Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 183

Search results for: tannery effluents

183 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, , Ananda Kumar Saha


This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: characterization, effluent, tannery, treatment

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182 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: Gentiana Shegani


Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analysing the change in organic matter, odor, colour, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulphate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, faecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulphate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed.

Keywords: coagulation, effluent, tannery, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
181 Ground Water Contamination by Tannery Effluents and Its Impact on Human Health in Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Fawad Ali, Muhammad Ateeq, Ikhtiar Khan


Ground water, a major source of drinking water supply in Peshawar has been severely contaminated by leather tanning industry. Effluents from the tanneries contain high concentration of chromium besides several other chemical species. Release of untreated effluents from the tanning industry has severely damaged surface and ground water, agriculture soil as well as vegetables and crops. Chromium is a well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic agent. Once in the human food chain, it causes multiple problems to the exposed population including various types of cancer, skin dermatitis, and DNA damage. In order to assess the extent of chromium and other heavy metals contamination, water samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS, Analyst 700, Perkin Elmer). Total concentration of chromium was above the permissible limit (0.048 mg/l) in 85% of the groundwater (drinking water) samples. The concentration of cobalt, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc and iron was also determined in the ground water, surface water, agriculture soil, and vegetables samples from the affected area.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, groundwater, tannery effluents, food chain

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180 Chromium Reduction Using Bacteria: Bioremediation Technologies

Authors: Baljeet Singh Saharan


Bioremediation is the demand of the day. Tannery and textile effluents/waste waters have lots of pollution due to presence of hexavalent Chromium. Methodologies used in the present investigations include isolation, cultivation and purification of bacterial strain. Further characterization techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Efficient bacterial strain capable of reducing hexavalent chromium was obtained. The strain can be used for bioremediation of industrial effluents containing hexavalent Cr. A gram negative, rod shaped and yellowish pigment producing bacterial strain from tannery effluent was isolated using nutrient agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that isolate SA13A is associated with genus Luteimonas (99%). This isolate has been found to reduce 100% of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (100 mg L-1) 100% in 16 h. Growth conditions were optimized for Cr (VI) reduction. Maximum reduction was observed at a temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. Additionally, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A showed resistance against various heavy metals like Cr+6, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cd+2 . Hence, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A could be used as potent Cr (VI) reducing strain as well as significant bioremediator in heavy metal contaminated sites.

Keywords: bioremediation, chromium, eco-friendly, heavy metals

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179 Phytoremediation of Cr from Tannery Effluent by Vetiver Grass

Authors: Mingizem Gashaw Seid


Phytoremediation of chromium metal by vetiver grass was investigated in hydroponic system. The removal efficiency for organic load, nutrient and chromium were evaluated as a function of concentration of waste effluent (40 and 50% dilution with distilled water). Under this conditions 64.49-94.06 % of chromium was removed. This shows vetiver grass has potential for accumulation of chromium metal from tannery waste water stream.

Keywords: chromium, phytoremediation, tannery effluent, vetiver grass

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178 Mental Well-Being and Quality of Life: A Comparative Study of Male Leather Tannery and Non-Tannery Workers of Kanpur City, India

