Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4945

Search results for: interpenetrating polymer network

4945 In situ Polymerization and Properties of Biobased Polyurethane/Epoxy Interpenetrating Network Nanocomposites

Authors: Aiswarea Mathew, Smita Mohanty, Jr., S. K. Nayak


Polyurethane networks based on castor oil (CO) as a renewable resource polyol were synthesized. Polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating network nanocomposites containing modified montmorillonite organoclay (C30B-PU/EP nanocomposites) were prepared by an in situ intercalation method. The conventional spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized samples using FT-IR confirms the existence of the proposed castor oil based PU structure and also showed that strong interactions existed between C30B and EP/PU matrix. The dispersion degree of C30B in EP/PU matrix was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) method. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis showed that the interpenetrating process of PU and EP increases the exfoliation degree of C30B, and it improves the compatibility and the phase structure of polyurethane/epoxy resin interpenetrating polymer networks (PU/EP IPNs). The thermal stability improves compared to the polyurethane when the PU/EP IPN is formed. Mechanical properties including the Young’s modulus and tensile strength reflected marked improvement with addition of C30B.

Keywords: castor oil, epoxy, montmorillonite, polyurethane

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4944 Synthesis and Characterisation of Starch-PVP as Encapsulation Material for Drug Delivery System

Authors: Nungki Rositaningsih, Emil Budianto


Starch has been widely used as an encapsulation material for drug delivery system. However, starch hydrogel is very easily degraded during metabolism in human stomach. Modification of this material is needed to improve the encapsulation process in drug delivery system, especially for gastrointestinal drug. In this research, three modified starch-based hydrogels are synthesized i.e. Crosslinked starch hydrogel, Semi- and Full- Interpenetrating Polymer Network (IPN) starch hydrogel using Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone). Non-modified starch hydrogel was also synthesized as a control. All of those samples were compared as biomaterials, floating drug delivery, and their ability in loading drug test. Biomaterial characterizations were swelling test, stereomicroscopy observation, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Buoyancy test and stereomicroscopy scanning were done for floating drug delivery characterizations. Lastly, amoxicillin was used as test drug, and characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy for loading drug observation. Preliminary observation showed that Full-IPN has the most dense and elastic texture, followed by Semi-IPN, Crosslinked, and Non-modified in the last position. Semi-IPN and Crosslinked starch hydrogel have the most ideal properties and will not be degraded easily during metabolism. Therefore, both hydrogels could be considered as promising candidates for encapsulation material. Further analysis and issues will be discussed in the paper.

Keywords: biomaterial, drug delivery system, interpenetrating polymer network, poly(N-vinyl-pyrrolidone), starch hydrogel

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4943 Synthesis and Characterization of Fibrin/Polyethylene Glycol-Based Interpenetrating Polymer Networks for Dermal Tissue Engineering

Authors: O. Gsib, U. Peirera, C. Egles, S. A. Bencherif


In skin regenerative medicine, one of the critical issues is to produce a three-dimensional scaffold with optimized porosity for dermal fibroblast infiltration and neovascularization, which exhibits high mechanical properties and displays sufficient wound healing characteristics. In this study, we report on the synthesis and characterization of macroporous sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) combining skin wound healing properties of fibrin with the excellent physical properties of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Fibrin fibers serve as a provisional biologically active network to promote cell adhesion and proliferation while PEG provides the mechanical stability to maintain the entire 3D construct. After having modified both PEG and Serum Albumin (used for promoting enzymatic degradability) by adding methacrylate residues (PEGDM and SAM, respectively), Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs were synthesized as follows: Macroporous sponges were first produced from PEGDM-SAM hydrogels by a freeze-drying technique and then rehydrated by adding the fibrin precursors. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize their microstructure. Human dermal fibroblasts were cultivated during one week in the constructs and different cell culture parameters (viability, morphology, proliferation) were evaluated. Subcutaneous implantations of the scaffolds were conducted on five-week old male nude mice to investigate their biocompatibility in vivo. We successfully synthesized interconnected and macroporous Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM sequential IPNs. The viability of primary dermal fibroblasts was well maintained (above 90%) after 2 days of culture. Cells were able to adhere, spread and proliferate in the scaffolds suggesting the suitable porosity and intrinsic biologic properties of the constructs. The fibrin network adopted a spider web shape that covered partially the pores allowing easier cell infiltration into the macroporous structure. To further characterize the in vitro cell behavior, cell proliferation (EdU incorporation, MTS assay) is being studied. Preliminary histological analysis of animal studies indicated the persistence of hydrogels even after one-month post implantation and confirmed the absence of inflammation response, good biocompatibility and biointegration of our scaffolds within the surrounding tissues. These results suggest that our Fibrin/PEGDM-SAM IPNs could be considered as potential candidates for dermis regenerative medicine. Histological analysis will be completed to further assess scaffold remodeling including de novo extracellular matrix protein synthesis and early stage angiogenesis analysis. Compression measurements will be conducted to investigate the mechanical properties.

