Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: carbamazepine

14 The Influence of Carbamazepine on the Activity of CYP3A4 in Patients with Alcoholism

Authors: Mikhail S. Zastrozhin, Valery V. Smirnov, Dmitry A. Sychev, Ludmila M. Savchenko, Evgeny A. Bryun, Mark O. Nechaev

Abstract:

Cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme 3A4 takes part in the biotransformation of medical drugs. The activity of CYP isoenzymes depends on genetic (polymorphisms of genes which encoded it) and phenotypic factors (a kind of food, a concomitant drug therapy). The aim of the study was to evaluate a carbamazepine effect on the CYP3A4 activity in patients with alcohol addiction. The study included 25 men with alcohol dependence, who received haloperidol during the exacerbation of the addiction. CYP3A4 activity was assessed by urinary 6-beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratios measured by high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The study modeled a graph and an equation of the logarithmic regression, that reflects the dependence of CYP3A4 activity on a dose of carbamazepine: y = 5,5 * 9,1 * 10-5 * x2. The study statistically significant demonstrates the effect of carbamazepine on CYP2D6 isozyme activity in patients with alcohol addiction.

Keywords: CYP3A4, biotransformation, carbamazepine, alcohol abuse

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13 Database of Pharmacogenetics HLA-A*31:01 Allele in Thai Population and Carbamazepine-Induced SCARs

Authors: Watchawin Ekphinitphithaya, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) by neurologists and non-neurologist worldwide. CBZ is usually prescribed along with other drugs, leading to the possibility of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs). The HLA-B*15:02 is strongly associated with CBZ-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS–TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations, while HLA-A*31:01 allele has been reported to be associated with CBZ-induced SCARs in European population and Japanese. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of pharmacogenetics HLA-A*31:01 marker in a healthy Thai population associated with Carbamazepine-induced SCARs. Materials and Methods: Prospective study, 350 unrelated healthy Thais were recruited in this study. Human leukocyte antigen-A alleles were genotyped using PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). Results: The frequency of HLA-A alleles were HLA-A*11:01 (190 alleles, 27.14%), HLA-A*24:02 (82 alleles, 11.71%), HLA-A*02:03 (80 alleles, 11.43%), HLA-A*33:03 (76 alleles, 10.86%), HLA-A*02:07 (58 alleles, 8.29%), HLA-A*02:01 (35 alleles, 5.00%), HLA-A*24:07 (29 alleles, 4.14%), HLA-A*02:06 – HLA-A*30:01 (15 alleles, 2.14%), and HLA-A*01:01 (14 alleles, 2.00%). Particularly, the number of HLA-A*31:01 alleles was 6 of 700 (0.86%) in the healthy Thai population. Many research presented varying distributions of HLA-A*31:01 in Asians, including 2% of Han Chinese, 9% of Japanese and 5% of Koreans. In addition, this allele was found approximately 2-5% in the Caucasian population. Conclusions: Thus, the pharmacogenetics database is vital to support in many populations, especially in Thais, for screening HLA-A*31:01 allele to avoid CBZ-induced SCARs before initiating treatments in each population.

Keywords: Carbamazepine, HLA-A*31:01, Thai population, pharmacogenetics

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12 Photochemical Behaviour of Carbamazepine in Natural Waters

Authors: Fanny Desbiolles, Laure Malleret, Isabelle Laffont-Schwob, Christophe Tiliacos, Anne Piram, Mohamed Sarakha, Pascal Wong-Wah-Chung

Abstract:

Pharmaceuticals in the environment have become a very hot topic in the recent years. This interest is related to the large amounts dispensed and to their release in urine or faeces from treated patients, resulting in their ubiquitous presence in water resources and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) effluents. Thereby, many studies focused on the prediction of pharmaceuticals’ behaviour, to assess their fate and impacts in the environment. Carbamazepine is a widely consumed psychotropic pharmaceutical, thus being one of the most commonly detected drugs in the environment. This organic pollutant was proved to be persistent, especially with respect to its non-biodegradability, rendering it recalcitrant to usual biological treatment processes. Consequently, carbamazepine is very little removed in WWTP with a maximum abatement rate of 5 % and is then often released in natural surface waters. To better assess the environmental fate of carbamazepine in aqueous media, its photochemical transformation was undertaken in four natural waters (two French rivers, the Berre salt lagoon, Mediterranean Sea water) representative of coastal and inland water types. Kinetic experiments were performed in the presence of light using simulated solar irradiation (Xe lamp 300W). Formation of short-lifetime species was highlighted using chemical trap and laser flash photolysis (nanosecond). Identification of transformation by-products was assessed by LC-QToF-MS analyses. Carbamazepine degradation was observed after a four-day exposure and an abatement of 20% maximum was measured yielding to the formation of many by-products. Moreover, the formation of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) was evidenced in waters using terephthalic acid as a probe, considering the photochemical instability of its specific hydroxylated derivative. Correlations were implemented using carbamazepine degradation rate, estimated hydroxyl radical formation and chemical contents of waters. In addition, laser flash photolysis studies confirmed •OH formation and allowed to evidence other reactive species, such as chloride (Cl2•-)/bromine (Br2•-) and carbonate (CO3•-) radicals in natural waters. Radicals mainly originate from dissolved phase and their occurrence and abundance depend on the type of water. Rate constants between reactive species and carbamazepine were determined by laser flash photolysis and competitive reactions experiments. Moreover, LC-QToF-MS analyses of by-products help us to propose mechanistic pathways. The results will bring insights to the fate of carbamazepine in various water types and could help to evaluate more precisely potential ecotoxicological effects.

Keywords: carbamazepine, kinetic and mechanistic approaches, natural waters, photodegradation

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11 Therapeutic Drug Monitoring by Dried Blood Spot and LC-MS/MS: Novel Application to Carbamazepine and Its Metabolite in Paediatric Population

Authors: Giancarlo La Marca, Engy Shokry, Fabio Villanelli

Abstract:

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, with an estimated prevalence of 50 million people worldwide. Twenty five percent of the epilepsy population is represented in children under the age of 15 years. For antiepileptic drugs (AED), there is a poor correlation between plasma concentration and dose especially in children. This was attributed to greater pharmacokinetic variability than adults. Hence, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is recommended in controlling toxicity while drug exposure is maintained. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line AED and the drug of first choice in trigeminal neuralgia. CBZ is metabolised in the liver into carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZE), its major metabolite which is equipotent. This develops the need for an assay able to monitor the levels of both CBZ and CBZE. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of CBZ and CBZE in dried blood spots (DBS). DBS technique overcomes many logistical problems, ethical issues and technical challenges faced by classical plasma sampling. LC-MS/MS has been regarded as superior technique over immunoassays and HPLC/UV methods owing to its better specificity and sensitivity, lack of interference or matrix effects. Our method combines advantages of DBS technique and LC-MS/MS in clinical practice. The extraction process was done using methanol-water-formic acid (80:20:0.1, v/v/v). The chromatographic elution was achieved by using a linear gradient with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-water-0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.50 mL/min. The method was linear over the range 1-40 mg/L and 0.25-20 mg/L for CBZ and CBZE respectively. The limit of quantification was 1.00 mg/L and 0.25 mg/L for CBZ and CBZE, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day assay precisions were found to be less than 6.5% and 11.8%. An evaluation of DBS technique was performed, including effect of extraction solvent, spot homogeneity and stability in DBS. Results from a comparison with the plasma assay are also presented. The novelty of the present work lies in being the first to quantify CBZ and its metabolite from only one 3.2 mm DBS disc finger-prick sample (3.3-3.4 µl blood) by LC-MS/MS in a 10 min. chromatographic run.