Authors: Gyan Kashyap, Shri Kant Singh


Improved mental health can be articulated as a good physical health and quality of life. Mental health plays an important role in survival of any one’s life. In today’s time people living with stress in life due to their personal matters, health problems, unemployment, work environment, living environment, substance use, life style and many more important reasons. Many studies confirmed that the significant proportion of mental health people increasing in India. This study is focused on mental well-being of male leather tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. Environment at work place as well as living environment plays an important health risk factors among leather tannery workers. Leather tannery workers are more susceptible to many chemicals and physical hazards, just because they are liable to be affected by their exposure to lots of hazardous materials and processes during tanning work in very hazardous work environment. The aim of this study to determine the level of mental health disorder and quality of life among male leather tannery and non-tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. This study utilized the primary data from the cross- sectional household study which was conducted from January to June, 2015 on tannery and non-tannery workers as a part of PhD program from the Jajmau area of Kanpur city, India. The sample of 286 tannery and 295 non-tannery workers has been collected from the study area. We have collected information from the workers of age group 15-70 those who were working at the time of survey for at least one year. This study utilized the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and work related stress scale to test the mental wellbeing of male tannery and non-tannery workers. By using GHQ-12 and work related stress scale, Polychoric factor analysis method has been used for best threshold and scoring. Some of important question like ‘How would you rate your overall quality of life’ on Likert scale to measure the quality of life, their earnings, education, family size, living condition, household assets, media exposure, health expenditure, treatment seeking behavior and food habits etc. Results from the study revealed that around one third of tannery workers had severe mental health problems then non-tannery workers. Mental health problem shown the statistically significant association with wealth quintile, 56 percent tannery workers had severe mental health problem those belong to medium wealth quintile. And 42 percent tannery workers had moderate mental health problem among those from the low wealth quintile. Work related stress scale found the statistically significant results for tannery workers. Large proportion of tannery and non-tannery workers reported they are unable to meet their basic needs from their earnings and living in worst condition. Important result from the study, tannery workers who were involved in beam house work in tannery (58%) had severe mental health problem. This study found the statistically significant association with tannery work and mental health problem among tannery workers.

Keywords: GHQ-12, mental well-being, factor analysis, quality of life, tannery workers

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177 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
176 Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Vicinity of Tannery Industries in Warangal, India

Authors: Mohammed Fathima Shahanaaz, Shaik Fayazuddin, M. Uday Kiran


Groundwater quality is deteriorating day by day in different parts of the world due to various reasons, toxic chemicals are being discharged without proper treatment into inland water bodies and land which in turn add pollutants to the groundwater. In this kind of situation, the rural communities which do not have municipal drinking water have to rely on groundwater though it is polluted for various uses. Tannery industry is one of the major industry which provides economy and employment to India. Since most of the developed countries stopped using chemicals which are toxic, the tanning industry which uses chromium as its major element are being shifted towards developing countries. Most of the tanning industries in India can be found in clusters concentrated mainly in states of Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and limited places of Punjab. Limited work is present in the case of tanneries of Warangal. There exists 18 group of tanneries in Desaipet, Enamamula region of Warangal, out of which 4 are involved in dry process and are low responsible for groundwater pollution. These units of tanneries are discharging their effluents after treatment into Sai Cheruvu. Though the treatment effluents are being discharged, the Sai Cheruvu is turned in to Pink colour, with higher levels of BOD, COD, chromium, chlorides, total hardness, TDS and sulphates. An attempt was made to analyse the groundwater samples around this polluted Sai Cheruvu region since literature shows that a single tannery can pollute groundwater to a radius of 7-8 kms from the point of disposal. Sample are collected from 6 different locations around Sai Cheruvu. Analysis was performed for determining various constituents in groundwater such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3-, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F and Cr+6. The analysis of these constitutes gave values greater than permissible limits. Even chromium is also present in groundwater samples which is exceeding permissible limits People in Paidepally and Sardharpeta villages already stopped the usage of groundwater. They are buying bottle water for drinking purpose. Though they are not using groundwater for drinking purpose complaints are made about using this water for washing also. So treatment process should be adopted for groundwater which should be simple and efficient. In this study rice husk silica (RHS) is used to treat pollutants in groundwater with varying dosages of RHS and contact time. Rice husk is treated, dried and place in a muffle furnace for 6 hours at 650°C. Reduction is observed in total hardness, chlorides and chromium levels are observed after the application RHS. Pollutants reached permissible limits for 27.5mg/l and 50 mg/l of dosage for a contact time of 130 min at constant pH and temperature.

