Europe´s biodiversity, it is time for action – please ban diclofenac human brand also in multi-dose vial from market.

Keywords: mortility, prey of birds, diclofenac, Rajasthan

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31 Transdermal Delivery of Sodium Diclofenac from Palm Kernel Oil Esteres Nanoemulsions

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that has been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of the drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using the surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils, contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research aimed to study the effect of terpene type and concentration on sodium diclofenac permeation from palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions and physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions systems. The effect of various terpenes of geraniol, menthone, menthol, cineol and nerolidol at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% on permeation of sodium diclofenac were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and rat skin as permeation membrane. The results of this part demonstrated that all terpenes showed promoting effect on sodium diclofenac penetration. However, menthol and menthone at all concentrations showed significant effects (<0.05) on drug permeation. The most outstanding terpene was menthol with the most significant effect for skin permeability of sodium diclofenac. The effect of terpenes on physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion systems was investigated on the parameters of particle size, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The result showed that all terpenes had the significant effect on particle size and non-significant effects on the zeta potential of the nanoemulsion systems. The effect of terpenes was significant on pH, excluding the menthone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, and cineol and nerolidol at the concentration of 2.0%. Terpenes also had significant effect on viscosity of nanoemulsions exception of menthone and cineol at the concentration of 0.5%. The result of conductivity measurements showed that all terpenes at all concentration except cineol at the concentration of 0.5% represented significant effect on electrical conductivity.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, terpenes, skin permeation

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30 Preparation and Characterization of Diclofenac Sodium Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle

Authors: Oktavia Eka Puspita

Abstract:

The possibility of using Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN) for topical use is an interesting feature concerning this system has occlusive properties on the skin surface therefore enhance the penetration of drugs through the stratum corneum by increased hydration. This advantage can be used to enhance the drug penetration of topical delivery such as Diclofenac sodium for the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The purpose of this study was focused on the preparation and physical characterization of Diclofenac sodium loaded SLN (D-SLN). D loaded SLN were prepared by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. Since the occlusion factor of SLN is related to its particle size the formulation of D-SLN in present study two formulations different in its surfactant contents were prepared to investigate the difference of the particle size resulted. Surfactants selected for preparation of formulation A (FA) were lecithin soya and Tween 80 whereas formulation B (FB) were lecithin soya, Tween 80, and Sodium Lauryl Sulphate. D-SLN were characterized for particle size and distribution, polydispersity index (PI), zeta potential using Beckman-Coulter Delsa™ Nano. Overall, the particle size obtained from FA was larger than FB. FA has 90% of the particles were above 1000 nm, while FB has 90% were below 100 nm.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, hot homogenization technique, particle size analysis, topical administration

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29 Layer-by-Layer Modified Ceramic Membranes for Micropollutant Removal

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese

Abstract:

Ceramic membranes for water purification combine excellent stability with long-life characteristics and high chemical resistance. Layer-by-Layer coating is a well-known technique for customization and optimization of filtration properties of membranes but is mostly used on polymeric membranes. Ceramic membranes comprising a metal oxide filtration layer of Al2O3 or TiO2 are charged and therefore highly suitable for polyelectrolyte adsorption. The high stability of the membrane support allows efficient backwash and chemical cleaning of the membrane. The presented study reports metal oxide/organic composite membrane with an increased rejection of bivalent salts like MgSO4 and the organic micropollutant Diclofenac. A self-build apparatus was used for applying the polyelectrolyte multilayers on the ceramic membrane. The device controls the flow and timing of the polyelectrolytes and washing solutions. As support for the Layer-by-Layer coat, ceramic mono-channel membranes were used with an inner capillary of 8 mm diameter, which is connected to the coating device. The inner wall of the capillary is coated subsequently with polycat- and anions. The filtration experiments were performed with a feed solution of MgSO4 and Diclofenac. The salt content of the permeate was detected conductometrically and Diclofenac was measured with UV-Adsorption. The concluded results show retention values of magnesium sulfate of 70% and diclofenac retention of 60%. Further experimental research studied various parameters of the composite membrane-like Molecular Weight Cut Off and pore size, Zeta potential and its mechanical and chemical robustness.

Keywords: water purification, polyelectrolytes, membrane modification, layer-by-layer coating, ceramic membranes

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28 Stability and Rheology of Sodium Diclofenac-Loaded and Unloaded Palm Kernel Oil Esters Nanoemulsion Systems

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Abu Bakar Salleh

Abstract:

Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that have been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils; contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research was aimed to study the effect of O/S ratio on stability and rheological behavior of sodium diclofenac loaded and unloaded palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion systems. The effect of different O/S ratio of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 on stability of the drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations was evaluated by centrifugation, freeze-thaw cycle and storage stability tests. Lecithin and cremophor EL were used as surfactant. The stability of the prepared nanoemulsion formulations was assessed based on the change in zeta potential and droplet size as a function of time. Instability mechanisms including coalescence and Ostwald ripening for the nanoemulsion system were discussed. In comparison between drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations, drug-loaded formulations represented smaller particle size and higher stability. In addition, the O/S ratio of 0.5 was found to be the best ratio of oil and surfactant for production of a nanoemulsion with the highest stability. The effect of O/S ratio on rheological properties of drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion systems was studied by plotting the flow curves of shear stress (τ) and viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate (γ). The data were fitted to the Power Law model. The results showed that all nanoemulsion formulations exhibited non-Newtonian flow behaviour by displaying shear thinning behaviour. Viscosity and yield stress were also evaluated. The nanoemulsion formulation with the O/S ratio of 0.5 represented higher viscosity and K values. In addition, the sodium diclofenac loaded formulations had more viscosity and higher yield stress than drug-unloaded formulations.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, rheoligy, stability