Keywords: carbamazepine, carbamazepine-10, 11-epoxide, dried blood spots, LC-MS/MS, therapeutic drug monitoring

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10 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle

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Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid, carbamazepine, industry

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9 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion of an Anti-Epileptic Drug Carbamazepine

Authors: Sharmin Akhter, M. Salahuddin, Sukalyan Kumar Kundu, Mohammad Fahim Kadir

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Relatively insoluble candidate drug like carbamazepine (CBZ) often exhibit incomplete or erratic absorption; and hence wide consideration is given to improve aqueous solubility of such compound. Solid dispersions were formulated with an aim of improving aqueous solubility, oral bioavailability and the rate of dissolution of Carbamazepine using different hydrophyllic polymer like Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) 4000, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 cps, poloxamer 407 and povidone k 30. Solid dispersions were prepared with different drug to polymer weight ratio by the solvent evaporation method where methanol was used as solvent. Drug-polymer physical mixtures were also prepared to compare the rate of dissolution. Effects of different polymer were studied for solid dispersion formulation as well as physical mixtures. These formulations were characterized in the solid state by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Solid state characterization indicated CBZ was present as fine particles and entrapped in carrier matrix of PEG 6000 and PVP K30 solid dispersions. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies showed the stability of CBZ and absence of well-defined drug-polymer interactions. In contrast to the very slow dissolution rate of pure CBZ, dispersions of drug in polymers considerably improved the dissolution rate. This can be attributed to increased wettability and dispersibility, as well as decreased crystallinity and increase in amorphous fraction of drug. Solid dispersion formulations containing PEG 6000 and Povidone K 30 showed maximum drug release within one hour at the ratio of 1:1:1. Even physical mixtures of CBZ prepared with both carriers also showed better dissolution profiles than those of pure CBZ. In conclusions, solid dispersions could be a promising delivery of CBZ with improved oral bioavailability and immediate release profiles.

Keywords: carbamazepine, FTIR, kollidon 30, HPMC 6 CPS, PEG 6000, PEG 4000, poloxamer 407, water solubility, povidone k 30, SEM, solid dispersion

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8 Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Influents of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Jordan

Authors: O. A. Al-Mashaqbeh, A. M. Ghrair, D. Alsafadi, S. S. Dalahmeh, S. L. Bartelt-Hunt, D. D. Snow

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Grab samples were collected in the summer to characterize selected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in the influent of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Jordan. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of PPCPs. Among all of the PPCPs analyzed, eight compounds were detected in the influent samples (1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, morphine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim). However, five compounds (amphetamine, cimetidine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and sulfachloropyridazine) were not detected in collected samples (below the detection limits <0.005 µg/l). Moreover, the results indicated that the highest concentration levels detected in collected samples were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine and carbamazepine at concentration of 182.5 µg/L, 28.7 µg/l, 7.47 µg/l, 4.67 µg/l and 1.54 µg/L, respectively. In general, most of compounds concentrations measured in wastewater in Jordan are within the range for wastewater previously reported in India wastewater except caffeine.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, personal care products, wastewater, Jordan

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7 Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in an Urban Lake

Authors: J. D. Villanueva, N. Peyraube, I. Allan, G. D. Salvosa, M. Reid, C. Harman, K. D. Salvosa, J. M. V. Castro, M. V. O. Espaldon, J. B. Sevilla-Nastor, P. Le Coustumer

Abstract:

The main objectives of this research are to (1) assess the occurrence of the pharmaceutical compounds and (2) present the environmental challenges posed by the existence of these pharmaceutical compounds in the surface water. These pharmaceuticals were measured in Napindan Lake, Philippines. This lake is not only a major tributary of the Pasig River (an estuary) and Laguna Lake (freshwater). It also joins these two important surface waters of the National Capital Region. Pharmaceutical compounds such as Atenolol, Carbamazepine, and two other over the counter medicines: Cetirizine, and Ibuprofen were measured in Napindan Lake. Atenolol is a beta blocker that helps in lowering hypertensions. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used as treatment for epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that can relieve allergies. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug normally used to relieve pains. Three different climatological conditions with corresponding hydro physico chemical characteristics were considered. First, was during a dry season with a simultaneous dredging. Second was during a transition period from dry to wet season. Finally, the third was during a continuous wet event. Based from the results of the study, most of these pharmaceuticals can be found in Napindan Lake. This is a proof that these pharmaceutical compounds are being released to a natural surface water. Even though climatological conditions were different, concentrations of these pharmaceuticals can still be detected. This implies that there is an incessant supply of these pharmaceutical compounds in Napindan Lake. Chronic exposure to these compounds even at low concentrations can lead to possible environmental and health risks. Given this information and since consistent occurrence of these compounds can be expected, the main challenge, at present, is on how to control the sources of these pharmaceutical compounds. Primarily, there is a need to manage the disposal of the pharmaceutical compounds. Yet, the main question is how to? This study would like to present the challenges and institutional roles in helping manage the pharmaceutical disposals in a developing country like the Philippines.