Keywords: chromium, groundwater, rice husk silica, tanning industries

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175 Recovery of Chromium(III) from Tannery Wastewater by Nanoparticles and Whiskers of Chitosan

Authors: El Montassir Dahmane, Nadia Eladlani, Aziz Ouahrouch, Mohammed Rhazi, Moha Taourirte


The present study was aimed to approximate the optimal conditions to chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. Chitosan with an average molecular weight of 63 kDa and a 96% deacetylation degree was prepared according to our previous study. Chromium recovery is influenced by different parameters. In our search, we determined the appropriate range of pH to form chitosan–Cr(III), nanoparticles Cr(III), and whiskers– Cr(III) complex. We studied also the influence of chromium concentration and the nature of chitosan-based materials on the complexation process. Our main aim is to approximate the optimal conditions to remove chromium(III) from the tanning bath, recuperated from tannery wastewater of Marrakech in Morocco. A Perkin Elmer optima 2000 Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), was used to determine the quantity of chromium persistent in tannery wastewater after complexation phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report interested in the optimal conditions for chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. From our research, we found that in chromium solution, the appropriate range of pH to form complex is between 5.6 and 6.7. Also, the complexation of Cr(III) is depending on the nature of complexing ligand and chromium concentration. The obtained results reveal that nanoparticles present an excellent adsorption capacity regardless of chromium concentration. In addition, after a critical chromium concentration (250 mg/l), our ligand becomes saturated, that requires an increase of ligand mass for increasing chromium concentration in order to have a better adsorption capacity. Hence, in the same conditions, we used chitosan, its nanoparticles, whiskers, and chitosan based films to remove Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. The pH of this effluent was around 6, and its chromium concentration was 300 mg/l. The results expose that the sequence of complexing ligand in the effluent is the same in chromium solution, determined via our previous study. However, the adsorbed quantity is less due to the presence of other metallic ions in tannery wastewater. We conclude that the best complexing ligand-based chitosan is chitosan nanoaprticles whether it’s in chromium solution or in tannery wastewater. Nanoparticles are the best complexing ligand after 24 h of contact nanoparticles can remove 70% of chromium from this tannery wastewater.

Keywords: nanoparticles, whiskers, chitosan, chromium

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174 An Investigation into the Impact of the Relocation of Tannery Industry on Water Quality Parameters of Urban River Buriganga

Authors: Md Asif Imrul, Maria Rafique, M. Habibur Rahman


The study deals with an investigation into the impact of the relocation of tannery industry on water quality parameters of Buriganga. For this purpose, previous records have been collected from authentic data resources and for the attainment of present values, several samples were collected from three major locations of the Buriganga River during summer and winter seasons in 2018 to determine the distribution and variation of water quality parameters. Samples were collected six ft below the river water surface. Analysis indicates slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.8-7.49) in nature. Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Solids (TS) & Total Suspended Solids (TSS) have been found greater in summer. On the other hand, Dissolved Oxygen is found greater in rainy seasons. Relocation shows improvement in water quality parameters. Though the improvement related to relocation of tannery industry is not adequate to turn the water body to be an inhabitable place for aquatic lives.

Keywords: Buriganga river, river pollution, tannery industry, water quality parameters

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173 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas


Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

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172 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid


This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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171 Impact of Activated Sludge Bulking and Foaming on the Quality of Kuwait's Irrigation Water

Authors: Abdallah Abusam, Andrzej Mydlarczyk, Fadila Al-Salameen, Moh Elmuntasir Ahmed


Treated municipal wastewater produced in Kuwait is used mainly in agricultural and greenery landscape irrigations. However, there are strong doubts that severe sludge bulking and foaming problems, particularly during winter seasons, may render the treated wastewater to be unsuitable for irrigation purposes. To assess the impact of sludge bulking and foaming problems on the quality of treated effluents, samples were collected weekly for nine months (January to September 2014) from the secondary effluents, tertiary effluents and sludge-mixed liquor streams of the two plants that severely suffer from sludge bulking and foaming problems. Dominant filamentous bacteria were identified and quantified using a molecular method called VIT (Vermicon Identification Technology). Quality of the treated effluents was determined according to water and wastewater standard methods. Obtained results were then statistically analyzed and compared to irrigation water standards. Statistical results indicated that secondary effluents were greatly impacted by sludge bulking and foaming problems, while tertiary effluents were slightly affected. This finding highlights the importance of having tertiary treatment units in plants that encountering sludge bulking and foaming problems.

