Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: I. Ware

30 Design of Middleware for Mobile Group Control in Physical Proximity

Authors: Moon-Tak Oh, Kyung-Min Park, Tae-Eun Yoon, Hoon Choi, Chil-Woo Lee

Abstract:

This paper is about middle-ware which enables group-user applications on mobile devices in physical proximity to interact with other devices without intervention of a central server. Requirements of the middle-ware are identified from service usage scenarios, and the functional architecture of the middle-ware is specified. These requirements include group management, synchronization, and resource management. Group Management needs to provide various capabilities to such applications with respect to managing multiple users (e.g., creation of groups, discovery of group or individual users, member join/leave, election of a group manager and service-group association) using D2D communication technology. We designed the middle-ware for the above requirements on the Android platform.

Keywords: group user, middleware, mobile service, physical proximity

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29 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo

Abstract:

Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

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28 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti

Abstract:

MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

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27 Information Communication Technology (ICT) Using Management in Nursing College under the Praboromarajchanok Institute

Authors: Suphaphon Udomluck, Pannathorn Chachvarat

Abstract:

Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management is essential for effective decision making in organization. The Concerns Based Adoption Model (CBAM) was employed as the conceptual framework. The purposes of the study were to assess the situation of Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management in College of Nursing under the Praboromarajchanok Institute. The samples were multi – stage sampling of 10 colleges of nursing that participated include directors, vice directors, head of learning groups, teachers, system administrator and responsible for ICT. The total participants were 280; the instrument used were questionnaires that include 4 parts, general information, Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management, the Stage of concern Questionnaires (SoC), and the Levels of Use (LoU) ICT Questionnaires respectively. Reliability coefficients were tested; alpha coefficients were 0.967for Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management, 0.884 for SoC and 0.945 for LoU. The data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression. They were founded as follows: The high level overall score of Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management and issue were administration, hardware, software, and people. The overall score of the Stage of concern (SoC)ICTis at high level and the overall score of the Levels of Use (LoU) ICTis at moderate. The Information Communication Technology (ICT) using management had the positive relationship with the Stage of concern (SoC)ICTand the Levels of Use (LoU) ICT(p < .01). The results of Multiple Regression revealed that administration hardwear, software and people ware could predict SoC of ICT (18.5%) and LoU of ICT (20.8%).The factors that were significantly influenced by SoCs were people ware. The factors that were significantly influenced by LoU of ICT were administration hardware and people ware.

Keywords: information communication technology (ICT), management, the concerns-based adoption model (CBAM), stage of concern(SoC), the levels of use(LoU)

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26 Optimization of Beneficiation Process for Upgrading Low Grade Egyptian Kaolin

Authors: Nagui A. Abdel-Khalek, Khaled A. Selim, Ahmed Hamdy

Abstract:

Kaolin is naturally occurring ore predominantly containing kaolinite mineral in addition to some gangue minerals. Typical impurities present in kaolin ore are quartz, iron oxides, titanoferrous minerals, mica, feldspar, organic matter, etc. The main coloring impurity, particularly in the ultrafine size range, is titanoferrous minerals. Kaolin is used in many industrial applications such as sanitary ware, table ware, ceramic, paint, and paper industries, each of which should be of certain specifications. For most industrial applications, kaolin should be processed to obtain refined clay so as to match with standard specifications. For example, kaolin used in paper and paint industries need to be of high brightness and low yellowness. Egyptian kaolin is not subjected to any beneficiation process and the Egyptian companies apply selective mining followed by, in some localities, crushing and size reduction only. Such low quality kaolin can be used in refractory and pottery production but not in white ware and paper industries. This paper aims to study the amenability of beneficiation of an Egyptian kaolin ore of El-Teih locality, Sinai, to be suitable for different industrial applications. Attrition scrubbing and classification followed by magnetic separation are applied to remove the associated impurities. Attrition scrubbing and classification are used to separate the coarse silica and feldspars. Wet high intensity magnetic separation was applied to remove colored contaminants such as iron oxide and titanium oxide. Different variables affecting of magnetic separation process such as solid percent, magnetic field, matrix loading capacity, and retention time are studied. The results indicated that substantial decrease in iron oxide (from 1.69% to 0.61% ) and TiO2 (from 3.1% to 0.83%) contents as well as improving iso-brightness (from 63.76% to 75.21% and whiteness (from 79.85% to 86.72%) of the product can be achieved.

