Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2781

Search results for: drug release kinetics

2781 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang

Abstract:

A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics

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2780 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.

Keywords: levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics

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2779 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

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2778 The Role of Long-Chain Ionic Surfactants on Extending Drug Delivery from Contact Lenses

Authors: Cesar Torres, Robert Briber, Nam Sun Wang

Abstract:

Eye drops are the most commonly used treatment for short-term and long-term ophthalmic diseases. However, eye drops could deliver only about 5% of the functional ingredients contained in a burst dosage. To address the limitations of eye drops, the use of therapeutic contact lenses has been introduced. Drug-loaded contact lenses provide drugs a longer residence time in the tear film and hence, decrease the potential risk of side effects. Nevertheless, a major limitation of contact lenses as drug delivery devices is that most of the drug absorbed is released within the first few hours. This fact limits their use for extended release. The present study demonstrates the application of long-alkyl chain ionic surfactants on extending drug release kinetics from commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses. In vitro release experiments were carried by immersing drug-containing contact lenses in phosphate buffer saline at physiological pH. The drug concentration as a function of time was monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results of the study demonstrate that release kinetics is dependent on the ionic surfactant weight percent in the contact lenses, and on the length of the hydrophobic alkyl chain of the ionic surfactants. The use of ionic surfactants in contact lenses can extend the delivery of drugs from a few hours to a few weeks, depending on the physicochemical properties of the drugs. Contact lenses embedded with ionic surfactants could be potential biomaterials to be used for extended drug delivery and in the treatment of ophthalmic diseases. However, ocular irritation and toxicity studies would be needed to evaluate the safety of the approach.

Keywords: contact lenses, drug delivery, controlled release, ionic surfactant

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2777 Effect of Swelling Pressure on Drug Release from Polyelectrolyte Micro-Hydrogel Particles

Authors: Mina Boroujerdi, Javad Tavakoli

Abstract:

Hydrogels are extensively studied as matrices for the controlled release of drugs. To evaluate the mobility of embedded molecules, these drug delivery systems are usually characterized by release studies. In this contribution, an electronic device for swelling pressure measurement during drug release from hydrogel network was developed. Also, poly acrylic acid micro particles were prepared for prolonged and sustained controlled acetaminophen release. Effect of swelling pressure on drug release from micro particles studied under different environment pH in order to predict release profile in gastro-intestine medium. Swelling ratio and swelling pressure were measured in different pH.

Keywords: swelling pressure, drug delivery, hydrogel, polyelectrolyte

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2776 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini

Abstract:

Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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2775 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

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2774 Synthesis and Characterization of PH Sensitive Hydrogel and Its Application in Controlled Drug Release of Tramadol

Authors: Naima Bouslah, Leila Bounabi, Farid Ouazib, Nabila Haddadine

Abstract:

Conventional release dosage forms are known to provide an immediate release of the drug. Controlling the rate of drug release from polymeric matrices is very important for a number of applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical area. Hydrogels are polymers in three-dimensional network arrangement, which can absorb and retain large amounts of water without dissolution. They have been frequently used to develop controlled released formulations for oral administration because they can extend the duration of drug release and thus reduce dose to be administrated improving patient compliance. Tramadol is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken as an immediate-release oral formulation, the onset of pain relief usually occurs within about an hour. In the present work, we synthesized pH-responsive hydrogels of (hydroxyl ethyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid), (HEMA-AA) for control drug delivery of tramadol in the gastro-intestinal tractus. The hydrogels with different acrylic acid content, were synthesized by free radical polymerization and characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, X ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). FTIR spectroscopy has shown specific hydrogen bonding interactions between the carbonyl groups of the hydrogels and hydroxyl groups of tramadol. Both the XRD and DSC studies revealed that the introduction of tramadol in the hydrogel network induced the amorphization of the drug. The swelling behaviour, absorptive kinetics and the release kinetics of tramadol in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4) were also investigated. The hydrogels exhibited pH-responsive behavior in the swelling study. The (HEMA-AA) hydrogel swelling was much higher in pH =7.4 medium. The tramadol release was significantly increased when pH of the medium was changed from simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) to simulated intestinal fluid (pH 7.4). Using suitable mathematical models, the apparent diffusional coefficients and the corresponding kinetic parameters have been calculated.

