Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: atenolol

9 Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Binary Mixture of Amlodipine Besylate and Atenolol Based on Dual Wavelength

Authors: Nesrine T. Lamie


Four, accurate, precise, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods are developed for the simultaneous determination of a binary mixture containing amlodipine besylate (AM) and atenolol (AT) where AM is determined at its λmax 360 nm (0D), while atenolol can be determined by different methods. Method (A) is absorpotion factor (AFM). Method (B) is the new Ratio Difference method(RD) which measures the difference in amplitudes between 210 and 226 nm of ratio spectrum., Method (C) is novel constant center spectrophotometric method (CC) Method (D) is mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR) at 284 nm. The calibration curve is linear over the concentration range of 10–80 and 4–40 μg/ml for AM and AT, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the cited drugs and they are applied to their commercial pharmaceutical preparation. The validity of results was assessed by applying standard addition technique. The results obtained were found to agree statistically with those obtained by a reported method, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision.

Keywords: amlodipine, atenolol, absorption factor, constant center, mean centering, ratio difference

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8 Formulation, Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Transdermal Niosomal Gel of Atenolol

Authors: Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi


Atenolol, the widely used antihypertensive drug is ionisable and degrades in the acidic environment of the GIT lessening the bioavailability. Transdermal route may be selected as an alternative to enhance the bioavailability. Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours suggesting the requirement of prolonged release of the drug. The present work of transdermal niosomal gel aims to extend release of the drug and increase the bioavailability. Ethanol injection method was used for the preparation of niosomes using span-60 and cholesterol at different molar ratios following central composite design. The prepared niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation was selected by statistically analyzing the results obtained using the software Stat-Ease Design Expert. The optimized formulation also showed high drug retention inside the vesicles over a period of three months at a temperature of 4 °C indicating stability. Niosomes separated as a pellet were dried and incorporated into the hydrogel prepared using chitosan a natural polymer as a gelling agent. The effect of various chemical permeation enhancers was also studied over the gel formulations. The prepared formulations were characterized for viscosity, pH, drug release using Franz diffusion cells, and skin irritation test as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities. Atenolol niosomal gel preparations showed the prolonged release of the drug and pronounced antihypertensive activity indicating the suitability of niosomal gel for topical and systemic delivery of atenolol.

Keywords: atenolol, chitosan, niosomes, transdermal

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7 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting, Venkata Srikanth Meka


The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: atenolol, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, ethyl cellulose

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6 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput


The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

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5 The Exact Specification for Consumption of Blood-Pressure Regulating Drugs with a Numerical Model of Pulsatile Micropolar Fluid Flow in Elastic Vessel

Authors: Soroush Maddah, Houra Asgarian, Mahdi Navidbakhsh


In the present paper, the problem of pulsatile micropolar blood flow through an elastic artery has been studied. An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation for the governing equations has been produced to model the fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) and has been solved numerically using finite difference scheme by exploiting a mesh generation technique which leads to a uniformly spaced grid in the computational plane. Effect of the variations of cardiac output and wall artery module of elasticity on blood pressure with blood-pressure regulating drugs like Atenolol has been determined. Also, a numerical model has been produced to define precisely the effects of various dosages of a drug on blood flow in arteries without the numerous experiments that have many mistakes and expenses.

Keywords: arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, Atenolol, fluid structure interaction, micropolar fluid, pulsatile blood flow

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4 Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in an Urban Lake

Authors: J. D. Villanueva, N. Peyraube, I. Allan, G. D. Salvosa, M. Reid, C. Harman, K. D. Salvosa, J. M. V. Castro, M. V. O. Espaldon, J. B. Sevilla-Nastor, P. Le Coustumer


The main objectives of this research are to (1) assess the occurrence of the pharmaceutical compounds and (2) present the environmental challenges posed by the existence of these pharmaceutical compounds in the surface water. These pharmaceuticals were measured in Napindan Lake, Philippines. This lake is not only a major tributary of the Pasig River (an estuary) and Laguna Lake (freshwater). It also joins these two important surface waters of the National Capital Region. Pharmaceutical compounds such as Atenolol, Carbamazepine, and two other over the counter medicines: Cetirizine, and Ibuprofen were measured in Napindan Lake. Atenolol is a beta blocker that helps in lowering hypertensions. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used as treatment for epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that can relieve allergies. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug normally used to relieve pains. Three different climatological conditions with corresponding hydro physico chemical characteristics were considered. First, was during a dry season with a simultaneous dredging. Second was during a transition period from dry to wet season. Finally, the third was during a continuous wet event. Based from the results of the study, most of these pharmaceuticals can be found in Napindan Lake. This is a proof that these pharmaceutical compounds are being released to a natural surface water. Even though climatological conditions were different, concentrations of these pharmaceuticals can still be detected. This implies that there is an incessant supply of these pharmaceutical compounds in Napindan Lake. Chronic exposure to these compounds even at low concentrations can lead to possible environmental and health risks. Given this information and since consistent occurrence of these compounds can be expected, the main challenge, at present, is on how to control the sources of these pharmaceutical compounds. Primarily, there is a need to manage the disposal of the pharmaceutical compounds. Yet, the main question is how to? This study would like to present the challenges and institutional roles in helping manage the pharmaceutical disposals in a developing country like the Philippines.