Keywords: Kaolin, titanoferrous minerals, beneficiation, magnetic separation, attrition scrubbing, classification

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25 Comparison of Analytical Method and Software for Analysis of Flat Slab Subjected to Various Parametric Loadings

Authors: Hema V. Vanar, R. K. Soni, N. D. Shah

Abstract:

Slabs supported directly on columns without beams are known as Flat slabs. Flat slabs are highly versatile elements widely used in construction, providing minimum depth, fast construction and allowing flexible column grids. The main objective of this thesis is comparison of analytical method and soft ware for analysis of flat slab subjected to various parametric loadings. Study presents analysis of flat slab is performed under different types of gravity.

Keywords: fat slab, parametric load, analysis, software

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24 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu

Abstract:

Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

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23 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production

Authors: Kurniawan Adha, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Luluan Almanna Lubis

Abstract:

Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.

Keywords: pore pressure, effective stress, production, miri formation

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22 The Impact of COVID-19 on Women’s Health in Bangladesh

Authors: Dil Ware Alam, Faiza Zebeen, Sumaya Binte Masud

Abstract:

COVID-19) has impacted the whole world, including Bangladesh. The epidemic has reduced access to health care, particularly for women, creating challenges for an increasingly disadvantaged population. Women's health and well-being in Bangladesh are susceptible to a rise in domestic violence and need to be addressed quickly. The planet has been greatly influenced by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and Bangladesh is no difference. The pandemic has resulted in a decline in the availability of health care, notably for women's health problems, leading to an increase in difficulties for an increasingly marginalized group. Maternity care, maternal health programs, medical interventions, nutritional counseling and mental health care, are not discussed, and women's health and well-being in Bangladesh is vulnerable with a spike in domestic violence and needs to be resolved urgently.

Keywords: Covid-19, mental health, reproductive health, Bangladesh

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21 End to End Monitoring in Oracle Fusion Middleware for Data Verification

Authors: Syed Kashif Ali, Usman Javaid, Abdullah Chohan

Abstract:

In large enterprises multiple departments use different sort of information systems and databases according to their needs. These systems are independent and heterogeneous in nature and sharing information/data between these systems is not an easy task. The usage of middleware technologies have made data sharing between systems very easy. However, monitoring the exchange of data/information for verification purposes between target and source systems is often complex or impossible for maintenance department due to security/access privileges on target and source systems. In this paper, we are intended to present our experience of an end to end data monitoring approach at middle ware level implemented in Oracle BPEL for data verification without any help of monitoring tool.

Keywords: service level agreement, SOA, BPEL, oracle fusion middleware, web service monitoring

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20 Factors That Influence Decision Making of Foreign Volunteer Tourists in Thailand

Authors: Paramet Damchoo

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to study the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand. A sample size was 400 drawn from 10 provinces of Thailand using cluster sampling method. The factor analysis was used to analysis the data. The findings indicate that volunteer tourism which was based in Thailand contained a total of 45 activities which could be divided into 4 categories. The most of these tourists were from Europe including UK and Scandinavia which was 54.50 percent. Moreover, the tourists were male rather than female and 63.50 Percent of them ware younger than 20 years old. It is also found that there are 67.00 percent of the tourists used website to find where the volunteer tourism was based. Finally, the factors that influence the decision making of foreign volunteer tourists in Thailand consist of a wide variety of activities together with a flexibility in their activities and also low prices.

Keywords: decision making, volunteer tourism, special interest tourism, GAP year

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19 A CFD Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics of the Rod Bundles in the BREST-OD-300 Wire-Spaced Fuel Assemblies

Authors: Dmitry V. Fomichev, Vladimir V. Solonin

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings from a numerical simulation of the flow in 37-rod fuel assembly models spaced by a double-wire trapezoidal wrapping as applied to the BREST-OD-300 experimental nuclear reactor. Data on a high static pressure distribution within the models, and equations for determining the fuel bundle flow friction factors have been obtained. Recommendations are provided on using the closing turbulence models available in the ANSYS Fluent. A comparative analysis has been performed against the existing empirical equations for determining the flow friction factors. The calculated and experimental data fit has been shown. An analysis into the experimental data and results of the numerical simulation of the BREST-OD-300 fuel rod assembly hydrodynamic performance are presented.