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27 Biochemical Changes in the Liver of Mice after Exposure to Different Doses of Diclofenac Sodium

Authors: Deepak Mohan, Sushma Sharma

Abstract:

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of widely used drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid diseases and to relieve pain and inflammation due to their analgesic anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties. The therapeutic and many of the toxic effects of NSAIDs result from reversible inhibition of enzymes in the cyclooxygenase (COX) group. In the present investigation the effect of the drug on the concentration of lipids, and on the activity of the enzymes i.e. acid and alkaline phosphatase, GOT, GPT and lipid peroxidase were studied. There was a significant enhancement in the activities of both acid and alkaline phosphatase after 21 days of treatment. Proportionate increase in the MDA contents was observed after different days of diclofenac treatment. Cellular damage in the liver resulted in decrease in the activity of both GOT (Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) and GPT (Glutamate pyruvate transaminase) in both low and high dose groups. Significant decrease in the liver contents was also observed in both dose groups.

Keywords: anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malondialdehyde

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26 Formulation of Suppositories Using Allanblackia Floribunda Butter as a Base

Authors: Mary Konadu

Abstract:

The rectal route for drug administration is becoming attractive to drug formulators because it can avoid hepatic first-pass effects, decrease gastrointestinal side effects and avoid undesirable effects of meals on drug absorption. Suppositories have been recognized as an alternative to the oral route in situations such as when the patient is comatose, unable to swallow, or when the drug produces nausea or vomiting. Effective drug delivery with appropriate pharmaceutical excipient is key in the production of clinically useful preparations. The high cost of available excipients coupled with other disadvantages have led to the exploration of potential excipients from natural sources. Allanblackia floribunda butter, a naturally occurring lipid, is used for medicinal, culinary, and cosmetic purposes. Different extraction methods (solvent (hexane) extraction, traditional/hot water extraction, and cold/screw press extraction) were employed to extract the oil. The different extracts of A. floribunda oil were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and mineral content. The oil was used as a base to formulate Paracetamol and Diclofenac suppositories. Quality control test were carried out on the formulated suppositories. The %age oil yield for hexane extract, hot water extract, and cold press extract were 50.40 ±0.00, 37.36±0.00, and 20.48±0.00, respectively. The acid value, saponification value, iodine value and free fatty acid were 1.159 ± 0.065, 208.51 ± 8.450, 49.877 ± 0.690 and 0.583 ± 0.032 respectively for hexane extract; 3.480 ± 0.055, 204.672±2.863, 49.04 ± 0.76 and 1.747 ± 0.028 respectively for hot water/traditional extract; 4.43 ± 0.055, 192.05±1.56, 49.96 ± 0.29 and 2.23 ± 0.03 respectively for cold press extract. Calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and iron were minerals found to be present in the A. floribunda butter extracts. The uniformity of weight, hardness, disintegration time, and uniformity of content were found to be within the acceptable range. The melting point ranges for all the suppositories were found to be satisfactory. The cumulative drug release (%) of the suppositories at 45 minutes was 90.19±0.00 (Hot water extract), 93.75±0.00 (Cold Pres Extract), and 98.16±0.00 (Hexane Extract) for Paracetamol suppositories. Diclofenac sodium suppositories had a cumulative %age release of 81.60±0.00 (Hot water Extract), 95.33±0.00 (Cold Press Extract), and 99.20±0.00 (Hexane Extract). The physicochemical parameters obtained from this study shows that Allanblackia floribunda seed oil is edible and can be used as a suppository base. The suppository formulation was successful, and the quality control tests conformed to Pharmacopoeia standard.

Keywords: allanblackia foribunda, paracetamol, diclofenac, suppositories

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25 Biodegradation of Carbamazepine and Diclofenac by Bacterial Strain Labrys Portucalensis

Authors: V. S. Bessa, I. S. Moreira, S. Murgolo, C. Piccirillo, G. Mascolo, P. M. L. Castro

Abstract:

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been a topic of increasing concern. Pharmaceuticals are not completely mineralized in the human body and are released on the sewage systems as the pharmaceutical itself and as their “biologically active” metabolites through excretion, as well as by improper elimination and disposal. Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove these emerging pollutants and they are thus released into the environment. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) are two widely used pharmaceuticals, frequently detected in water bodies, including rivers and groundwater, in concentrations ranging from ng L 1 to mg L 1. These two compounds were classified as medium to high-risk pollutants in WWTP effluents and surface waters. Also, CBZ has been suggested as a molecular marker of wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater and the European Union included DCF in the watch list of substances Directive to be monitored. In the present study, biodegradation of CBZ and DCF by the bacterial strain Labrys portucalensis F11, a strain able to degrade other pharmaceutical compounds, was assessed; tests were performed with F11 as single carbon and energy source, as well as in presence of 5.9mM of sodium acetate. In assays supplemented with 2.0 and 4.0 µM of CBZ, the compound was no longer detected in the bulk medium after 24hr and 5days, respectively. Complete degradation was achieved in 21 days for 11.0 µM and in 23 days for 21.0 µM. For the highest concentration tested (43.0 µM), 95% of degradation was achieved in 30days. Supplementation with acetate increased the degradation rate of CBZ, for all tested concentrations. In the case of DCF, when supplemented as a single carbon source, approximately 70% of DCF (1.7, 3.3, 8.4, 17.5 and 34.0 µM) was degraded in 30days. Complete degradation was achieved in the presence of acetate for all tested concentrations, at higher degradation rates. The detection of intermediates produced during DCF biodegradation was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS, which allowed the identification of a range of metabolites. Stoichiometric liberation of chorine occurred and no metabolites were detected at the end of the biodegradation assays suggesting a complete mineralization of DCF. Strain Labrys portucalensis F11 proved to be able to degrade these two top priority environmental contaminants and may be potentially useful for biotechnological applications/environment remediation.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbamazepine, diclofenac, pharmaceuticals

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24 Antimicrobial Efficacy of Some Antibiotics Combinations Tested against Some Molecular Characterized Multiresistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates, in Egypt

Authors: Nourhan Hussein Fanaki, Hoda Mohamed Gamal El-Din Omar, Nihal Kadry Moussa, Eva Adel Edward Farid

Abstract:

The resistance of staphylococci to various antibiotics has become a major concern for health care professionals. The efficacy of the combinations of selected glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin/rifampicin combination, was studied against selected pathogenic staphylococcus isolated from Egypt. The molecular distribution of genes conferring resistance to these four antibiotics was detected among tested clinical isolates. Antibiotic combinations were studied using the checkerboard technique and the time-kill assay (in both the stationary and log phases). Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was tried in the absence and presence of diclofenac sodium as inducer. Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the effect of glycopeptides on the ultrastructure of the cell wall of staphylococci. Attempts were made to cure gentamicin resistance plasmids and to study the transfer of these plasmids by conjugation. Trials for the transformation of the successfully isolated gentamicin resistance plasmid to competent cells were carried out. The detection of genes conferring resistance to the tested antibiotics was performed using the polymerase chain reaction. The studied antibiotic combinations proved their efficacy, especially when tested during the log phase. Induction of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci was more promising in presence of diclofenac sodium, compared to its absence. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the thickening of bacterial cell wall in staphylococcus clinical isolates due to the presence of tested glycopeptides. Curing of gentamicin resistance plasmids was only successful in 2 out of 9 tested isolates, with a curing rate of 1 percent for each. Both isolates, when used as donors in conjugation experiments, yielded promising conjugation frequencies ranging between 5.4 X 10-2 and 7.48 X 10-2 colony forming unit/donor cells. Plasmid isolation was only successful in one out of the two tested isolates. However, low transformation efficiency (59.7 transformants/microgram plasmid DNA) of such plasmids was obtained. Negative regulators of autolysis, such as arlR, lytR and lrgB, as well as cell-wall associated genes, such as pbp4 and/or pbp2, were detected in staphylococcus isolates with reduced susceptibility to the tested glycopeptides. Concerning rifampicin resistance genes, rpoBstaph was detected in 75 percent of the tested staphylococcus isolates. It could be concluded that in vitro studies emphasized the usefulness of the combination of vancomycin or teicoplanin with gentamicin or rifampicin, as well as that of gentamicin with rifampicin, against staphylococci showing varying resistance patterns. However, further in vivo studies are required to ensure the safety and efficacy of such combinations. Diclofenac sodium can act as an inducer of resistance to glycopeptides in staphylococci. Cell-wall thickness is a major contributor to such resistance among them. Gentamicin resistance in these strains could be chromosomally or plasmid mediated. Multiple mutations in the rpoB gene could mediate staphylococcus resistance to rifampicin.

Keywords: glycopeptides, combinations, induction, diclofenac, transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction

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23 Degradation of Diclofenac in Water Using FeO-Based Catalytic Ozonation in a Modified Flotation Cell