Keywords: biopolymres, drug delivery, hydrogels, tramadol

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2773 Development of pH Responsive Nanoparticles for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

Authors: V. Balamuralidhara

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to develop Paclitaxel loaded polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles as pH responsive nanoparticle systems for targeting colon. The pH sensitive nanoparticles were prepared by modified ionotropic gelation technique. The prepared nanoparticles showed mean diameters in the range of 264±0.676 nm to 726±0.671nm, and a negative net charge 10.8 mV to 35.4mV. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies suggested that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymers. The encapsulation efficiency of the drug was found to be 40.92% to 48.14%. The suitability of the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum ERN’s for the release of Paclitaxel was studied by in vitro release at pH 1.2 and 7.4. It was observed that, there was no significant amount of drug release at gastric pH and 97.63% of drug release at pH 7.4 was obtained for optimized formulation F3 at the end of 12 hrs. In vivo drug targeting performance for the prepared optimized formulation (F3) and pure drug Paclitaxel was evaluated by HPLC. It was observed that the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum can be used to prepare nanoparticles for targeting the drug to the colon. The release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in ERN’s preparation, which allows maximum release at colon’s pH. It may be concluded that polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel have desirable release responsive to specific pH. Hence it is a unique approach for colonic delivery of drug having appropriate site specificity and feasibility and controlled release of drug.

Keywords: colon targeting, polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles, paclitaxel, nanoparticles

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2772 Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.

Keywords: nanosponges, beta-cyclodextrin, ketoconazole, tinea corporis

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2771 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Gliclazide, hypromellose, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model

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2770 Solid Dispersions of Cefixime Using β-Cyclodextrin: Characterization and in vitro Evaluation

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani, Amged Awad El-Gied

Abstract:

Cefixime, a BCS class II drug, is insoluble in water but freely soluble in acetone and in alcohol. The aqueous solubility of cefixime in water is poor and exhibits exceptionally slow and intrinsic dissolution rate. In the present study, cefixime and β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) solid dispersions were prepared with a view to study the effect and influence of β-CD on the solubility and dissolution rate of this poorly aqueous soluble drug. Phase solubility profile revealed that the solubility of cefixime was increased in the presence of β-CD and was classified as AL-type. Effect of variable, such as drug:carrier ratio, was studied. Physical characterization of the solid dispersion was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These studies revealed that a distinct loss of drug crystallinity in the solid molecular dispersions is ostensibly accounting for enhancement of dissolution rate in distilled water. The drug release from the prepared solid dispersion exhibited a first order kinetics. Solid dispersions of cefixime showed a 6.77 times fold increase in dissolution rate over the pure drug.

Keywords: β-cyclodextrin, cefixime, dissolution, Kneading method, solid dispersions, release kinetics

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2769 Release of Calcein from Liposomes Using Low and High Frequency Ultrasound

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Salma E. Ahmed, Hesham G. Moussa, Ana M. Martins, Mohammad Al-Sayah, Nasser Qaddoumi

Abstract:

This abstract aims to investigate the use of targeted liposomes as anticancer drug carriers in vitro in combination with ultrasound applied as drug trigger; in order to reduce the side effects caused by traditional chemotherapy. Pegylated liposomes were used to encapsulate calcein and then release this model drug when 20-kHz, 40-kHz, 1-MHz and 3-MHz ultrasound were applied at different acoustic power densities. Fluorescence techniques were then used to measure the percent drug release of calcein from these targeted liposomes. Results showed that as the power density increases, at the four frequencies studied, the release of calcein also increased. Based on these results, we believe that ultrasound can be used to increase the rate and amount of chemotherapeutics release from liposomes.

Keywords: liposomes, calcein release, high frequency ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound, fluorescence techniques

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2768 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting, Venkata Srikanth Meka

Abstract:

The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: atenolol, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, ethyl cellulose

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2767 Drug-Based Nanoparticles: Comparative Study of the Effect Drug Type on Release Kinetics and Cell Viability

Authors: Chukwudalu C. Nwazojie, Wole W. Soboyejo, John Obayemi, Ali Salifu Azeko, Sandra M. Jusu, Chinyerem M. Onyekanne

Abstract:

The conventional methods for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer include bulk systematic mammography, ultrasound, dynamic contrast-enhanced fast 3D gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, nanoparticles and drug-loaded polymer microspheres for disease (cancer) targeting and treatment have enormous potential to enhance the approaches that are used today. The goal is to produce an implantable biomedical device for localized breast cancer drug delivery within Africa and the world. The main advantage of localized delivery is that it reduces the amount of drug that is needed to have a therapeutic effect. Polymer blends of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polycaprolactone (PCL), which are biodegradable, is used as a drug excipient. This work focuses on the development of PLGA-PCL (poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) blended with based injectable drug microspheres and are loaded with anticancer drugs (prodigiosin (PG), and paclitaxel (PTX) control) and also the conjugated forms of the drug functionalized with LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone) (PG-LHRH, and PTX- LHRH control), using a single-emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The encapsulation was done in the presence of PLGA-PCL (as a polymer matrix) and poly-(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) (as an emulsifier). Comparative study of the various drugs release kinetics and degradation mechanisms of the PLGA-PCL with an encapsulated drug is achieved, and the implication of this study is for the potential application of prodigiosin PLGA-PCL loaded microparticles for controlled delivery of cancer drug and treatment to prevent the regrowth or locoregional recurrence, following surgical resection of triple-negative breast tumor.

Keywords: cancer, polymers, drug kinetics, nanoparticles

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2766 Sphingosomes: Potential Anti-Cancer Vectors for the Delivery of Doxorubicin

Authors: Brajesh Tiwari, Yuvraj Dangi, Abhishek Jain, Ashok Jain

Abstract:

The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the potential of sphingosomes as nanoscale drug delivery units for site-specific delivery of anti-cancer agents. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (DOX) was selected as a model anti-cancer agent. Sphingosomes were prepared and loaded with DOX and optimized for size and drug loading. The formulations were characterized by Malvern zeta-seizer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies. Sphingosomal formulations were further evaluated for in-vitro drug release study under various pH profiles. The in-vitro drug release study showed an initial rapid release of the drug followed by a slow controlled release. In vivo studies of optimized formulations and free drug were performed on albino rats for comparison of drug plasma concentration. The in- vivo study revealed that the prepared system enabled DOX to have had enhanced circulation time, longer half-life and lower elimination rate kinetics as compared to free drug. Further, it can be interpreted that the formulation would selectively enter highly porous mass of tumor cells and at the same time spare normal tissues. To summarize, the use of sphingosomes as carriers of anti-cancer drugs may prove to be a fascinating approach that would selectively localize in the tumor mass, increasing the therapeutic margin of safety while reducing the side effects associated with anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: sphingosomes, anti-cancer, doxorubicin, formulation

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2765 Preparation and Evaluation of Zidovudine Nanoparticles

Authors: D. R. Rama Brahma Reddy, A. Vijaya Sarada Reddy

Abstract:

Nanoparticles represent a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted drug release. They are specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target tissue. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate polymethacrylic acid nanoparticles containing Zidovudine in different drug to polymer ratio by nanoprecipitation method. SEM indicated that nanoparticles have a discrete spherical structure without aggregation. The average particle size was found to be 120 ± 0.02 - 420 ± 0.05 nm. The particle size of the nanoparticles was gradually increased with increase in the proportion of polymethacrylic acid polymer. The drug content of the nanoparticles was increasing on increasing polymer concentration up to a particular concentration. No appreciable difference was observed in the extent of degradation of product during 60 days in which, nanoparticles were stored at various temperatures. FT-IR studies indicated that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and stability of drug. The in-vitro release behavior from all the drug loaded batches was found to be zero order and provided sustained release over a period of 24 h. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawbacks and limitations of Zidovudine sustained release formulations and could possibility be advantageous in terms of increased bio availability of Zidovudine.

Keywords: nanoparticles, zidovudine, biodegradable, polymethacrylic acid

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2764 Comparative Analysis of in vitro Release profile for Escitalopram and Escitalopram Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Rashi Rajput, Manisha Singh

Abstract:

Escitalopram oxalate (ETP), an FDA approved antidepressant drug from the category of SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and is used in treatment of general anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD).When taken orally, it is metabolized to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT) in the liver with the help of enzymes CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Hence, causing side effects such as dizziness, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, nausea etc. Therefore, targeted and sustained drug delivery will be a helpful tool for increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects. The present study is designed for formulating mucoadhesive nanoparticle formulation for the same Escitalopram loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and characterization of the optimised formulation was done by zeta average particle size (93.63nm), zeta potential (-1.89mV), TEM (range of 60nm to 115nm) analysis also confirms nanometric size range of the drug loaded nanoparticles along with polydispersibility index of 0.117. In this research, we have studied the in vitro drug release profile for ETP nanoparticles, through a semi permeable dialysis membrane. The three important characteristics affecting the drug release behaviour were – particle size, ionic strength and morphology of the optimised nanoparticles. The data showed that on increasing the particle size of the drug loaded nanoparticles, the initial burst was reduced which was comparatively higher in drug. Whereas, the formulation with 1mg/ml chitosan in 1.5mg/ml tripolyphosphate solution showed steady release over the entire period of drug release. Then this data was further validated through mathematical modelling to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics, which showed a typical linear diffusion profile in optimised ETP loaded nanoparticles.