Keywords: BREST-OD-300, ware-spaces, fuel assembly, computation fluid dynamics

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18 Resources and Strategies towards the Development of a Sustainable Construction Materials Industry in Botswana

Authors: G. Malumbela, E. U. Masuku

Abstract:

The economy of Botswana has increased extensively since its independence. In contrast to this increase, the construction industry which is one of the key indicators of a developing nation continues to be highly dependent on imported building material products from the neighbouring countries of South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Only two companies in the country currently blend cement. Even then, the overwhelming majority of raw materials used in the blends are imported. Furthermore, there are no glass manufacturers in Botswana. The ceramic industry is limited to the manufacture of clay bricks notwithstanding a few studios on crockery and sanitary ware which nonetheless use imported clay. This paper presents natural resources and industrial waste products in Botswana that can be used for the development of sustainable building materials. It also investigates at the distribution and cost of other widely used building materials in the country. Finally, the present paper looks at projects and national strategies aimed at a country-wide development of a sustainable building materials industry together with their successes and hitches.

Keywords: Botswana construction industry, construction materials, natural resources, sustainable materials

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17 Review for Mechanical Tests of Corner Joints on Wooden Windows and Effects to the Stiffness

Authors: Milan Podlena, Stepan Hysek, Jiri Prochazka, Martin Bohm, Jan Bomba

Abstract:

Corner joints are the weakest part of windows, where the members are connected together. Since the dimensions of the windows started become bigger, the strength requirements for corner joints started to increase as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the samples of corner joints of wooden windows. Moisture content of test specimens was stabilized in the climate chamber. After conditioning, test specimens were loaded in the laboratory conditions onto an universal testing machine and the failure load was measured. Data was recalculated by using goniometric, bending moment and stiffness equation to the stiffness coefficients and the bending moments were investigated. The results showed difference that was observed for the mortise with tenon joint and the dowel joint. This difference was explained by a varied adhesive bond area, which is related to the dimensions of dowels (diameter and length) as well. The bending moments and stiffness ware (except of type of corner joint) also affected by type of used adhesive, type of dowels and wood species.

Keywords: corner joint, wooden window, bending moment, stiffness

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16 Wayfinding Strategies in an Unfamiliar Homogenous Environment

Authors: Ahemd Sameer, Braj Bhushan

Abstract:

The objective of our study was to compare wayfinding strategies to remember route while navigation in an unfamiliar homogenous environment. Two videos developed using free ware Trimble Sketchup© each having nine identical turns (3 right, 3 left, 3 straight) with no distinguishing feature at any turn. Thirt-two male post-graduate students of IIT Kanpur participated in the study. The experiment was conducted in three phases. In the first phase participant generated a list of personally known items to be used as landmarks. In the second phase participant saw the first video and was required to remember the sequence of turns. In the second video participant was required to imagine a landmark from the list generated in the first phase at each turn and associate the turn with it. In both the task the participant was asked to recall the sequence of turns as it appeared in the video. In the third phase, which was 20 minutes after the second phase, participants again recalled the sequence of turns. Results showed that performance in the first condition i.e. without use of landmarks was better than imaginary landmark condition. The difference, however, became significant when the participant were tested again about 30 minutes later though performance was still better in no-landmark condition. The finding is surprising given the past research in memory and is explained in terms of cognitive factors such as mental workload.

Keywords: Wayfinding, Landmark, Homogenous Environment, Memory

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15 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

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14 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, healthcare workers, prevalence, sick leave

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13 Information and Communication Technologies-Based Urban Spaces: From Planning and Design to Implementation

Authors: Yountaik Leem, Kwang Woo Nam, Sang Ho Lee, Tae Heon Moon

Abstract:

As to the development of the capitalist economy, local governments put their focuses on economic growth and quality of life including the management of declined urban area. Together with the rapid advances in ICTs (information and communication technologies) Korean government tried to adapt ICTs to urban spaces to catch these two goals. Ubiquitous city, concept introduced by Mark Weiser in 1988, is a kind of ICTs based urban space which can provide IT services anytime and anywhere. This paper introduces the experience of developing ICTs-based urban planning and it’s implementation process and discusses the effect of the R&D based U-City test-bed project. For a community center of a residential zone in a newly developing city, spatial problems and citizen’s needs were identified to plan IT-based urban services. The paper also describes the structure and functions of Community O/S (COS) as an IT platform which controls data and urban devices such as media facades and U-poles. Not only one-way information but also Interactive services were included. Public creating activities using this platform also added –CO2 emission management and citizen making safety map, etc. The effects of the comprehensive U-City planning in S/W, H/W and human-ware were discussed on the case study of similar individual projects.