Authors: Miguel A. Figueroa, José A. Lara-Ramos, Miguel A. Mueses

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Pharmaceutical residues are a section of emerging contaminants of anthropogenic origin that are present in a myriad of waters with which human beings interact daily and are starting to affect the ecosystem directly. Conventional waste-water treatment systems are not capable of degrading these pharmaceutical effluents because their designs cannot handle the intermediate products and biological effects occurring during its treatment. That is why it is necessary to hybridize conventional waste-water systems with non-conventional processes. In the specific case of an ozonation process, its efficiency highly depends on a perfect dispersion of ozone, long times of interaction of the gas-liquid phases and the size of the ozone bubbles formed through-out the reaction system. In order to increase the efficiency of these parameters, the use of a modified flotation cell has been proposed recently as a reactive system, which is used at an industrial level to facilitate the suspension of particles and spreading gas bubbles through the reactor volume at a high rate. The objective of the present work is the development of a mathematical model that can closely predict the kinetic rates of reactions taking place in the flotation cell at an experimental scale by means of identifying proper reaction mechanisms that take into account the modified chemical and hydrodynamic factors in the FeO-catalyzed Ozonation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions in a flotation cell. The methodology is comprised of three steps: an experimental phase where a modified flotation cell reactor is used to analyze the effects of ozone concentration and loading catalyst over the degradation of Diclofenac aqueous solutions. The performance is evaluated through an index of utilized ozone, which relates the amount of ozone supplied to the system per milligram of degraded pollutant. Next, a theoretical phase where the reaction mechanisms taking place during the experiments must be identified and proposed that details the multiple direct and indirect reactions the system goes through. Finally, a kinetic model is obtained that can mathematically represent the reaction mechanisms with adjustable parameters that can be fitted to the experimental results and give the model a proper physical meaning. The expected results are a robust reaction rate law that can simulate the improved results of Diclofenac mineralization on water using the modified flotation cell reactor. By means of this methodology, the following results were obtained: A robust reaction pathways mechanism showcasing the intermediates, free-radicals and products of the reaction, Optimal values of reaction rate constants that simulated Hatta numbers lower than 3 for the system modeled, degradation percentages of 100%, TOC (Total organic carbon) removal percentage of 69.9 only requiring an optimal value of FeO catalyst of 0.3 g/L. These results showed that a flotation cell could be used as a reactor in ozonation, catalytic ozonation and photocatalytic ozonation processes, since it produces high reaction rate constants and reduces mass transfer limitations (Ha > 3) by producing microbubbles and maintaining a good catalyst distribution.

Keywords: advanced oxidation technologies, iron oxide, emergent contaminants, AOTS intensification

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22 Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Methanol Extract of Rhizophora racemosa Leaf in Albino Rats

Authors: Angalabiri-Owei E. Bekekeme, Brambaifa Nelson

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In view of the peculiar environment of the Niger Delta, access to modern health care is limited, hence the inhabitants especially those in the swampy areas resorts to sourcing for alternatives cure for their ailments using plants commonly found in this area without scientific evaluation. Rhizophora racemosa, G. F. Meyer (Rhizophoraceae) is the most abundant mangrove plant in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The plant has been observed to be used for relief of a toothache and dysmenorrhoea among some Ijaw communities in the region. This work has revealed the likely potential of the plant in drug discovery and development. The crude methanol extract at doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) were tested for analgesic effect using fresh egg albumin induced inflammatory pain and Randall–Sellito method to assess the pain threshold. The anti-inflammatory effect was also evaluated with the extract at doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) using acute inflammatory model; fresh egg albumin induced paw oedema and assessed using Plethysmometer in rats. The methanol extracts 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg exhibited a significant (P < 0.001) and dose-dependent analgesic activity compared with the negative control and a standard drug diclofenac using ANOVA with Least Significant Difference post hoc test as evidenced by increased pain threshold. Also, the extract significantly (P < 0.001) reduced the rat paw oedema induced by the sub plantar injection of fresh egg albumin when compared with the negative control and a standard diclofenac using above statistical methods. This study revealed that the plant possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities hence provide scientific bases for use as medicine.

Keywords: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, plethysmometer, Rhizophora racemosa

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
21 The Influence of Ibuprofen, Diclofenac and Naproxen on Composition and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Atriplex patula and Spinacia oleracea

Authors: Ocsana Opris, Ildiko Lung, Maria L. Soran, Alexandra Ciorita, Lucian Copolovici

Abstract:

The effects assessment of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value are a very important research topic. Continuously worldwide consumption of drugs leads to significant environmental pollution, thus generating environmental stress. Understanding the effects of the important drugs on plant composition and ultrastructural modification is still limited, especially at environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on chlorophylls content, carotenoids content, total polyphenols content, antioxidant capacity, and ultrastructure of orache (Atriplex patula L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). All green leafy vegetables selected for this study were grown in controlled conditions and treated with solutions of different concentrations (0.1‒1 mg L⁻¹) of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen. After eight weeks of exposure of the plants to NSAIDs, the chlorophylls and carotenoids content were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometer detectors, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Also, the ultrastructural analyses of the vegetables were performed using transmission electron microscopy in order to assess the influence of the selected NSAIDs on cellular organisms, mainly photosynthetic organisms (chloroplasts), energy supply organisms (mitochondria) and nucleus as a cellular metabolism coordinator. In comparison with the control plants, decreases in the content of chlorophylls were observed in the case of the Atriplex patula L. plants treated with ibuprofen (11-34%) and naproxen (25-52%). Also, the chlorophylls content from Spinacia oleracea L. was affected, the lowest decrease (34%) being obtained in the case of the treatment with naproxen (1 mg L⁻¹). Diclofenac (1 mg L⁻¹) affected the total polyphenols content (a decrease of 45%) of Atriplex patula L. and ibuprofen (1 mg L⁻¹) affected the total polyphenols content (a decrease of 20%) of Spinacia oleracea L. The results obtained also indicate a moderate reduction of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in the treated plants, in comparison with the controls. The investigations by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the green leafy vegetables were affected by the selected NSAIDs. Thus, this research contributes to a better understanding of the adverse effects of these drugs on studied plants. Important to mention is that the dietary intake of these drugs contaminated plants, plants with important nutritional value, may also presume a risk to human health, but currently little is known about the fate of the drugs in plants and their effect on or risk to the ecosystem.