Keywords: agriculture, filamentous bacteria, reclamation, reuse, wastewater

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170 Chemical Risk Posed by Hospital Liquid Effluents Example CHU Beni Messous Algiers

Authors: Laref Nabil


Ecology is at the center of many debates and international regulations. It therefore becomes a necessity and a privileged axis in many countries policy. The rise of environmental problems, the particularism of the hospital as an actor Public Health must lead by example in hygiene, prevention of risks to man and his environment. In this, it seemed interesting to make a poster on hospital liquid effluents in order to know not only the regulatory aspects but also their degree of pollution and their management in health institutions. Materials and methods: Samples taken at several looks, analysis performed at STEP Reghaia Algiers. Discussion and / or findings: In general, central gaze analysis results of water we can conclude that the contents of the various physico-chemical parameters greatly exceed the standards. Although the hypothesis of assimilating hospital liquid effluents domestic waters is confirmed, the liquid effluent from the University Hospital of Beni Messous and dumped in the natural environment still represent ecotoxicological risk.

Keywords: health, hospital, liquid effluents, water

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169 Developing a Process and Cost Model for Xanthan Biosynthesis from Bioethanol Production Waste Effluents

Authors: Bojana Ž. Bajić, Damjan G. Vučurović, Siniša N. Dodić, Jovana A. Grahovac, Jelena M. Dodić


Biosynthesis of xanthan, a microbial polysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris, is characterized by the possibility of using non-specific carbohydrate substrates, which means different waste effluents can be used as a basis for the production media. Potential raw material sources for xanthan production come from industries with large amounts of waste effluents that are rich in compounds necessary for microorganism growth and multiplication. Taking into account the amount of waste effluents generated by the bioethanol industry and the fact that it contains a high inorganic and organic load it is clear that they represent a potential environmental pollutants if not properly treated. For this reason, it is necessary to develop new technologies which use wastes and wastewaters of one industry as raw materials for another industry. The result is not only a new product, but also reduction of pollution and environmental protection. Biotechnological production of xanthan, which consists of using biocatalysts to convert the bioethanol waste effluents into a high-value product, presents a possibility for sustainable development. This research uses scientific software developed for the modeling of biotechnological processes in order to design a xanthan production plant from bioethanol production waste effluents as raw material. The model was developed using SuperPro Designer® by using input data such as the composition of raw materials and products, defining unit operations, utility consumptions, etc., while obtaining capital and operating costs and the revenues from products to create a baseline production plant model. Results from this baseline model can help in the development of novel biopolymer production technologies. Additionally, a detailed economic analysis showed that this process for converting waste effluents into a high value product is economically viable. Therefore, the proposed model represents a useful tool for scaling up the process from the laboratory or pilot plant to a working industrial scale plant.

Keywords: biotechnology, process model, xanthan, waste effluents

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168 Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Reclaimed Land Area of Kasur

Authors: Shiza Zafar


The tannery effluents contaminated about 400 acres land area in Kasur, Pakistan, has been reclaimed by removing polluted water after the long term effluent logging from the nearby tanneries. In an effort to describe the status of reclaimed soil for agricultural practices, the results of physicochemical analysis of the soil are reported in this article. The concentrations of the parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), Available Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), and Sodium (Na) were determined by standard methods of analysis and results were computed and compared with various international standards for agriculture recommended by international organizations, groups of experts and or individual researchers. The results revealed that pH, EC, OM, OC, K, and Na are in accordance with the prescribed limits but P in soil exceeds the satisfactory range of P in agricultural soil. Thus, the reclaimed soil in Kasur can be inferred fit for the purpose of agricultural activities.