Keywords: ionic gelation, mucoadhesive nanoparticle, semi-permeable dialysis membrane, zeta potential

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2763 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

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2762 Design, Development and Characterization of Pioglitazone Transdermal Drug Delivery System

Authors: Dwarakanadha Reddy Peram, D. Swarnalatha, C. Gopinath

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work was to design and development characterization of Pioglitazone transdermal drug delivery system by using various polymers such as Olibanum with different concentration by solvent evaporation technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, percentage elongation break test and weight uniformity. The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of dissolution studies shows that formulation, F3 (Olibanum with 50 mg) showed maximum release of 99.95 % in 12hrs, whereas F1 (Olibanum and EC backing membrane) showed minimum release of 93.65% in 12 hr. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F3 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 99.95 % in 12 hr. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of pioglitazone.

Keywords: pioglitazone, olibanum, transdermal drug delivery system, drug release percantage

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2761 Development of Oral Biphasic Drug Delivery System Using a Natural Resourced Polymer, Terminalia catappa

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Nur Arthirah Binti Ahmad Tarmizi Tan, Muhammad Syahmi Bin Md Nazir, Adinarayana Gorajana, Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam

Abstract:

Biphasic drug delivery systems are designed to release drug at two different rates, either fast/prolonged or prolonged/fast. A fast/prolonged release system provides a burst drug release at initial stage followed by a slow release over a prolonged period of time and in case of prolonged/fast release system, the release pattern is vice versa. Terminalia catappa gum (TCG) is a natural polymer and was successfully proven as a novel pharmaceutical excipient. The main objective of the present research is to investigate the applicability of natural polymer, Terminalia catappa gum in the design of oral biphasic drug delivery system in the form of mini tablets by using a model drug, buspirone HCl. This investigation aims to produce a biphasic release drug delivery system of buspirone by combining immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets into a capsule. For immediate release mini tablets, a dose of 4.5 mg buspirone was prepared by varying the concentration of superdisintegrant; crospovidone. On the other hand, prolonged release mini tablets were produced by using different concentrations of the natural polymer; TCG with a buspirone dose of 3mg. All mini tablets were characterized for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration, content uniformity and dissolution studies. The optimized formulations of immediate and prolonged release mini tablets were finally combined in a capsule and was evaluated for release studies. FTIR and DSC studies were conducted to study the drug-polymer interaction. All formulations of immediate release and prolonged release mini tablets were passed all the in-process quality control tests according to US Pharmacopoeia. The disintegration time of immediate release mini tablets of different formulations was varied from 2-6 min, and maximum drug release was achieved in lesser than 60 min. Whereas prolonged release mini tablets made with TCG have shown good drug retarding properties. Formulations were controlled for about 4-10 hrs with varying concentration of TCG. As the concentration of TCG increased, the drug release retarding property also increased. The optimised mini tablets were packed in capsules and were evaluated for the release mechanism. The capsule dosage form has clearly exhibited the biphasic release of buspirone, indicating that TCG is a suitable natural polymer for this study. FTIR and DSC studies proved that there was no interaction between the drug and polymer. Based on the above positive results, it can be concluded that TCG is a suitable polymer for the biphasic drug delivery systems.

Keywords: Terminalia catappa gum, biphasic release, mini tablets, tablet in capsule, natural polymers

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2760 Functionalized DOX Nanocapsules by Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Afsaneh Ghorbanzadeh, Afshin Farahbakhsh, Zakieh Bayat

Abstract:

The drug capsulation was used for release and targeted delivery in determined time, place and temperature or pH. The DOX nanocapsules were used to reduce and to minimize the unwanted side effects of drug. In this paper, the encapsulation methods of doxorubicin (DOX) and the labeling it by the magnetic core of iron (Fe3O4) has been studied. The Fe3O4 was conjugated with DOX via hydrazine bond. The solution was capsuled by the sensitive polymer of heat or pH such as chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide), dextran-g-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N,N-dimethylacrylamide) and mPEG-G2.5 PAMAM by hydrazine bond. The drug release was very slow at temperatures lower than 380°C. There was a rapid and controlled drug release at temperatures higher than 380°C. According to experiments, the use mPEG-G2.5PAMAM is the best method of DOX nanocapsules synthesis, because in this method, the drug delivery time to certain place is lower than other methods and the percentage of released drug is higher. The synthesized magnetic carrier system has potential applications in magnetic drug-targeting delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