Keywords: abiotic stress, green leafy vegetables, pigments content, ultra structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
20 Raw Japanese Quail Egg Produces Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Gastro-Protective Effects in Rats

Authors: Sani Ismaila, Shafiu Yau, Abubakar Salisu, Buhari Salisu, Sharifat Balogun, Mustapha Abubakar, Biobaku Khalid, Agaie Bello

Abstract:

Over the years, Japanese quail egg has been in use in the management of diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of raw Quail egg (yolk + albumin) in rats. Pain was assessed in rats by recording the latent period and writing reflex, anti-inflammatory effect was determined using both motility and compression test, while the gastro-protective effects were assessed by observing the histology of the stomach after diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers and subsequent treatment with the quail egg, Rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups; Groups I: were the control non-treated (NT), Group II were treated with Tramadol 50 mg/kg/Os (TMD) or Indomethacin (IND) 5mg/kg/Os (positive control for the writhing reflex determination), while group III and IV were treated with 3 and 6g/kg of raw quail egg respectively). Groups treated with quail egg in both doses showed a significant increase in the latent period (p <0 .05) when compared to the control NT, but lower than the group treated with tramadol at 20mins interval (p<0.05). Writing reflexes decrease in groups II, III, and IV compared to the NT group (p < 0.05). While motility increases significantly (p < 0.05) in groups II, compared to I (p<0.05). Control non-treated rats showed a quicker and extensive response to compression using the Vanier calliper on the inflamed paw compared to groups II-IV (p < 0.05). Histological studies of the stomach revealed sloughing of the epithelia, cellular infiltration with micro abscesses in the non-treated, while groups treated concurrently with quail egg showed proliferation of the glandular epithelia and goblet cells, and those treated 30 minutes before diclofenac administration showed proliferation of glands and thickening of the squamous epithelia. This study showed that quail egg has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective potentials and can be used as adjuvant treatment whenever COX-2 enzymes inhibitors are indicated.

Keywords: analgesia, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective effect, japanese quail egg

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
19 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen

Abstract:

The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy milk, nanoparticles, NSIDs, plant extracts, resistance modulation, S. aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
18 Influence of Cobalt Incorporation on the Structure and Properties of SOL-Gel Derived Mesoporous Bioglass Nanoparticles

Authors: Ahmed El-Fiqi, Hae-Won Kim

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Incorporation of therapeutic elements such as Sr, Cu and Co into bioglass structure and their release as ions is considered as one of the promising approaches to enhance cellular responses, e.g., osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Here, cobalt as angiogenesis promoter has been incorporated (at 0, 1 and 4 mol%) into sol-gel derived calcium silicate mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles. The composition and structure of cobalt-free (CFN) and cobalt-doped (CDN) mesoporous bioglass nanoparticles have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR). The physicochemical properties of CFN and CDN have been investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). Furthermore, the textural properties, including specific surface area, pore-volume, and pore size, have been analyzed from N²⁻sorption analyses. Surface charges of CFN and CDN were also determined from surface zeta potential measurements. The release of ions, including Co²⁺, Ca²⁺, and SiO₄⁴⁻ has been analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Loading and release of diclofenac as an anti-inflammatory drug model were explored in vitro using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). XRD results ensured the amorphous state of CFN and CDN whereas, XRF further confirmed that their chemical compositions are very close to the designed compositions. HR-TEM analyses unveiled nanoparticles with spherical morphologies, highly mesoporous textures, and sizes in the range of 90 - 100 nm. Moreover, N²⁻ sorption analyses revealed that the nanoparticles have pores with sizes of 3.2 - 2.6 nm, pore volumes of 0.41 - 0.35 cc/g and highly surface areas in the range of 716 - 830 m²/g. High-resolution XPS analysis of Co 2p core level provided structural information about Co atomic environment and it confirmed the electronic state of Co in the glass matrix. ICP-AES analysis showed the release of therapeutic doses of Co²⁺ ions from 4% CDN up to 100 ppm within 14 days. Finally, diclofenac loading and release have ensured the drug/ion co-delivery capability of 4% CDN.