Keywords: ICTs-based urban planning, implementation, public IT service, U-City

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12 Design and Realization of Computer Network Security Perception Control System

Authors: El Miloudi Djelloul

Abstract:

Based on analysis on applications by perception control technology in computer network security status and security protection measures, from the angles of network physical environment and network software system environmental security, this paper provides network security system perception control solution using Internet of Things (IOT), telecom and other perception technologies. Security Perception Control System is in the computer network environment, utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) of IOT and telecom integration technology to carry out integration design for systems. In the network physical security environment, RFID temperature, humidity, gas and perception technologies are used to do surveillance on environmental data, dynamic perception technology is used for network system security environment, user-defined security parameters, security log are used for quick data analysis, extends control on I/O interface, by development of API and AT command, Computer Network Security Perception Control based on Internet and GSM/GPRS is achieved, which enables users to carry out interactive perception and control for network security environment by WEB, E-MAIL as well as PDA, mobile phone short message and Internet. In the system testing, through middle ware server, security information data perception in real time with deviation of 3-5% was achieved; it proves the feasibility of Computer Network Security Perception Control System.

Keywords: computer network, perception control system security strategy, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

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11 A Geographical Study of Vindhyanchal in Mirzapur City, U.P. India

Authors: Akhilendra Nath Tiwary

Abstract:

Vindhyanchal is a very famous pilgrimage and tourism site in the west of Mirzapur city of Uttar Pradesh State in India. The city in east is a commercial center for cotton, metal ware and carpets. Among the Hindu population, it is believed that the primordial creative forces of the GOD and the power of the GODDESS make respective triangles which superimpose opposite to each other as hexagram at a point or node (Bindu (point) +Vasini (located) or Vindhyavasini, located in a point/node). Mirzapur city has served as a natural connecting point between north and south India. Before independence of India from Britain in 1947, it was a flourishing commercial center. Post-independence, the negligence of planning authorities and nexus of bureaucrats and politicians started affecting its development. In the meantime, emergence of new industrial cities as Kanpur, Agra, Moradabad, etc., nearer to the capital city of Delhi, posed serious challenges to the development of this small city as many commercial and business activities along with the skilled workforce started shifting to these new cities or to the relatively bigger neighboring cities of Varanasi in east and Allahabad in west. In the present paper, the significant causes, issues and challenges in development of Vindhyanchal is discussed with geographical perspective. An attempt has been made to find out the ways to restore the lost glory of the city as a center of pilgrimage, tourism, and commerce.

Keywords: cultural node, pilgrimage, sacred, Vindhyan triangle, ommercial centre

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10 Promoting Open Educational Resources (OER) in Theological/Religious Education in Nigeria

Authors: Miracle Ajah

Abstract:

One of the biggest challenges facing Theological/Religious Education in Nigeria is access to quality learning materials. For instance at the Trinity (Union) Theological College, Umuahia, it was difficult for lecturers to access suitable and qualitative materials for instruction especially the ones that would suit the African context and stimulate a deep rooted interest among the students. Some textbooks written by foreign authors were readily available in the School Library, but were lacking in the College bookshops for students to own copies. Even when the College was able to order some of the books from abroad, it did not usher in the needed enthusiasm expected from the students because they were either very expensive or very difficult to understand during private studies. So it became necessary to develop contextual materials which were affordable and understandable, though with little success. The National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)’s innovation in the development and sharing of learning resources through its Open Course ware is a welcome development and of great assistance to students. Apart from NOUN students who could easily access the materials, many others from various theological/religious institutes across the nation have benefited immensely. So, the thesis of this paper is that the promotion of open educational resources in theological/religious education in Nigeria would facilitate a better informed/equipped religious leadership, which would in turn impact its adherents for a healthier society and national development. Adopting a narrative and historical approach within the context of Nigeria’s educational system, the paper discusses: educational traditions in Nigeria; challenges facing theological/religious education in Nigeria; and benefits of open educational resources. The study goes further to making recommendations on how OER could positively influence theological/religious education in Nigeria. It is expected that theologians, religious educators, and ODL practitioners would find this work very useful.