Keywords: atenolol, carbamazepine, cetirizine, ibuprofen, institutional roles, Napindan lake, pharmaceutical compound disposal management, surface water, urban lake

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6 Biodegradation of Carbamazepine and Diclofenac by Bacterial Strain Labrys Portucalensis

Authors: V. S. Bessa, I. S. Moreira, S. Murgolo, C. Piccirillo, G. Mascolo, P. M. L. Castro

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The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been a topic of increasing concern. Pharmaceuticals are not completely mineralized in the human body and are released on the sewage systems as the pharmaceutical itself and as their “biologically active” metabolites through excretion, as well as by improper elimination and disposal. Conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not designed to remove these emerging pollutants and they are thus released into the environment. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory diclofenac (DCF) are two widely used pharmaceuticals, frequently detected in water bodies, including rivers and groundwater, in concentrations ranging from ng L 1 to mg L 1. These two compounds were classified as medium to high-risk pollutants in WWTP effluents and surface waters. Also, CBZ has been suggested as a molecular marker of wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater and the European Union included DCF in the watch list of substances Directive to be monitored. In the present study, biodegradation of CBZ and DCF by the bacterial strain Labrys portucalensis F11, a strain able to degrade other pharmaceutical compounds, was assessed; tests were performed with F11 as single carbon and energy source, as well as in presence of 5.9mM of sodium acetate. In assays supplemented with 2.0 and 4.0 µM of CBZ, the compound was no longer detected in the bulk medium after 24hr and 5days, respectively. Complete degradation was achieved in 21 days for 11.0 µM and in 23 days for 21.0 µM. For the highest concentration tested (43.0 µM), 95% of degradation was achieved in 30days. Supplementation with acetate increased the degradation rate of CBZ, for all tested concentrations. In the case of DCF, when supplemented as a single carbon source, approximately 70% of DCF (1.7, 3.3, 8.4, 17.5 and 34.0 µM) was degraded in 30days. Complete degradation was achieved in the presence of acetate for all tested concentrations, at higher degradation rates. The detection of intermediates produced during DCF biodegradation was performed by UPLC-QTOF/MS/MS, which allowed the identification of a range of metabolites. Stoichiometric liberation of chorine occurred and no metabolites were detected at the end of the biodegradation assays suggesting a complete mineralization of DCF. Strain Labrys portucalensis F11 proved to be able to degrade these two top priority environmental contaminants and may be potentially useful for biotechnological applications/environment remediation.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbamazepine, diclofenac, pharmaceuticals

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5 Distribution of Current Emerging Contaminants in South Africa Surface and Groundwater

Authors: Jou-An Chen, Julio Castillo, Errol Duncan Cason, Gabre Kemp, Leana Esterhuizen, Angel Valverde Portal, Esta Van Heerden

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Emerging contaminants (EC) such as pharmaceutical and personal care products have been accumulating for years in water bodies all over the world. However, very little is known about the occurrences, levels, and effects of ECs in South African water resources. This study provides an initial assessment of the distribution of eight ECs (Acetaminophen, Atrazine, Terbuthlyazine, Carbamazepine, Phenyton, Sulfmethoxazole, Nevirapine and Fluconozole) in fifteen water sources from the Free State and Easter Cape provinces of South Africa. Overall, the physiochemical conditions were different in surface and groundwater samples, with concentrations of several elements such as B, Ca, Mg, Na, NO3, and TDS been statistically higher in groundwater. In contrast, ECs levels, quantified at ng/mL using the LC/MS/ESI, were much lower in groundwater samples. The ECs with higher contamination levels were Carbamazepine, Sulfmethoxazole, Nevirapine, and Terbuthlyazine, while the most widespread were Sulfmethoxazole and Fluconozole, detected in all surface and groundwater samples. Fecal and E. coli tests indicated that surface water was more contaminated than groundwater. Microbial communities, assessed using NGS, were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, in both surface and groundwater. Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Cyanobacteria, were more dominant in surface water, while Verrucomicrobia were overrepresented in groundwater. In conclusion, ECs contamination is closely associated with human activities (human wastes). The microbial diversity identified can suggest possible biodegradation processes.