Keywords: fibrin, hydrogels for dermal reconstruction, polyethylene glycol, semi-interpenetrating polymer network

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4942 Theoretical Modeling of Self-Healing Polymers Crosslinked by Dynamic Bonds

Authors: Qiming Wang


Dynamic polymer networks (DPNs) crosslinked by dynamic bonds have received intensive attention because of their special crack-healing capability. Diverse DPNs have been synthesized using a number of dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bond, hydrogen bond, ionic bond, metal-ligand coordination, hydrophobic interaction, and others. Despite the promising success in the polymer synthesis, the fundamental understanding of their self-healing mechanics is still at the very beginning. Especially, a general analytical model to understand the interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs has not been established. Here, we develop polymer-network based analytical theories that can mechanistically model the constitutive behaviors and interfacial self-healing behaviors of DPNs. We consider that the DPN is composed of interpenetrating networks crosslinked by dynamic bonds. bonds obey a force-dependent chemical kinetics. During the self-healing process, we consider the The network chains follow inhomogeneous chain-length distributions and the dynamic polymer chains diffuse across the interface to reform the dynamic bonds, being modeled by a diffusion-reaction theory. The theories can predict the stress-stretch behaviors of original and self-healed DPNs, as well as the healing strength in a function of healing time. We show that the theoretically predicted healing behaviors can consistently match the documented experimental results of DPNs with various dynamic bonds, including dynamic covalent bonds (diarylbibenzofuranone and olefin metathesis), hydrogen bonds, and ionic bonds. We expect our model to be a powerful tool for the self-healing community to invent, design, understand, and optimize self-healing DPNs with various dynamic bonds.

Keywords: self-healing polymers, dynamic covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds

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4941 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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4940 Mechanically Strong and Highly Thermal Conductive Polymer Composites Enabled by Three-Dimensional Interconnected Graphite Network

Authors: Jian Zheng


Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been recognized as an effective approach to enhance the mechanical and thermal conductive properties of polymeric composites. However, it has not been applied in energetic materials. In this work, a fluoropolymer based composite with vertically oriented and interconnected 3D graphite network was fabricated for polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Here, the graphite and graphene oxide platelets were mixed, and self-assembled via rapid freezing and using crystallized ice as the template. The 3D structure was finally obtained by freezing-dry and infiltrating with the polymer. With the increasing of filler fraction and cooling rate, the thermal conductivity of the polymer composite was significantly improved to 2.15 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹ by 1094% than that of pure polymer. Moreover, the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elastic modulus, were enhanced by 82% and 310%, respectively, when the highly ordered structure was embedded in the polymer. We attribute the increased thermal and mechanical properties to this 3D network, which is beneficial to the effective heat conduction and force transfer. This study supports a desirable way to fabricate the strong and thermal conductive fluoropolymer composites used for the high-performance polymer bonded explosives (PBXs).

Keywords: mechanical properties, oriented network, graphite polymer composite, thermal conductivity

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4939 Polyacrylates in Poly (Lactic Acid) Matrix, New Biobased Polymer Material

Authors: Irena Vuković-Kwiatkowska, Halina Kaczmarek


Poly (lactic acid) is well known polymer, often called green material because of its origin (renewable resources) and biodegradability. This biopolymer can be used in the packaging industry very often. Poor resistance to permeation of gases is the disadvantage of poly (lactic acid). The permeability of gases and vapor through the films applied for packages and bottles generally should be very low to prolong products shelf-life. We propose innovation method of PLA gas barrier modification using electromagnetic radiation in ultraviolet range. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and multifunctional acrylate monomers were mixed in different composition. Final films were obtained by photochemical reaction (photocrosslinking). We tested permeability to water vapor and carbon dioxide through these films. Also their resistance to UV radiation was also studied. The samples were conditioned in the activated sludge and in the natural soil to test their biodegradability. An innovative method of PLA modification allows to expand its usage, and can reduce the future costs of waste management what is the result of consuming such materials like PET and HDPE. Implementation of our material for packaging will contribute to the protection of the environment from the harmful effects of extremely difficult to biodegrade materials made from PET or other plastic