Keywords: OER, theological education, religious education, Nigeria

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9 Malaria Management among Dispensers in Drug Retail Outlets in Buea Community: An Assessment of Knowledge of Malaria and Antimalarial Drug Prescription and Dispensing Practices

Authors: Marcelus U. Ajonina, Deodata B. Ngonga, Kenric B. Ware, Carine K. Nfor

Abstract:

Background: Lack of knowledge of rational use of antimalarial drugs among dispensers is a serious problem, especially in areas of intense transmission, thus increasing the risk of resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of malaria as well as perception and dispensing practices of antimalarials among vendors in Buea community. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 drug vendors living within the Buea community was conducted between March and June 2017. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information from drug vendors on the general knowledge of malaria as well as dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Knowledge of malaria symptoms, transmission, and prevention was reasonable among 55.8% (77) of the respondents. Only 33.6% (47) of the respondents could attribute the cause of malaria to protozoan of genus Plasmodium species. Of the 140 vendors, 115 (82.7%) prescribe antimalarial drugs. The knowledge of the national protocol was malaria case management among dispensers was 35.0%. Vendors in hospital/community pharmacies were 2.4 times (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 4.14 - 8.74, p < 0.001) more knowledgeable about malaria treatment protocol than those of in drugstores. The prevalence of self-prescription of antimalarials was 39.3%. Self-prescription was significantly higher in drugstores than hospital/community pharmacies (p=0.004). In all, 56 (40.6%) of vendors showed good practices regarding antimalarial drug dispensing with the majority (51.7%) from community pharmacies (OR=2.27,95% CI: 1.13-4.56). Conclusion: Findings reveal moderate knowledge of malaria but poor prescription and dispensing practices of antimalarial drugs among vendors, thus indicating a need for routine monitoring and evaluation to prevent the emergence of resistant strains to current efficacious antimalarials.

Keywords: antimalarials, drug retail outlets, dispensing, drug resistance, prescription

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8 Another Beautiful Sounds: Building the Memory of Sound of Peddling in Beijing with Digital Technology

Authors: Dan Wang, Qing Ma, Xiaodan Wang, Tianjiao Qi

Abstract:

The sound of peddling in Beijing, also called “yo-heave-ho” or “cry of one's ware”, is a unique folk culture and usually found in Beijing hutong. For the civilians in Beijing, sound of peddling is part of their childhood. And for those who love the traditional culture of Beijing, it is an old song singing the local conditions and customs of the ancient city. For example, because of his great appreciation, the British poet Osbert Stewart once put sound of peddling which he had heard in Beijing as a street orchestra performance in the article named "Beijing's sound and color".This research aims to collect and integrate the voice/photo resources and historical materials of sound concerning peddling in Beijing by digital technology in order to protect the intangible cultural heritage and pass on the city memory. With the goal in mind, the next stage is to collect and record all the materials and resources based on the historical documents study and interviews with civilians or performers. Then set up a metadata scheme (which refers to the domestic and international standards such as "Audio Data Processing Standards in the National Library", DC, VRA, and CDWA, etc.) to describe, process and organize the sound of peddling into a database. In order to fully show the traditional culture of sound of peddling in Beijing, web design and GIS technology are utilized to establish a website and plan holding offline exhibitions and events for people to simulate and learn the sound of peddling by using VR/AR technology. All resources are opened to the public and civilians can share the digital memory through not only the offline experiential activities, but also the online interaction. With all the attempts, a multi-media narrative platform has been established to multi-dimensionally record the sound of peddling in old Beijing with text, images, audio, video and so on.

Keywords: sound of peddling, GIS, metadata scheme, VR/AR technology

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7 A Survey on E-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental Science among Standard Six Primary School Students the Ministry of Education Malaysia

Authors: A.Halim Sahelan, Mohd Halid Abu, Jamaluddin Hashim, Zulisman Maksom, Mohd Afif Md Nasir

Abstract:

This study aims to assess the students' needs for the tour planning e-guide. The study is developing on the contribution and importance of the Educational Tour Planning Guide (ETP) is a multimedia courseware as one of the effective methods in teaching and learning of environmental science among the students in primary schools of the Ministry of Education, Malaysia. It is to provide the student with knowledge and experience about tourism, environmental science activities and process. E-guide to ETP also hopes to strengthen the student understanding toward the subject learns in the tourism environmental science. In order to assess the student's needs on the e-Guide to Educational Tour Planning in Environmental Science, the study has produced a similar e-Guide to ETP in the form as a courseware to be tested during the study. The study has involved several steps in order to be completed. It is such as the formulation of the problem, the review of the literature, the formulation of the study methodology, the production of the e-Guide to ETP, field survey and finally the analyses and discussion made on the data gathered during the study. The survey has involved 100 respondents among the students in standard six primary schools in Kluang Johor. Through the findings, the study indicates that the currently tested product is acceptable among the students in learning environmental science as a guide to plan for the tour. The findings also show a slight difference between the respondents who are using the e-Guide to ETP, and those who are not on the basis of the e-Guide to ETP results. Due the important for the study, the researcher hopes to be having a fair discussion and excellence, recommendation for the development of the product of the current study. This report is written also important to provide a written reference for the future related study.

Keywords: the tour planning e-guide, the Educational Tour Planning Guide, environmental science, multimedia course ware

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6 Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State

Authors: Kebede Mengistu, Kassahun Alemu, Bikes Destaw

Abstract:

Introduction: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. It causes about 300, 000 deaths per year and responsible for more than half of all deaths in children. In Ethiopia, child malnutrition rate is one of the most serious public health problem and the highest in the world. High malnutrition rates in the country pose a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. Objective: To assess prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Hidabu Abote district, North shewa, Oromia. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 820 children aged 6-59 months from September 8-23, 2012 at Hidabu Abote district. Multistage sampling method was used to select households. Children were selected from each kebeles by simple random sampling. Anthropometric measurements and structured questioners were used. Data was processed using EPi-info soft ware and exported to SPSS for analysis. Then after, sex, age, months, height, and weight transferred with HHs number to ENA for SMART 2007software to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; H/A, W/H and W/A. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of malnutrition. Results: The analysis this study revealed that, 47.6%, 30.9% and 16.7% of children were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. The main associated factors of stunting were found to be child age, family monthly income, children were received butter as pre-lacteal feeding and family planning. Underweight was associated with number of children HHs and children were received butter as per-lacteal feeding but un treatment of water in HHs only associated with wasting. Conclusion and recommendation: From the findings of this study, it is concluded that malnutrition is still an important problem among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, especial attention should be given on intervention of malnutrition.

Keywords: children, Hidabu Abote district, malnutrition, public health

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5 Optimum Dimensions of Hydraulic Structures Foundation and Protections Using Coupled Genetic Algorithm with Artificial Neural Network Model

Authors: Dheyaa W. Abbood, Rafa H. AL-Suhaili, May S. Saleh

Abstract:

A model using the artificial neural networks and genetic algorithm technique is developed for obtaining optimum dimensions of the foundation length and protections of small hydraulic structures. The procedure involves optimizing an objective function comprising a weighted summation of the state variables. The decision variables considered in the optimization are the upstream and downstream cutoffs length sand their angles of inclination, the foundation length, and the length of the downstream soil protection. These were obtained for a given maximum difference in head, depth of impervious layer and degree of anisotropy.The optimization carried out subjected to constraints that ensure a safe structure against the uplift pressure force and sufficient protection length at the downstream side of the structure to overcome an excessive exit gradient. The Geo-studios oft ware, was used to analyze 1200 different cases. For each case the length of protection and volume of structure required to satisfy the safety factors mentioned previously were estimated. An ANN model was developed and verified using these cases input-output sets as its data base. A MatLAB code was written to perform a genetic algorithm optimization modeling coupled with this ANN model using a formulated optimization model. A sensitivity analysis was done for selecting the cross-over probability, the mutation probability and level ,the number of population, the position of the crossover and the weights distribution for all the terms of the objective function. Results indicate that the most factor that affects the optimum solution is the number of population required. The minimum value that gives stable global optimum solution of this parameters is (30000) while other variables have little effect on the optimum solution.