Keywords: soil toxicity, agriculture, reclaimed land, physico-chemical analysis

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167 Evaluating Cyanide Biodegradation by Bacteria Isolated from Gold Mine Effluents in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Authors: Ngonidzashe Mangoma, Caroline Marigold Sebata


The release of cyanide-rich effluents from gold mines, and other industries, into the environment, is a global concern considering the well-known metabolic effects of cyanide in all forms of life. Such effluents need to be treated to remove cyanide, among other pollutants, before their disposal. This study aimed at investigating the possible use of bacteria in the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich effluents. Firstly, cyanide-degrading bacteria were isolated from gold mine effluents and characterised. The isolates were then tested for their ability to grow in the presence of cyanide and their tolerance to increasing levels of the compound. To evaluate each isolate’s cyanide-degrading activities, isolates were grown in the simulated and actual effluent, and a titrimetric method was used to quantify residual cyanide over a number of days. Cyanide degradation efficiency (DE) was then calculated for each isolate. Identification of positive isolates involved 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence analysis through BLAST. Six cyanide-utilising bacterial strains were isolated. Two of the isolates were identified as Klebsiella spp. while the other two were shown to be different strains of Clostridium bifermentans. All isolates showed normal growth in the presence of cyanide, with growth being inhibited at 700 mg/L cyanide and beyond. Cyanide degradation efficiency for all isolates in the simulated effluent ranged from 79% to 97%. All isolates were able to remove cyanide from actual gold mine effluent with very high DE values (90 – 94%) being recorded. Isolates obtained in this study were able to efficiently remove cyanide from both simulated and actual effluent. This observation clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich gold mine effluents and should, therefore, motivate research towards the possible large-scale application of this technology.

Keywords: cyanide effluent, bioremediation, Clostridium bifermentans, Klebsiella spp, environment

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166 Optimization of Bioremediation Process to Remove Hexavalent Chromium from Tannery Effluent

Authors: Satish Babu Rajulapati


The removal of toxic and heavy metal contaminants from wastewater streams and industrial effluents is one of the most important environmental issues being faced world over. In the present study three bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of chromium were isolated from the soil and wastewater sample collected from the tanneries located in Warangal, Telangana state. The bacterial species were identified as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and pseudomonas sp. Preliminary studies were carried out with the three bacterial species at various operating parameters such as pH and temperature. The results indicate that pseudomonas sp. is the efficient one in the uptake of Cr(VI). Further, detailed investigation of Pseudomonas sp. have been carried out to determine the efficiency of removal of Cr(VI). The various parameters influencing the biosorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, temperature, initial chromium concentration, innoculum size and incubation time have been studied. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the removal of Cr(VI). Maximum Cr(VI) removal was found to be 85.72% Cr(VI) atpH 7, temperature 35 °C, initial concentration 67mg/l, inoculums size 9 %(v/v) and time 60 hrs.

Keywords: Staphylococcus sp, chromium, RSM, optimization, Cr(IV)

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165 Assessment of the Physicochemical Qualities and Prevalence of Vibrio Pathogens in the Final Effluents of Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

Authors: C. A Osunla, A. I. Okoh


Treated wastewater effluent has been found to encompass high levels of pollutants, including disease-causing bacteria such as Vibrio pathogens. The current study was designed to evaluate the physicochemical qualities and prevalence of Vibrio pathogens in treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa over the period of six months. Parameters measured include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, salinity, turbidity, total dissolved solid (TDS), dissolved oxygen (DO), and free chlorine; and these parameters were simultaneously monitored in the treated final effluents of the two wastewater treatment plants using standard methods. The ranges of values for the physicochemical are: pH (7.0–8.6), total dissolved solids (286.3–916.5 mg/L), electrical conductivity (572.57–1704.5 mS/m), temperature (10.3–28.6 °C), turbidity (4.02–43.20 NTU), free chlorine (0.00–0.19 mg/L), dissolve oxygen (2.06–6.32 mg/L) and biochemical oxygen demand (0.1–9.0 mg/L). The microbiological assessment for both WWTPs revealed the presence of Vibrio counts ranging between 0 and 8.76×104 CFU/100 mL. The obtained values of the measured parameters and Vibrio loads of the treated wastewater effluents were found outside the compliance levels of the South African guidelines and World Health Organization tolerance limits for effluents intended to be discharged into receiving waterbodies. Hence, we conclude that these WWTPs are important point sources of pollution in surface water with potential public health and ecological risks.