Keywords: interpenetrating polymer network, packaging films, photocrosslinking, polyacrylates dipentaerythritol pentaacrylate DPEPA, poly (lactic acid), polymer biodegradation

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4938 Dye Retention by a Photochemicaly Crosslinked Poly(2-Hydroxy-Ethyl-Meth-Acrylic) Network in Water

Authors: Yasmina Houda Bendahma, Tewfik Bouchaour, Meriem Merad, Ulrich Maschke


The purpose of this work is to study retention of dye dissolved in distilled water, by an hydrophilic acrylic polymer network. The polymer network considered is Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA): it is prepared by photo-polymerization under UV irradiation in the presence of a monomer (HEMA), initiator and an agent cross-linker. PHEMA polymer network obtained can be used in the retention of dye molecules present in the wastewater. The results obtained are interesting in the study of the kinetics of swelling and de-swelling of cross linked polymer networks PHEMA in colored aqueous solutions. The dyes used for retention by the PHEMA networks are eosin Y and Malachite Green, dissolved in distilled water. Theoretical conformational study by a simplified molecular model of system cross linked PHEMA / dye (eosin Y and Malachite Green), is used to simulate the retention phenomenon (or Docking) dye molecules in cavities in nano-domains included in the PHEMA polymer network.

Keywords: dye retention, molecular modeling, photochemically crosslinked polymer network, swelling deswelling, PHEMA, HEMA

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4937 Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olamide Shittu, Olayinka Akanle


Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.

Keywords: recycled polymer products, social network analysis, social ties, value chain analysis

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4936 From Homogeneous to Phase Separated UV-Cured Interpenetrating Polymer Networks: Influence of the System Composition on Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Caroline Rocco, Feyza Karasu, Céline Croutxé-Barghorn, Xavier Allonas, Maxime Lecompère, Gérard Riess, Yujing Zhang, Catarina Esteves, Leendert van der Ven, Rolf van Benthem Gijsbertus de With


Acrylates are widely used in UV-curing technology. Their high reactivity can, however, limit their conversion due to early vitrification. In addition, the free radical photopolymerization is known to be sensitive to oxygen inhibition leading to tacky surfaces. Although epoxides can lead to full polymerization, they are sensitive to humidity and exhibit low polymerization rate. To overcome the intrinsic limitations of both classes of monomers, Interpenetrating Polymer Networks (IPNs) can be synthesized. They consist of at least two cross linked polymers which are permanently entangled. They can be achieved under thermal and/or light induced polymerization in one or two steps approach. IPNs can display homogeneous to heterogeneous morphologies with various degrees of phase separation strongly linked to the monomer miscibility and also synthesis parameters. In this presentation, we synthesize UV-cured methacrylate - epoxide based IPNs with different chemical compositions in order to get a better understanding of their formation and phase separation. Miscibility before and during the photopolymerization, reaction kinetics, as well as mechanical properties and morphology have been investigated. The key parameters controlling the morphology and the phase separation, namely monomer miscibility and synthesis parameters have been identified. By monitoring the stiffness changes on the film surface, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) gave, in conjunction with polymerization kinetic profiles and thermomechanical properties, explanations and corroborated the miscibility predictions. When varying the methacrylate / epoxide ratio, it was possible to move from a miscible and highly-interpenetrated IPN to a totally immiscible and phase-separated one.

Keywords: investigation of properties and morphology, kinetics, phase separation, UV-cured IPNs

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4935 Nafion Nanofiber Composite Membrane Fabrication for Fuel Cell Applications

Authors: C. N. Okafor, M. Maaza, T. A. E. Mokrani


A proton exchange membrane has been developed for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The nanofiber network composite membranes were prepared by interconnected network of Nafion (perfuorosulfonic acid) nanofibers that have been embedded in an uncharged and inert polymer matrix, by electro-spinning. The spinning solution of Nafion with a low concentration (1 wt. % compared to Nafion) of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide), as a carrier polymer. The interconnected network of Nafion nanofibers with average fiber diameter in the range of 160-700nm, were used to make the membranes, with the nanofiber occupying up to 85% of the membrane volume. The matrix polymer was cross-linked with Norland Optical Adhesive 63 under UV. The resulting membranes showed proton conductivity of 0.10 S/cm at 25°C and 80% RH; and methanol permeability of 3.6 x 10-6 cm2/s.