Keywords: inclined cutoff, optimization, genetic algorithm, artificial neural networks, geo-studio, uplift pressure, exit gradient, factor of safety

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4 Developing Writing Skills of Learners with Persistent Literacy Difficulties through the Explicit Teaching of Grammar in Context: Action Research in a Welsh Secondary School

Authors: Jean Ware, Susan W. Jones

Abstract:

Background: The benefits of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most English speaking countries. A majority of Anglophone countries abandoned the teaching of grammar in the 1950s based on the conclusions that it had no positive impact on learners’ development of reading, writing, and language. Although the decontextualised teaching of grammar is not helpful in improving writing, a curriculum with a focus on grammar in an embedded and meaningful way can help learners develop their understanding of the mechanisms of language. Although British learners are generally not taught grammar rules explicitly, learners in schools in France, the Netherlands, and Germany are taught explicitly about the structure of their own language. Exposing learners to grammatical analysis can help them develop their understanding of language. Indeed, if learners are taught that each part of speech has an identified role in the sentence. This means that rather than have to memorise lists of words or spelling patterns, they can focus on determining each word or phrase’s task in the sentence. These processes of categorisation and deduction are higher order thinking skills. When considering definitions of dyslexia available in Great Britain, the explicit teaching of grammar in context could help learners with persistent literacy difficulties. Indeed, learners with dyslexia often develop strengths in problem solving; the teaching of grammar could, therefore, help them develop their understanding of language by using analytical and logical thinking. Aims: This study aims at gaining a further understanding of how the explicit teaching of grammar in context can benefit learners with persistent literacy difficulties. The project is designed to identify ways of adapting existing grammar focussed teaching materials so that learners with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia can use them to further develop their writing skills. It intends to improve educational practice through action, analysis and reflection. Research Design/Methods: The project, therefore, uses an action research design and multiple sources of evidence. The data collection tools used were standardised test data, teacher assessment data, semi-structured interviews, learners’ before and after attempts at a writing task at the beginning and end of the cycle, documentary data and lesson observation carried out by a specialist teacher. Existing teaching materials were adapted for use with five Year 9 learners who had experienced persistent literacy difficulties from primary school onwards. The initial adaptations included reducing the amount of content to be taught in each lesson, and pre teaching some of the metalanguage needed. Findings: Learners’ before and after attempts at the writing task were scored by a colleague who did not know the order of the attempts. All five learners’ scores were higher on the second writing task. Learners reported that they had enjoyed the teaching approach. They also made suggestions to be included in the second cycle, as did the colleague who carried out observations. Conclusions: Although this is a very small exploratory study, these results suggest that adapting grammar focused teaching materials shows promise for helping learners with persistent literacy difficulties develop their writing skills.

Keywords: explicit teaching of grammar in context, literacy acquisition, persistent literacy difficulties, writing skills

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3 Comparative Study on the Influence of Different Drugs against Aluminium- Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware, and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

Keywords: aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, coenzyme Q10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine, zinc

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2 Gis Based Flash Flood Runoff Simulation Model of Upper Teesta River Besin - Using Aster Dem and Meteorological Data

Authors: Abhisek Chakrabarty, Subhraprakash Mandal

Abstract:

Flash flood is one of the catastrophic natural hazards in the mountainous region of India. The recent flood in the Mandakini River in Kedarnath (14-17th June, 2013) is a classic example of flash floods that devastated Uttarakhand by killing thousands of people.The disaster was an integrated effect of high intensityrainfall, sudden breach of Chorabari Lake and very steep topography. Every year in Himalayan Region flash flood occur due to intense rainfall over a short period of time, cloud burst, glacial lake outburst and collapse of artificial check dam that cause high flow of river water. In Sikkim-Derjeeling Himalaya one of the probable flash flood occurrence zone is Teesta Watershed. The Teesta River is a right tributary of the Brahmaputra with draining mountain area of approximately 8600 Sq. km. It originates in the Pauhunri massif (7127 m). The total length of the mountain section of the river amounts to 182 km. The Teesta is characterized by a complex hydrological regime. The river is fed not only by precipitation, but also by melting glaciers and snow as well as groundwater. The present study describes an attempt to model surface runoff in upper Teesta basin, which is directly related to catastrophic flood events, by creating a system based on GIS technology. The main object was to construct a direct unit hydrograph for an excess rainfall by estimating the stream flow response at the outlet of a watershed. Specifically, the methodology was based on the creation of a spatial database in GIS environment and on data editing. Moreover, rainfall time-series data collected from Indian Meteorological Department and they were processed in order to calculate flow time and the runoff volume. Apart from the meteorological data, background data such as topography, drainage network, land cover and geological data were also collected. Clipping the watershed from the entire area and the streamline generation for Teesta watershed were done and cross-sectional profiles plotted across the river at various locations from Aster DEM data using the ERDAS IMAGINE 9.0 and Arc GIS 10.0 software. The analysis of different hydraulic model to detect flash flood probability ware done using HEC-RAS, Flow-2D, HEC-HMS Software, which were of great importance in order to achieve the final result. With an input rainfall intensity above 400 mm per day for three days the flood runoff simulation models shows outbursts of lakes and check dam individually or in combination with run-off causing severe damage to the downstream settlements. Model output shows that 313 Sq. km area were found to be most vulnerable to flash flood includes Melli, Jourthang, Chungthang, and Lachung and 655sq. km. as moderately vulnerable includes Rangpo,Yathang, Dambung,Bardang, Singtam, Teesta Bazarand Thangu Valley. The model was validated by inserting the rain fall data of a flood event took place in August 1968, and 78% of the actual area flooded reflected in the output of the model. Lastly preventive and curative measures were suggested to reduce the losses by probable flash flood event.