Keywords: drug carrier, drug release, doxorubicin, iron oxide NPs

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2759 Mesoporous Tussah Silk Fibroin Microspheres for Drug Delivery

Authors: Weitao Zhou, Qing Wang, Jianxin He, Shizhong Cui

Abstract:

Mesoporous Tussah silk fibroin (TSF) spheres were fabricated via the self-assembly of TSF molecules in aqueous solutions. The results showed that TSF particles were approximately three-dimensional spheres with the diameter ranging from 500nm to 6μm without adherence. More importantly, the surface morphology is mesoporous structure with nano-pores of 20nm - 200nm in size. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrated that mesoporous TSF spheres mainly contained beta-sheet conformation (44.1 %) as well as slight amounts of random coil (13.2 %). Drug release test was performed with 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) as a model drug and the result indicated the mesoporous TSF microspheres had a good capacity of sustained drug release. It is expected that these stable and high-crystallinity mesoporous TSF sphere produced without organic solvents, which have significantly improved drug release properties, is a very promising material for controlled gene medicines delivery.

Keywords: Tussah silk fibroin, porous materials, microsphere, drug release

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2758 Controlling the Release of Cyt C and L- Dopa from pNIPAM-AAc Nanogel Based Systems

Authors: Sulalit Bandyopadhyay, Muhammad Awais Ashfaq Alvi, Anuvansh Sharma, Wilhelm R. Glomm

Abstract:

Release of drugs from nanogels and nanogel-based systems can occur under the influence of external stimuli like temperature, pH, magnetic fields and so on. pNIPAm-AAc nanogels respond to the combined action of both temperature and pH, the former being mostly determined by hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transitions above the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT), while the latter is controlled by the degree of protonation of the carboxylic acid groups. These nanogels based systems are promising candidates in the field of drug delivery. Combining nanogels with magneto-plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) introduce imaging and targeting modalities along with stimuli-response in one hybrid system, thereby incorporating multifunctionality. [email protected] core-shell NPs possess optical signature in the visible spectrum owing to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the Au shell, and superparamagnetic properties stemming from the Fe core. Although there exist several synthesis methods to control the size and physico-chemical properties of pNIPAm-AAc nanogels, yet, there is no comprehensive study that highlights the dependence of incorporation of one or more layers of NPs to these nanogels. In addition, effective determination of volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the nanogels is a challenge which complicates their uses in biological applications. Here, we have modified the swelling-collapse properties of pNIPAm-AAc nanogels, by combining with [email protected] NPs using different solution based methods. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic transition of the nanogels above the VPTT has been confirmed to be reversible. Further, an analytical method has been developed to deduce the average VPTT which is found to be 37.3°C for the nanogels and 39.3°C for nanogel coated [email protected] NPs. An opposite swelling –collapse behaviour is observed for the latter where the [email protected] NPs act as bridge molecules pulling together the gelling units. Thereafter, Cyt C, a model protein drug and L-Dopa, a drug used in the clinical treatment of Parkinson’s disease were loaded separately into the nanogels and nanogel coated [email protected] NPs, using a modified breathing-in mechanism. This gave high loading and encapsulation efficiencies (L Dopa: ~9% and 70µg/mg of nanogels, Cyt C: ~30% and 10µg/mg of nanogels respectively for both the drugs. The release kinetics of L-Dopa, monitored using UV-vis spectrophotometry was observed to be rather slow (over several hours) with highest release happening under a combination of high temperature (above VPTT) and acidic conditions. However, the release of L-Dopa from nanogel coated [email protected] NPs was the fastest, accounting for release of almost 87% of the initially loaded drug in ~30 hours. The chemical structure of the drug, drug incorporation method, location of the drug and presence of [email protected] NPs largely alter the drug release mechanism and the kinetics of these nanogels and [email protected] NPs coated with nanogels.