Keywords: composite membrane, electrospinning, fuel cell, nanofibers

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4934 Forecast of Polyethylene Properties in the Gas Phase Polymerization Aided by Neural Network

Authors: Nasrin Bakhshizadeh, Ashkan Forootan


A major problem that affects the quality control of polymer in the industrial polymerization is the lack of suitable on-line measurement tools to evaluate the properties of the polymer such as melt and density indices. Controlling the polymerization in ordinary method is performed manually by taking samples, measuring the quality of polymer in the lab and registry of results. This method is highly time consuming and leads to producing large number of incompatible products. An online application for estimating melt index and density proposed in this study is a neural network based on the input-output data of the polyethylene production plant. Temperature, the level of reactors' bed, the intensity of ethylene mass flow, hydrogen and butene-1, the molar concentration of ethylene, hydrogen and butene-1 are used for the process to establish the neural model. The neural network is taught based on the actual operational data and back-propagation and Levenberg-Marquart techniques. The simulated results indicate that the neural network process model established with three layers (one hidden layer) for forecasting the density and the four layers for the melt index is able to successfully predict those quality properties.

Keywords: polyethylene, polymerization, density, melt index, neural network

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4933 Synthesis and Properties of Chitosan-Graft-Polyacrylamide/Gelatin Superabsorbent Composites for Wastewater Purification

Authors: Hafida Ferfera-Harrar, Nacera Aiouaz, Nassima Dairi


Super absorbents polymers received much attention and are used in many fields because of their superior characters to traditional absorbents, e.g., sponge and cotton. So, it is very important but challenging to prepare highly and fast-swelling super absorbents. A reliable, efficient and low-cost technique for removing heavy metal ions from waste water is the adsorption using bio-adsorbents obtained from biological materials, such as polysaccharides-based hydrogels super absorbents. In this study, novel multi-functional super absorbent composites type semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPNs) were prepared via graft polymerization of acrylamide onto chitosan backbone in presence of gelatin, CTS-g-PAAm/Ge, using potassium persulfate and N,N’ -methylenebisacrylamide as initiator and cross linker, respectively. These hydrogels were also partially hydrolyzed to achieve superabsorbents with ampholytic properties and uppermost swelling capacity. The formation of the grafted network was evidenced by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The porous structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). From TGA analysis, it was concluded that the incorporation of the Ge in the CTS-g-PAAm network has marginally affected its thermal stability. The effect of gelatin content on the swelling capacities of these super absorbent composites was examined in various media (distilled water, saline and pH-solutions).The water absorbency was enhanced by adding Ge in the network, where the optimum value was reached at 2 wt. % of Ge. Their hydrolysis has not only greatly optimized their absorption capacity but also improved the swelling kinetic. These materials have also showed reswelling ability. We believe that these super-absorbing materials would be very effective for the adsorption of harmful metal ions from waste water.

Keywords: chitosan, gelatin, superabsorbent, water absorbency

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4932 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar


The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

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4931 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner


One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: supramolecular chemistry, Cd coordination polymer, crystal structure, 3-nithrophethalic acid

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4930 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

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4929 Novel IPN Hydrogel Beads as pH Sensitive Drug Delivery System for an Anti-Ulcer Drug

Authors: Vishal Kumar Gupta


Purpose: This study has been undertaken to develop novel pH sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Methods: The pH sensitive PAAM-g-Guar gum copolymer was synthesized by free radical polymerization followed by alkaline hydrolysis. Beads of guar gum-grafted-polyacrylamide and sodium Carboxy methyl cellulose (Na CMC) loaded with Pantoprazole sodium were prepared and evaluated for pH sensitivity, swelling properties, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release characteristics. Seven formulations were prepared for the drug with varying polymer and cross linker concentrations. Results: The grafting and alkaline hydrolysis reactions were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry was carried out to know the compatibility of encapsulated drug with the polymers. Scanning electron microscopic study revealed that the IPN beads were spherical. The entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 85-92%. Particle size analysis was carried out by optical microscopy. As the pH of the medium was changed from 1.2 to 7.4, a considerable increase in swelling was observed for all beads. Increase in the copolymer concentration showed sustained the drug release up to 12 hrs. Drug release from the beads followed super case II transport mechanism. Conclusion: It was concluded that guar gum-acrylamide beads, cross-linked with aluminum chloride offer an opportunity for controlled drug release of pantoprazole sodium.