Keywords: effluents, public health, South Africa, Vibrio, wastewater

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164 Preparation of Chromium Nanoparticles on Carbon Substrate from Tannery Waste Solution by Chemical Method Compared to Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah, Said El Sheikh


This work shows the preparation of chromium nanoparticles from tannery waste solution on glassy carbon by chemical method compared to electrokinetic process. The waste solution contains free and soluble fats, calcium, iron, magnesium and high sodium in addition to the chromium ions. Filtration helps removal of insoluble matters. Diethyl ether successfully extracted soluble fats. The method started by removing calcium as insoluble oxalate salts at hot conditions in a faint acidic medium. The filtrate contains iron, magnesium, chromium ions and sodium chloride in excess. Chromium was separated selectively as insoluble hydroxide sol-gel at pH 6.5, filtered and washed with distilled water. Part of the gel reacted with sulfuric acid to produce chromium sulfate solution having 15-25 g/L concentration. Electrokinetic deposition of chromium nanoparticles on a carbon cathode was carried out using platinum anode under different galvanostatic conditions. The chemical method involved impregnating the carbon specimens with chromium hydroxide gel followed by reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 1250°C. Chromium grain size was characterized by TEM, FT-IR and SEM. Properties of the Cr grains were correlated to the conditions of the preparation process. Electrodeposition was found to control chromium particles to be more identical in size and shape as compared to the chemical method.

Keywords: chromium, electrodeposition, nanoparticles, tannery waste solution

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163 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

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162 Occurrence and Fate of EDCs in Wastewater and Aquatic Environments in the West Bank of Palestine

Authors: Wa`d Odeh, Alon Tal, Alfred Abed Rabbo, Nader Al Khatib, Shai Arnon


The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in raw sewage and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been increasingly studied in the last few decades. Higher risks are said to characterize situations where raw sewage streams are found to be flowing, or where partial and inadequate wastewater treatment exists. Such conditions are prevalent in the West Bank area of Palestine. To our knowledge, no previous data concerning the occurrence and fate of EDCs in the aquatic environment has ever been systematically evaluated in the region. Hence, the main objective of this study was to identify the occurrence and concentrations of major EDCs in raw sewage, wastewater effluents produced by treatment plants and in the receiving environments, including streams and groundwater in the West Bank, Palestine. Water samples were collected and analyzed for four times during the years of 2013 and 2014. Two large-scale conventional activated sludge WWTPs, two wastewater watercourses, one naturally perennial stream, and five groundwater locations close to wastewater sources were sampled and analyzed by GC/MS following EPA methods (525.2). Five EDCs (estriol, estrone, testosterone, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) were detected in trace concentrations (ng/l) in wastewater streams and at inputs to WWTPs. WWTPs were not able to achieve complete removal of all EDCs, and EDCs were still found in the effluents. In this regard, the most significant environmental estrogenic impact was due to estrone concentrations. Nevertheless, no EDCs were detected in groundwater. Yet, in order for effluents to be reused, significant improvement in treatment infrastructure should be a top priority for environmental managers in the region.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds, raw sewage streams, conventional activated sludge WWTPs, WWTPs effluents

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161 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo


Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosan

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160 Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater Using Pseudomonas Strains

Authors: A. Benhadji, R. Maachi


Environmental protection has become a major economic development issues. Indeed, the environment has become both market growth factor and element of competition. It is now an integral part of all industrial strategies. Ecosystem protection is based on the reduction of the pollution load in the treatment of liquid waste. The physicochemical techniques are commonly used which a transfer of pollution is generally found. Alternative to physicochemical methods is the use of microorganisms for cleaning up the waste waters. The objective of this research is the evaluation of the effects of exogenous added Pseudomonas strains on pollutants biodegradation. The influence of the critical parameters such as inoculums concentration and duration treatment are studied. The results show that Pseudomonas putida is found to give a maximum reduction in chemical organic demand (COD) in 4 days of incubation. However, toward to protect biological pollution of environment, the treatment is achieved by electro coagulation process using aluminium electrodes. The results indicate that this process allows disinfecting the water and improving the electro coagulated sludge quality.