Keywords: mesoporous bioactive glass, nanoparticles, cobalt ions, release

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
17 Effect of Different Sterilization Processes on Drug Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel

Authors: Raquel Galante, Marina Braga, Daniela Ghisleni, Terezinha J. A. Pinto, Rogério Colaço, Ana Paula Serro

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The sensitive nature of soft biomaterials, such as hydrogels, renders their sterilization a particularly challenging task for the biomedical industry. Widely used contact lenses are now studied as promising platforms for topical corneal drug delivery. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, the influence of sterilization methods on these systems has yet to be evaluated. The main goal of this study was to understand how different pairs drug-hydrogel would interact under an ozone-based sterilization method in comparison with two conventional processes (steam heat and gamma irradiation). For that, Si-Hy containing hydroxylethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and [tris(trimethylsiloxy)silyl]propyl methacrylate (TRIS) was produced and soaked in different drug solutions, commonly used for the treatment of ocular diseases (levofloxacin, chlorhexidine, diclofenac and timolol maleate). The drug release profiles and main material properties were evaluated before and after the sterilization. Namely, swelling capacity was determined by water uptake studies, transparency was accessed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, surface topography/morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical properties by performing tensile tests. The drug released was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effectiveness of the sterilization procedures was assured by performing sterility tests. Ozone gas method led to a significant reduction of drug released and to the formation of degradation products specially for diclofenac and levofloxacin. Gamma irradiation led to darkening of the loaded Si-Hys and to the complete degradation of levofloxacin. Steam heat led to smoother surfaces and to a decrease of the amount of drug released, however, with no formation of degradation products. This difference in the total drug released could be the related to drug/polymer interactions promoted by the sterilization conditions in presence of the drug. Our findings offer important insights that, in turn, could be a useful contribution to the safe development of actual products.

Keywords: drug delivery, silicone hydrogels, sterilization, gamma irradiation, steam heat, ozone gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
16 Synthesis and Analgesic activity of 2-(p-Substituted phenyl)-3-[4-(N-Substituted amino) methyl-2-oxo indoilin-3-ylidene]benzenesulfonyl Quinazolin-4(3H)-One Derivatives

Authors: N. Gopal, K. Jaasminerjiit, L. Z. Xiang

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Quinazoline-4(3H)-one ring system has been consistently regarded as promising privileged structural icon owing to its pharmacodynamic versatility in many of its synthetic derivatives as well as in several naturally occurring alkaloids. The literature reveals that 2nd & 3rd positions of the quinazolin-4(3H)-one pharmacophore are the target for substitution with other moieties. On the other hand, sulphanilamide derivatives and isatin moiety also displayed valuable biological activities. Hence, it was thought worthwhile to study the effects of three pharmacophoric moieties like quinazolinone, sulphanilamide and isatin in a single molecule for the better analgesic activity with lower toxicity. Series of novel 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives have been synthesised from the intermediate Schiff base of 2-(4’-substitutedphenyl)-3-[(N-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-4”-sulphonamidophenyl]-quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives, which was prepared from reacting 2-(substituted phenyl)-4H-benzo[d][1,3]-oxazin-4-one with sulphanilamide. The required benzoxazinone derivatives were prepared by reacting anthranilic acid with benzoyl chloride. All the compounds structure was characterised by using H1 NMR, IR and Mass spectroscopy. The intermediate Schiff base and final Mannich base compounds were evaluated for their analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing method at the dose of 25mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg (bw) and Diclofenac (25mg/kg of body weight) will be used as the reference drugs. From the results of the study, it has been observed that final Mannich base showed a better analgesic activity when compared to the parent Schiff bases, it was found that compound substituted with N-methyl piperazine at 1st position of the indole nucleus of the final quinazolinone derivatives (GA4B1) i.e. 2-(4’-methoxy phenyl)-3-[4-(N-(1-N-methyl piperazine amine) methyl-2-oxo indoilin-3-ylidene] benzenesulfonyl quinazolin-4(3H)-one increases the analgesic activity and among the synthesised compounds, GA4B1 exhibited quite superior analgesic activity. The remaining Schiff bases and Mannich base derivatives exhibited moderate analgesic activity. All the compounds showed a dose dependent activity. None of the synthesised compound showed ulcer index whereas the standard drug, diclofenac [25 mg/kg (bw)] showed significantly higher gross ulcer index values.

Keywords: analgesic activity, isatin, mannich base, quinazolin-4(3H)-one

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15 A New Gateway for Rheumatoid Arthritis: COXIBs with a Safety Cardiovascular Profile

Authors: Malvina Hoxha, Valerie Capra, Carola Buccellati, Angelo Sala, Clara Cena, Roberta Fruttero, Massimo Bertinaria, G. Enrico Rovati

Abstract:

Today COXIBs are used in the treatment of arthritis and many other painful conditions in selected patients with high gastrointestinal risk and low CV risk. Previously we found a new mechanism of action of a traditional NSAID (diclofenac) and a COXIB (lumiracoxib) that possess weak competitive antagonism at the TP receptor. We hypothesize that modifying the structure of a known specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COXIB), so that it becomes also a more potent thromboxane antagonist will preserve the anti-inflammatory and gastrointestinal safety typical of COXIBs and prevent the cardiovascular risk associated with long term therapy.