Keywords: IPN, hydrogels, DSC, SEM

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4928 Effect of Filler Size and Shape on Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect

Authors: Eric Asare, Jamie Evans, Mark Newton, Emiliano Bilotti


Two types of filler shapes (sphere and flakes) and three different sizes are employed to study the size effect on PTC. The composite is prepared using a mini-extruder with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as the matrix. A computer modelling is used to fit the experimental results. The percolation threshold decreases with decreasing filler size and this was observed for both the spherical particles as well as the flakes. This was caused by the decrease in interparticle distance with decreasing filler size. The 100 µm particles showed a larger PTC intensity compared to the 5 µm particles for the metal coated glass sphere and flake. The small particles have a large surface area and agglomeration and this makes it difficult for the conductive network to e disturbed. Increasing the filler content decreased the PTC intensity and this is due to an increase in the conductive network within the polymer matrix hence more energy is needed to disrupt the network.

Keywords: positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect, conductive polymer composite (CPC), electrical conductivity

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4927 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

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4926 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

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4925 Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.

Keywords: liquid crystals, polymers, small-angle scattering, optical properties

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4924 Ag and Au Nanoparticles Fabrication in Cross-Linked Polymer Microgels for Their Comparative Catalytic Study

Authors: Luqman Ali Shah, Murtaza Sayed, Mohammad Siddiq


Three-dimensional cross-linked polymer microgels with temperature responsive N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and pH-sensitive methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization with different amount of MAA. Silver and gold nanoparticles with size of 6.5 and 3.5 nm (±0.5 nm) respectively were homogeneously reduced inside these materials by chemical reduction method at pH 2.78 and 8.36 for the preparation of hybrid materials. The samples were characterized by FTIR, DLS and TEM techniques. The catalytic activity of the hybrid materials was investigated for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4- NP) using NaBH4 as reducing agent by UV-visible spectroscopy. The hybrid polymer network synthesized at pH 8.36 shows enhanced catalytic efficiency compared to catalysts synthesized at pH 2.78. In this study, it has been explored that catalyst activity strongly depends on amount of MAA, synthesis pH and type of metal nanoparticles entrapped.

Keywords: cross-linked polymer microgels, free radical polymerization, metal nanoparticles, catalytic activity, comparative study

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4923 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

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4922 Artificial Neural Network Model Based Setup Period Estimation for Polymer Cutting

Authors: Zsolt János Viharos, Krisztián Balázs Kis, Imre Paniti, Gábor Belső, Péter Németh, János Farkas


The paper presents the results and industrial applications in the production setup period estimation based on industrial data inherited from the field of polymer cutting. The literature of polymer cutting is very limited considering the number of publications. The first polymer cutting machine is known since the second half of the 20th century; however, the production of polymer parts with this kind of technology is still a challenging research topic. The products of the applying industrial partner must met high technical requirements, as they are used in medical, measurement instrumentation and painting industry branches. Typically, 20% of these parts are new work, which means every five years almost the entire product portfolio is replaced in their low series manufacturing environment. Consequently, it requires a flexible production system, where the estimation of the frequent setup periods' lengths is one of the key success factors. In the investigation, several (input) parameters have been studied and grouped to create an adequate training information set for an artificial neural network as a base for the estimation of the individual setup periods. In the first group, product information is collected such as the product name and number of items. The second group contains material data like material type and colour. In the third group, surface quality and tolerance information are collected including the finest surface and tightest (or narrowest) tolerance. The fourth group contains the setup data like machine type and work shift. One source of these parameters is the Manufacturing Execution System (MES) but some data were also collected from Computer Aided Design (CAD) drawings. The number of the applied tools is one of the key factors on which the industrial partners’ estimations were based previously. The artificial neural network model was trained on several thousands of real industrial data. The mean estimation accuracy of the setup periods' lengths was improved by 30%, and in the same time the deviation of the prognosis was also improved by 50%. Furthermore, an investigation on the mentioned parameter groups considering the manufacturing order was also researched. The paper also highlights the manufacturing introduction experiences and further improvements of the proposed methods, both on the shop floor and on the quotation preparation fields. Every week more than 100 real industrial setup events are given and the related data are collected.