Keywords: tannery, pseudomonas, biological treatment, electrocoagulation process, sludge quality

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159 Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in Antibiotic Production Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

Authors: Ahmed Y. Kutbi, C. Russell. J. Baird, M. McNaughtan, Francis Wayman


Wastewaters from antibiotic production facilities are characterized with high concentrations of dissolved organic substances. Subsequently, it challenges wastewater treatment plant operator to achieve successful biological treatment and to meet regulatory emission levels. Of the dissolved organic substances, this research is investigating the fate of organic nitrogenous compounds (i.e., Chitin) in an antibiotic production wastewater treatment plant located in Irvine, Scotland and its impact on the WWTP removal performance. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in WWTP effluents are of significance because 1) its potential to cause eutrophication in receiving waters, 2) the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by products in drinking waters and 3) limits WWTPs ability to achieve very low total nitrogen (TN) emissions limits (5 – 25 mg/l). The latter point is where the knowledge gap lays between the operator and the regulator in setting viable TN emission levels. The samples collected from Irvine site at the different stages of the treatment were analyzed for TN and DON. Results showed that the average TN in the WWTP influents and effluents are 798 and 261 mg/l respectively, in other words, the plant achieved 67 % removal of TN. DON Represented 51% of the influents TN, while the effluents accounted 26 % of the TN concentrations. Therefore, an ongoing investigation is carried out to identify DON constituents in WWTP effluent and evaluate its impact on the WWTP performance and its potential bioavailability for algae in receiving waters, which is, in this case, Irvine Bay.

Keywords: biological wastewater treatment plant, dissolved organic nitrogen, bio-availability, Irvine Bay

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158 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage


The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica, vanadium

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157 Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Biological Wastewater Treatment Systems Treating Domestic and Hospital Effluents

Authors: Thobela Conco, Sheena Kumari, Chika Nnadozie, Mahmoud Nasr, Thor A. Stenström, Mushal Ali, Arshad Ismail, Faizal Bux


The discharge of antibiotics and its residues into the wastewater treatment plants (WWTP’s) create a conducive environment for the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens. This presents a risk of potential dissemination of antibiotic resistant pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes into the environment. It is, therefore, necessary to study the level of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG’s) among bacterial pathogens that proliferate in biological wastewater treatment systems. In the current study, metagenomic and meta-transcriptomic sequences of samples collected from the influents, secondary effluents and post chlorinated effluents of three wastewater treatment plants treating domestic and hospital effluents in Durban, South Africa, were analyzed for profiling of ARG’s among bacterial pathogens. Results show that a variety of ARG’s, mostly, aminoglycoside, β-lactamases, tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes were harbored by diverse bacterial genera found at different stages of treatment. A significant variation in diversity of pathogen and ARGs between the treatment plant was observed; however, treated final effluent samples from all three plants showed a significant reduction in bacterial pathogens and detected ARG’s. Both pre- and post-chlorinated samples showed the presence of mobile genetic elements (MGE’s), indicating the inefficiency of chlorination to remove of ARG’s integrated with MGE’s. In conclusion, the study showed the wastewater treatment plant efficiently caused the reduction and removal of certain ARG’s, even though the initial focus was the removal of biological nutrients.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, mobile genetic elements, wastewater, wastewater treatment plants

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156 Biogas Control: Methane Production Monitoring Using Arduino

Authors: W. Ait Ahmed, M. Aggour, M. Naciri


Extracting energy from biomass is an important alternative to produce different types of energy (heat, electricity, or both) assuring low pollution and better efficiency. It is a new yet reliable approach to reduce green gas emission by extracting methane from industry effluents and use it to power machinery. We focused in our project on using paper and mill effluents, treated in a UASB reactor. The methane produced is used in the factory’s power supply. The aim of this work is to develop an electronic system using Arduino platform connected to a gas sensor, to measure and display the curve of daily methane production on processing. The sensor will send the gas values in ppm to the Arduino board so that the later sends the RS232 hardware protocol. The code developed with processing will transform the values into a curve and display it on the computer screen.