Keywords: cyclooxygenase, inflammation, lumiracoxib, thromboxane A2

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
14 Non-Thermal Pulsed Plasma Discharge for Contaminants of Emerging Concern Removal in Water

Authors: Davide Palma, Dimitra Papagiannaki, Marco Minella, Manuel Lai, Rita Binetti, Claire Richard

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Modern analytical technologies allow us to detect water contaminants at trace and ultra-trace concentrations highlighting how a large number of organic compounds is not efficiently abated by most wastewater treatment facilities relying on biological processes; we usually refer to these micropollutants as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The availability of reliable end effective technologies, able to guarantee the high standards of water quality demanded by legislators worldwide, has therefore become a primary need. In this context, water plasma stands out among developing technologies as it is extremely effective in the abatement of numerous classes of pollutants, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. In this work, a custom-built non-thermal pulsed plasma discharge generator was used to abate the concentration of selected CECs in the water samples. Samples were treated in a 50 mL pyrex reactor using two different types of plasma discharge occurring at the surface of the treated solution or, underwater, working with positive polarity. The distance between the tips of the electrodes determined where the discharge was formed: underwater when the distance was < 2mm, at the water surface when the distance was > 2 mm. Peak voltage was in the 100-130kV range with typical current values of 20-40 A. The duration of the pulse was 500 ns, and the frequency of discharge could be manually set between 5 and 45 Hz. Treatment of 100 µM diclofenac solution in MilliQ water, with a pulse frequency of 17Hz, revealed that surface discharge was more efficient in the degradation of diclofenac that was no longer detectable after 6 minutes of treatment. Over 30 minutes were required to obtain the same results with underwater discharge. These results are justified by the higher rate of H₂O₂ formation (21.80 µmolL⁻¹min⁻¹ for surface discharge against 1.20 µmolL⁻¹min⁻¹ for underwater discharge), larger discharge volume and UV light emission, high rate of ozone and NOx production (up to 800 and 1400 ppb respectively) observed when working with surface discharge. Then, the surface discharge was used for the treatment of the three selected perfluoroalkyl compounds, namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and pefluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) both individually and in mixture, in ultrapure and groundwater matrices with initial concentration of 1 ppb. In both matrices, PFOS exhibited the best degradation reaching complete removal after 30 min of treatment (degradation rate 0.107 min⁻¹ in ultrapure water and 0.0633 min⁻¹ in groundwater), while the degradation rate of PFOA and PFHxA was slower of around 65% and 80%, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) measurements revealed levels up to 45 mgL⁻¹h⁻¹ in water samples treated with surface discharge, while, in analogous samples treated with underwater discharge, TN increase was 5 to 10 times lower. These results can be explained by the significant NOx concentrations (over 1400 ppb) measured above functioning reactor operating with superficial discharge; rapid NOx hydrolysis led to nitrates accumulation in the solution explaining the observed evolution of TN values. Ionic chromatography measures confirmed that the vast majority of TN was under the form of nitrates. In conclusion, non-thermal pulsed plasma discharge, obtained with a custom-built generator, was proven to effectively degrade diclofenac in water matrices confirming the potential interest of this technology for wastewater treatment. The surface discharge was proven to be more effective in CECs removal due to the high rate of formation of H₂O₂, ozone, reactive radical species, and strong UV light emission. Furthermore, nitrates enriched water obtained after treatment could be an interesting added-value product to be used as fertilizer in agriculture. Acknowledgment: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 765860.

Keywords: CECs removal, nitrogen fixation, non-thermal plasma, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
13 An Unusual Case of Wrist Pain: Idiopathic Avascular Necrosis of the Scaphoid, Preiser’s Disease

Authors: Adae Amoako, Daniel Montero, Peter Murray, George Pujalte

Abstract:

We present a case of a 42-year-old, right-handed Caucasian male who presented to a medical orthopedics clinic with left wrist pain. The patient indicated that the pain started two months prior to the visit. He could only remember helping a friend move furniture prior to the onset of pain. Examination of the left wrist showed limited extension compared to the right. There was clicking with flexion and extension of the wrist on the dorsal aspect. Mild tenderness was noticed over the distal radioulnar joint. There was ulnar and radial deviation on provocation. Initial 4-view x-rays of the left wrist showed mild radiocarpal and scapho-trapezium-trapezoid (ST-T) osteoarthritis, with subchondral cysts seen in the lunate and scaphoid, with no obvious fractures. The patient was initially put in a wrist brace and diclofenac topical gel was prescribed for pain control, as a patient could not take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to gastritis. Despite diclofenac topical gel use and bracing, symptoms remained, and a steroid injection with 1 mL of lidocaine with 10 mg of triamcinolone acetonide was performed under fluoroscopy. He obtained some relief but after 3 months, the injection had to be repeated. On 2-month follow up after the initial evaluation, symptoms persisted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained which showed an abnormal T1 hypodense signal involving the proximal pole of the scaphoid and articular collapse proximally of the scaphoid, with marked irregularity of the overlying cartilage, suggesting a remote injury, findings consistent with avascular necrosis of the proximal pole of the scaphoid. A month after that, the patient had the left proximal pole of the scaphoid debrided and an intercompartmental supraretinacular artery vascularized. Pedicle bone graft reconstruction of the proximal pole of the left scaphoid was done. A non-vascularized autograft from the left radius was also applied. He was put in a thumb spica cast with the interphalangeal joint free for 6 weeks. On 6-week follow-up after surgery, the patient was healing well and could make a composite fist with his left hand. The diagnosis of Preiser’s disease is primarily based on radiological findings. Due to the fact that necrosis happens over a period of time, most AVNs are diagnosed at the late stages of the disease. There appear to be no specific guidelines on the management AVN of the scaphoid. In the past, immobilization and arthroscopic debridement had been used. Radial osteotomy has also been tried. Vascularized bone grafts have also been used to treat Preiser’s disease. In our patient, we used three of these treatment modalities, starting with conservative management with topical NSAIDS and immobilization, then debridement with vascularized bone grafts.