Keywords: emerging contaminants, EC, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, natural attenuation process

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4 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė

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An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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3 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: Miao Yang

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PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.

Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysis

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2 In-Situ Fabrication of ZnO PES Membranes for Treatment of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Oranso T. Mahlangi, Bhekie B. Mamba

Abstract:

The occurrence of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in water has raised health concerns for living organisms. The majority of TorCs, including pharmaceuticals and volatile organic compounds, are poorly monitored, partly due to the high cost of analysis and less strict water quality guidelines in South Africa. Therefore, the removal of TorCs is important to guarantee safe potable water. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated in situ in polyethersulfone (PES) polymer solutions. This was followed by membrane synthesis using the phase inversion technique. Techniques such as FTIR, Raman, SEM, AFM, EDS, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the membranes for several physicochemical properties. The membranes were then evaluated for their efficiency in treating pharmaceutical wastewater and resistance to organic (sodium alginate) and protein (bovine serum albumin) fouling. EDS micrographs revealed uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, while SEM images showed uniform fingerlike structures. The addition of ZnO increased membrane roughness as well as hydrophilicity (which in turn improved water fluxes). The membranes poorly rejected monovalent and divalent salts (< 10%), making them resistant to flux decline due to concentration polarization effects. However, the membranes effectively removed carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and naproxen by over 50%. ZnO PES membranes were resistant to organic and protein fouling compared to the neat membrane. ZnO PES ultrafiltration membranes may provide a solution in the reclamation of wastewater.

Keywords: trace organic compounds, pharmaceuticals, membrane fouling, wastewater reclamation

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1 Anti-Phospholipid Antibody Syndrome Presenting with Seizure, Stroke and Atrial Mass: A Case Report

Authors: Rajish Shil, Amal Alduhoori, Vipin Thomachan, Jamal Teir, Radhakrishnan Renganathan

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Background: Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) has a broad spectrum of thrombotic and non-thrombotic clinical manifestations. We present a case of APS presenting with seizure, stroke, and atrial mass. Case Description: A 38-year-old male presented with headache of 10 days duration and tonic-clonic seizure. The neurological examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed small acute right cerebellar infarct. Magnetic resonance angiography of brain and neck showed a focal narrowing in the origin of the internal carotid artery bilaterally. Electroencephalogram was normal. He was started on aspirin, atorvastatin, and carbamazepine. Transthoracic and trans-esophageal echocardiography showed a pedunculated and lobular atrial mass, measuring 1 X 1.5 cm, which was freely mobile across mitral valve opening across the left ventricular inflow. Autoimmune screening showed positive Antiphospholipid antibodies in high titer (Cardiolipin IgG > 120 units/ml, B2 glycoprotein IgG 90 units/mL). Anti-nuclear antibody was negative. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels were normal. Platelet count was low (111 x 109/L). The patient underwent successful surgical removal of the mass, which looked like a thrombotic clot, and Histopathological analysis confirmed it as a fibrinous clot, with no evidence of tumor cells. The patient was started on full anticoagulation treatment and was followed up regularly in the clinic, where our patient did not have any further complications from the disease. Discussion: Our patient was diagnosed to have APS based on the features of high positive anticardiolipin antibody IgG and B2 glycoprotein IgG levels, Stroke, thrombocytopenia, and abnormal echo findings. Thrombotic vegetation can mimic an atrial myxoma on echo. Conclusion: APS can present with neurological and cardiac manifestations, and therefore a high index of suspicion is necessary for a diagnosis of the disease as it can affect both short and long term treatment plans and prognosis. Therefore, in patients presenting with neurological symptoms like seizures, weakness and radiological diagnosis of stroke in a young patient, where atrial masses could be thought to be the cause of stroke, they should be screened for any concomitant findings of thrombocytopenia and/or activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation, which should raise the suspicion of vasculitis, specifically APS to be the primary cause of the clinical presentation.

Keywords: antiphospholipid syndrome, seizures, atrial mass, stroke

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