Keywords: artificial neural network, low series manufacturing, polymer cutting, setup period estimation

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4921 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray


The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 µm and 200-600 nm, respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, CNFs, ionic conductivity, TGA

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4920 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: chitosan, electroactive polymer, electroactive properties

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4919 Competitive Adsorption of Al, Ga and In by Gamma Irradiation Induced Pectin-Acrylamide-(Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogel

Authors: Md Murshed Bhuyan, Hirotaka Okabe, Yoshiki Hidaka, Kazuhiro Hara


Pectin-Acrylamide- (Vinyl Phosphonic Acid) Hydrogels were prepared from their blend by using gamma radiation of various doses. It was found that the gel fraction of hydrogel increases with increasing the radiation dose reaches a maximum and then started decreasing with increasing the dose. The optimum radiation dose and the composition of raw materials were determined on the basis of equilibrium swelling which resulted in 20 kGy absorbed dose and 1:2:4 (Pectin:AAm:VPA) composition. Differential scanning calorimetry reveals the gel strength for using them as the adsorbent. The FTIR-spectrum confirmed the grafting/ crosslinking of the monomer on the backbone of pectin chain. The hydrogels were applied in adsorption of Al, Ga, and In from multielement solution where the adsorption capacity order for those three elements was found as – In>Ga>Al. SEM images of hydrogels and metal adsorbed hydrogels indicate the gel network and adherence of the metal ions in the interpenetrating network of the hydrogel which were supported by EDS spectra. The adsorption isotherm models were studied and found that the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was well fitted with the data. Adsorption data were also fitted to different adsorption kinetic and diffusion models. Desorption of metal adsorbed hydrogels was performed in 5% nitric acid where desorption efficiency was found around 90%.

Keywords: hydrogel, gamma radiation, vinyl phosphonic acid, metal adsorption

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4918 Network Security Attacks and Defences

Authors: Ranbir Singh, Deepinder Kaur


Network security is an important aspect in every field like government offices, Educational Institute and any business organization. Network security consists of the policies adopted to prevent and monitor forbidden access, misuse, modification, or denial of a computer network. Network security is very complicated subject and deal by only well trained and experienced people. However, as more and more people become wired, an increasing number of people need to understand the basics of security in a networked world. The history of the network security included an introduction to the TCP/IP and interworking. Network security starts with authenticating, commonly with a username and a password. In this paper, we study about various types of attacks on network security and how to handle or prevent this attack.

Keywords: network security, attacks, denial, authenticating

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4917 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih


Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

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4916 Study of Self-Assembled Photocatalyst by Metal-Terpyridine Interactions in Polymer Network

Authors: Dong-Cheol Jeong, Jookyung Lee, Yu Hyeon Ro, Changsik Song


The design and synthesis of photo-active polymeric systems are important in regard to solar energy harvesting and utilization. In this study, we synthesized photo-active polymer, thin films, and polymer gel via iterative self-assembly using reversible metal-terpyridine (M-tpy) interactions. The photocurrent generated in the polymeric thin films with Zn(II) was much higher than those of other films. Apparent diffusion rate constant (kapp) was measured for the electron hopping process via potential-step chronoamperometry. As a result, the kapp for the polymeric thin films with Zn(II) was almost two times larger than those with other metal ions. We found that the anodic photocurrents increased with the inclusion of the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) layer. Inclusion of MWNTs can provide efficient electron transfer pathways. In addition, polymer gel based on interactions between terpyridine and metal ions was shown the photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, in the Mg-terpyridine gel, the reaction rate of benzylamine to imine photo-oxidative coupling was faster than Fe-terpyridine gel because the Mg-terpyridine gel has two steps electron transfer pathway but Fe-terpyridine gel has three steps electron transfer pathway.

Keywords: terpyridine, photocatalyst, self-assebly, metal-ligand

Procedia PDF Downloads 235