Keywords: wrist pain, avascular necrosis of the scaphoid, Preiser’s disease, vascularized bone grafts

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12 The Hidden Mechanism beyond Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Potent in vivo and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Shahira M. Ezzat, Marwa I. Ezzat, Mona M. Okba, Esther T. Menze, Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim, Shahnas O. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: In order to decrease the burden of the high cost of synthetic drugs, it is important to focus on phytopharmaceuticals. The aim of our study was to search for the mechanism of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) anti-inflammatory potential and to correlate it to its biophytochemicals. Methods: Various extracts viz. water, 50%, 70%, 80%, and 90% ethanol were prepared from ginger rhizomes. Fractionation of the aqueous extract (AE) was accomplished using Diaion HP-20. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the different extracts and isolated compounds was evaluated by protein denaturation inhibition, membrane stabilization, protease inhibition, and anti-lipoxygenase assays. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AE was estimated by assessment of rat paw oedema after carrageenan injection. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), certain inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, INFr, MCP-1MIP, RANTES, and Nox) levels and MPO activity in the paw edema exudates were measured. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was also determined. Histopathological alterations of paw tissues were scored. Results: All the tested extracts showed significant (p < 0.1) anti-inflammatory activities. The highest percentage of heat induced albumin denaturation (66%) was exhibited by the 50% ethanol (250 μg/ml). The 70 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) were more potent as membrane stabilizers (34.5 and 37%, respectively) than diclofenac (33%). The 80 and 90% ethanol extracts (500 μg/ml) showed maximum protease inhibition (56%). The strongest anti-lipoxygenase activity was observed for the AE. It showed more significant lipoxygenase inhibition activity than that of diclofenac (58% and 52%, respectively) at the same concentration (125 μg/ml). Fractionation of AE yielded four main fractions (Fr I-IV) which showed significant in vitro anti-inflammatory. Purification of Fr-III and IV led to the isolation of 6-poradol (G1), 6-shogaol (G2); methyl 6- gingerol (G3), 5-gingerol (G4), 6-gingerol (G5), 8-gingerol (G6), 10-gingerol (G7), and 1-dehydro-6-gingerol (G8). G2 (62.5 ug/ml), G1 (250 ug/ml), and G8 (250 ug/ml) exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in all studied assays, while G4 and G5 exhibited moderate activity. In vivo administration of AE ameliorated rat paw oedema in a dose-dependent manner. AE (at 200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction (60%) of PGE2 production. The AE at different doses (at 25-200 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in inflammatory markers except for IL-1α. AE (at 25 mg/kg) is superior to indomethacin in reduction of IL-1β. Treatment of animals with the AE (100, 200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (10 mg/kg) showed significant reduction in TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, and RANTES levels, and MPO activity by about (31, 57 and 32% ) (65, 60 and 57%) (27, 41 and 28%) (23, 32 and 23%) (66, 67 and 67%) respectively. AE at 100 and 200 mg/kg was equipotent to indomethacin in reduction of NOₓ level and in increasing the TAC. Histopathological examination revealed very few inflammatory cells infiltration and oedema after administration of AE (200 mg/kg) prior to carrageenan. Conclusion: Ginger anti-inflammatory activity is mediated by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophils activation as well as negatively affecting monocyte and leukocyte migration. Moreover, it produced dose-dependent decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and replenished the total antioxidant capacity. We strongly recommend future investigations of ginger in the potential signal transduction pathways.

Keywords: anti-lipoxygenase activity, inflammatory markers, 1-dehydro-6-gingerol, 6-shogaol

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11 Development of an Erodable Matrix Drug Delivery Platform for Controled Delivery of Non Steroidal Anti Inflamatory Drugs Using Melt Granulation Process

Authors: A. Hilsana, Vinay U. Rao, M. Sudhakar

Abstract:

Even though a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are available with different chemistries, they share a common solubility characteristic that is they are relatively more soluble in alkaline environment and practically insoluble in acidic environment. This work deals with developing a wax matrix drug delivery platform for controlled delivery of three model NSAIDS, Diclofenac sodium (DNa), Mefenamic acid (MA) and Naproxen (NPX) using the melt granulation technique. The aim of developing the platform was to have a general understanding on how an erodible matrix system modulates drug delivery rate and extent and how it can be optimized to give a delivery system which shall release the drug as per a common target product profile (TPP). Commonly used waxes like Cetostearyl alcohol and stearic acid were used singly an in combination to achieve a TPP of not 15 to 35% in 1 hour and not less than 80% Q in 24 hours. Full factorial design of experiments was followed for optimization of the formulation.

Keywords: NSAIDs, controlled delivery, target product profile, melt granulation

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10 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė

Abstract:

An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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