Keywords: biogas, Arduino, processing, code, methane, gas sensor, program

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155 Development of Cobalt Doped Alumina Hybrids for Adsorption of Textile Effluents

Authors: Uzaira Rafique, Kousar Parveen


The discharge volume and composition of Textile effluents gains scientific concern due to its hazards and biotoxcity of azo dyes. Azo dyes are non-biodegradable due to its complex molecular structure and recalcitrant nature. Serious attempts have been made to synthesize and develop new materials to combat the environmental problems. The present study is designed for removal of a range of azo dyes (Methyl orange, Congo red and Basic fuchsine) from synthetic aqueous solutions and real textile effluents. For this purpose, Metal (cobalt) doped alumina hybrids are synthesized and applied as adsorbents in the batch experiment. Two different aluminium precursor (aluminium nitrate and spent aluminium foil) and glucose are mixed following sol gel method to get hybrids. The synthesized materials are characterized for surface and bulk properties using FTIR, SEM-EDX and XRD techniques. The characterization of materials under FTIR revealed that –OH (3487-3504 cm-1), C-H (2935-2985 cm-1), Al-O (~ 800 cm-1), Al-O-C (~1380 cm-1), Al-O-Al (659-669 cm-1) groups participates in the binding of dyes onto the surface of hybrids. Amorphous shaped particles and elemental composition of carbon (23%-44%), aluminium (29%-395%), and oxygen (11%-20%) is demonstrated in SEM-EDX micrograph. Time-dependent batch-experiments under identical experimental parameters showed 74% congo red, 68% methyl orange and 85% maximum removal of basic fuchsine onto the surface of cobalt doped alumina hybrids probably through the ion-exchange mechanism. The experimental data when treated with adsorption models is found to have good agreement with pseudo second order kinetic and freundlich isotherm for adsorption process. The present study concludes the successful synthesis of novel and efficient cobalt doped alumina hybrids providing environmental friendly and economical alternative to the commercial adsorbents for the treatment of industrial effluents.

Keywords: alumina hybrid, adsorption, dopant, isotherm, kinetic

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154 Geostatistical Simulation of Carcinogenic Industrial Effluent on the Irrigated Soil and Groundwater, District Sheikhupura, Pakistan

Authors: Asma Shaheen, Javed Iqbal


The water resources are depleting due to an intrusion of industrial pollution. There are clusters of industries including leather tanning, textiles, batteries, and chemical causing contamination. These industries use bulk quantity of water and discharge it with toxic effluents. The penetration of heavy metals through irrigation from industrial effluent has toxic effect on soil and groundwater. There was strong positive significant correlation between all the heavy metals in three media of industrial effluent, soil and groundwater (P < 0.001). The metal to the metal association was supported by dendrograms using cluster analysis. The geospatial variability was assessed by using geographically weighted regression (GWR) and pollution model to identify the simulation of carcinogenic elements in soil and groundwater. The principal component analysis identified the metals source, 48.8% variation in factor 1 have significant loading for sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) of tannery effluent-based process. In soil and groundwater, the metals have significant loading in factor 1 representing more than half of the total variation with 51.3 % and 53.6 % respectively which showed that pollutants in soil and water were driven by industrial effluent. The cumulative eigen values for the three media were also found to be greater than 1 representing significant clustering of related heavy metals. The results showed that heavy metals from industrial processes are seeping up toxic trace metals in the soil and groundwater. The poisonous pollutants from heavy metals turned the fresh resources of groundwater into unusable water. The availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use is being alarming.

Keywords: groundwater, geostatistical, heavy metals, industrial effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 147