Keywords: flash flood, GIS, runoff, simulation model, Teesta river basin

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1 Effectiveness of Peer Reproductive Health Education Program in Improving Knowledge, Attitude, and Use Health Service of High School Adolescent Girls in Eritrea in 2014

Authors: Ghidey Ghebreyohanes, Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil, Zemenfes Tsighe, Faiza Ali

Abstract:

Background: reproductive health (RH) is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life. In East Africa including Eritrea, adolescents comprise more than a quarter of the population. The region holds the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion with its complications. Young girls carry the highest burden of reproductive health problems due to their risk taking behavior, lack of knowledge, peer pressure, physiologic immaturity and low socioeconomic status. Design: this was a Community-based, randomized, case-controlled and pre-test-post-test intervention study. Setting: Zoba Debub was randomly selected out of the six zobas in Eritrea. The four high schools out of the 26 in Zoba Debub were randomly selected as study target schools. Over three quarter of the people live on farming. The target population was female students attending grade nine with majority of these girls live in the distant villages and walk to school. The study participants were randomly selected (n=165) from each school. Furthermore, the 1 intervention and 3 controls for the study arms were assigned randomly. Objectives: this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of peer reproductive health education in improving knowledge, attitude, and health service use of high school adolescent girls in Eritrea Methods: the protocol was reviewed and approved by the Scientific and Ethics Committees of Faculty of Nursing Sciences, University of Khartoum. Data was collected using pre-designed and pretested questionnaire emphasizing on reproductive health knowledge, attitude and practice. Sample size was calculated using proportion formula (α 0.01; power of 95%). Measures used were scores and proportions. Descriptive and inferential statistics, t-test and chi square at (α .01), 99% confidence interval were used to compare changes of pre and post-intervention scores using SPSS soft ware. Seventeen students were selected for peer educators by the school principals and other teachers based on inclusion criteria that include: good academic performance and acceptable behavior. One peer educator educated one group composed of 8-10 students for two months. One faculty member was selected to supervise peer educators. The principal investigator conducted the training of trainers and provided supervision and discussion to peer educators every two weeks until the end of intervention. Results: following informed consent, 627 students [164 in intervention and 463 in the control group] with a ratio of 1 to 3, were enrolled in the study. The mean age for the total study population was 15.4±1.0 years. The intervention group mean age was 15.3±1.0 year; while the control group had a mean age of 15.4±1.0. The mean ages for the study arms were similar (p= 0.4). The majority (96 %) of the study participants are from Tigrigna ethnic group. Reproductive knowledge scores which was calculated out of a total 61 grade points: intervention group (pretest 6.7 %, post-test 33.6 %; p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 7.3 %, posttest 7.3 %, p= 0.92). Proportion difference in attitude calculated out of 100%: intervention group (pretest 42.3 % post test 54.7% p= 0.001); controls group (pretest 45%, post test 44.8 p= 0.7). Proportion difference in Practice calculated out of 100 %: intervention group (pretest 15.4%, post test 80.4 % p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 16.8%, posttest 16.9 % p= 0.8). Mothers were quoted as major (> 90 %) source of reproductive health information. All focus group discussants and most of survey participants agreed on the urgent need of reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls. Conclusion: reproductive health knowledge and use of facilities is poor among adolescent girls in sub-urban Eretria. School-based peer reproductive health education is effective and is the best strategy to improve reproductive health knowledge and attitudes.

Keywords: reproductive health, adolescent girls, eretria, health education

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