Keywords: controlled release, nanogels, volume phase transition temperature, l-dopa

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2757 Curcumin and Methotrexate Loaded Montmollilite Clay for Sustained Oral Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Subrata Kar, Banani Kundu, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu, Sukhen Das

Abstract:

Natural montmorilollite clay is a common ingredient in pharmaceutical products, both as excipients and active support; hence considered as suitable candidate for Drug Delivery System. In this work, cationic detergent CTAB is used to increase the interlayer spacing of Na+-Montmoriollite clay to intercalate curcumin and methotrexate. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist, anti-proliferative and immunosuppressive agent; while curcumin is a bioactive constituent of rhizomes of Curcuma longa, possessing remarkable chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory properties. The resultant inorganic-organic hybrids are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to confirm successful intercalation of curcumin and Methotrexate within clay layers. Pharmaceutical investigation of the hybrids is explored by studying the drug loading (%), encapsulation efficiency and release kinetics. Finally in-vitro studies are performed using cancer cells to find the effect of released curcumin to improve the sensitivity of clay bound methotrexate to ameliorate cell death compared to their effectiveness when used without the inorganic aluminosilicate vehicle.

Keywords: montmorillonite, methotrexate, curcumin, loading efficiency, release kinetics, anticancer activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2756 Effect of Alginate and Surfactant on Physical Properties of Oil Entrapped Alginate Bead Formulation of Curcumin

Authors: Arpa Petchsomrit, Namfa Sermkaew, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Oil entrapped floating alginate beads of curcumin were developed and characterized. Cremophor EL, Cremophor RH and Tween 80 were utilized to improve the solubility of the drug. The oil-loaded floating gel beads prepared by emulsion gelation method contained sodium alginate, mineral oil and surfactant. The drug content and % encapsulation declined as the ratio of surfactant was increased. The release of curcumin from 1% alginate beads was significantly more than for the 2% alginate beads. The drug released from the beads containing 25% of tween 80 was about 70% while a higher drug release was observed with the beads containing Cremophor EL or Cremohor RH (approximately 90%). The developed floating beads of curcumin powder with surfactant provided a superior drug release than those without surfactant. Floating beads based on oil entrapment containing the drug solubilized in surfactants is a new delivery system to enhance the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: alginate, curcumin, floating drug delivery, oil entrapped bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2755 Design and Development of Sustained Release Floating Tablet of Stavudine

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. Vidya Sagar, G. P. Vadnere

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to prolong the gastric residence time of Stavudine by developing gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS). Moreover, to study influence of different polymers on its release rate using gas-forming agents, like sodium bicarbonate, citric acid. Floating tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using PVP K-30 as a binder and the other polymers include Pullulan Gum, HPMC K100M, six different formulations with the varying concentrations of polymers were prepared and the tablets were evaluated in terms of their pre-compression parameters like bulk density, tapped density, Haunsner ratio, angle of repose, compressibility index, post compression physical characteristics, in vitro release, buoyancy, floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) and swelling index. All the formulations showed good floating lag time i.e. less than 3 mins. The batch containing combination of Pullulan Gum and HPMC 100M (i.e. F-6) showed total floating lag time more than 12 h., the highest swelling index among all the prepared batches. The drug release was found to follow zero order kinetics.

Keywords: Suavudine, floating, total floating time (TFT), gastric residence

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2754 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
2753 Controlled Release of Glucosamine from Pluronic-Based Hydrogels for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis

Authors: Papon Thamvasupong, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat

Abstract:

Osteoarthritis affects a lot of people worldwide. Local injection of glucosamine is one of the alternative treatment methods to replenish the natural lubrication of cartilage. However, multiple injections can potentially lead to possible bacterial infection. Therefore, a drug delivery system is desired to reduce the frequencies of injections. A hydrogel is one of the delivery systems that can control the release of drugs. Thermo-reversible hydrogels can be beneficial to the drug delivery system especially in the local injection route because this formulation can change from liquid to gel after getting into human body. Once the gel is in the body, it will slowly release the drug in a controlled manner. In this study, various formulations of Pluronic-based hydrogels were synthesized for the controlled release of glucosamine. One of the challenges of the Pluronic controlled release system is its fast dissolution rate. To overcome this problem, alginate and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) were added to the polymer solution. The characteristics of the hydrogels were investigated including the gelation temperature, gelation time, hydrogel dissolution and glucosamine release mechanism. Finally, a mathematical model of glucosamine release from Pluronic-alginate-hyaluronic acid hydrogel was developed. Our results have shown that crosslinking Pluronic gel with alginate did not significantly extend the dissolution rate of the gel. Moreover, the gel dissolution profiles and the glucosamine release mechanisms were best described using the zeroth-order kinetic model, indicating that the release of glucosamine was primarily governed by the gel dissolution.

Keywords: controlled release, drug delivery system, glucosamine, pluronic, thermoreversible hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2752 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh

Abstract:

The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

Procedia PDF Downloads 267