Keywords: atenolol, carbamazepine, cetirizine, ibuprofen, institutional roles, Napindan lake, pharmaceutical compound disposal management, surface water, urban lake

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3 Influence of a Cationic Membrane in a Double Compartment Filter-Press Reactor on the Atenolol Electro-Oxidation

Authors: Alan N. A. Heberle, Salatiel W. Da Silva, Valentin Perez-Herranz, Andrea M. Bernardes


Contaminants of emerging concern are substances widely used, such as pharmaceutical products. These compounds represent risk for both wild and human life since they are not completely removed from wastewater by conventional wastewater treatment plants. In the environment, they can be harm even in low concentration (µ or ng/L), causing bacterial resistance, endocrine disruption, cancer, among other harmful effects. One of the most common taken medicine to treat cardiocirculatory diseases is the Atenolol (ATL), a β-Blocker, which is toxic to aquatic life. In this way, it is necessary to implement a methodology, which is capable to promote the degradation of the ATL, to avoid the environmental detriment. A very promising technology is the advanced electrochemical oxidation (AEO), which mechanisms are based on the electrogeneration of reactive radicals (mediated oxidation) and/or on the direct substance discharge by electron transfer from contaminant to electrode surface (direct oxidation). The hydroxyl (HO•) and sulfate (SO₄•⁻) radicals can be generated, depending on the reactional medium. Besides that, at some condition, the peroxydisulfate (S₂O₈²⁻) ion is also generated from the SO₄• reaction in pairs. Both radicals, ion, and the direct contaminant discharge can break down the molecule, resulting in the degradation and/or mineralization. However, ATL molecule and byproducts can still remain in the treated solution. On this wise, some efforts can be done to implement the AEO process, being one of them the use of a cationic membrane to separate the cathodic (reduction) from the anodic (oxidation) reactor compartment. The aim of this study is investigate the influence of the implementation of a cationic membrane (Nafion®-117) to separate both cathodic and anodic, AEO reactor compartments. The studied reactor was a filter-press, with bath recirculation mode, flow 60 L/h. The anode was an Nb/BDD2500 and the cathode a stainless steel, both bidimensional, geometric surface area 100 cm². The solution feeding the anodic compartment was prepared with ATL 100 mg/L using Na₂SO₄ 4 g/L as support electrolyte. In the cathodic compartment, it was used a solution containing Na₂SO₄ 71 g/L. Between both solutions was placed the membrane. The applied currents densities (iₐₚₚ) of 5, 20 and 40 mA/cm² were studied over 240 minutes treatment time. Besides that, the ATL decay was analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV/Vis). The mineralization was determined performing total organic carbon (TOC) in TOC-L CPH Shimadzu. In the cases without membrane, the iₐₚₚ 5, 20 and 40 mA/cm² resulted in 55, 87 and 98 % ATL degradation at the end of treatment time, respectively. However, with membrane, the degradation, for the same iₐₚₚ, was 90, 100 and 100 %, spending 240, 120, 40 min for the maximum degradation, respectively. The mineralization, without membrane, for the same studied iₐₚₚ, was 40, 55 and 72 %, respectively at 240 min, but with membrane, all tested iₐₚₚ reached 80 % of mineralization, differing only in the time spent, 240, 150 and 120 min, for the maximum mineralization, respectively. The membrane increased the ATL oxidation, probably due to avoid oxidant ions (S₂O₈²⁻) reduction on the cathode surface.

Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern, advanced electrochemical oxidation, atenolol, cationic membrane, double compartment reactor

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2 Transfer Rate of Organic Water Contaminants through a Passive Sampler Membrane of Polyethersulfone (PES)

Authors: Hamidreza Sharifan, Audra Morse


Accurate assessments of contaminant concentrations based on traditional grab sampling methods are not always possible. Passive samplers offer an attractive alternative to traditional sampling methods that overcomes these limitations. The POCIS approach has been used as a screening tool for determining the presence/absence, possible sources and relative amounts of organic compounds at field sites. The objective for the present research is on mass transfer of five water contaminants (atrazine, caffeine, bentazon, ibuprofen, atenolol) through the Water Boundary Layer (WBL) and membrane. More specific objectives followed by establishing a relationship between the sampling rate and water solubility of the compounds, as well as comparing the molecular weight of the compounds and concentration of the compounds at the time of equilibrium. To determine whether water boundary layer effects transport rate through the membrane is another main objective in this paper. After GC mass analysis of compounds, regarding the WBL effect in this experiment, Sherwood number for the experimental tank developed. A close relationship between feed concentration of compound and sampling rate has been observed.

Keywords: passive sampler, water contaminants, PES-transfer rate, contaminant concentrations

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1 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah


Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Beers criteria, elderly, polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medicines

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