Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 228

Search results for: chromium containing tannery ash

228 Phytoremediation of Cr from Tannery Effluent by Vetiver Grass

Authors: Mingizem Gashaw Seid


Phytoremediation of chromium metal by vetiver grass was investigated in hydroponic system. The removal efficiency for organic load, nutrient and chromium were evaluated as a function of concentration of waste effluent (40 and 50% dilution with distilled water). Under this conditions 64.49-94.06 % of chromium was removed. This shows vetiver grass has potential for accumulation of chromium metal from tannery waste water stream.

Keywords: chromium, phytoremediation, tannery effluent, vetiver grass

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
227 Recovery of Chromium(III) from Tannery Wastewater by Nanoparticles and Whiskers of Chitosan

Authors: El Montassir Dahmane, Nadia Eladlani, Aziz Ouahrouch, Mohammed Rhazi, Moha Taourirte


The present study was aimed to approximate the optimal conditions to chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. Chitosan with an average molecular weight of 63 kDa and a 96% deacetylation degree was prepared according to our previous study. Chromium recovery is influenced by different parameters. In our search, we determined the appropriate range of pH to form chitosan–Cr(III), nanoparticles Cr(III), and whiskers– Cr(III) complex. We studied also the influence of chromium concentration and the nature of chitosan-based materials on the complexation process. Our main aim is to approximate the optimal conditions to remove chromium(III) from the tanning bath, recuperated from tannery wastewater of Marrakech in Morocco. A Perkin Elmer optima 2000 Inductively Coupled Plasma- Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES), was used to determine the quantity of chromium persistent in tannery wastewater after complexation phenomenon. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report interested in the optimal conditions for chromium recovery from wastewater by nanoparticles and whiskers of chitosan. From our research, we found that in chromium solution, the appropriate range of pH to form complex is between 5.6 and 6.7. Also, the complexation of Cr(III) is depending on the nature of complexing ligand and chromium concentration. The obtained results reveal that nanoparticles present an excellent adsorption capacity regardless of chromium concentration. In addition, after a critical chromium concentration (250 mg/l), our ligand becomes saturated, that requires an increase of ligand mass for increasing chromium concentration in order to have a better adsorption capacity. Hence, in the same conditions, we used chitosan, its nanoparticles, whiskers, and chitosan based films to remove Cr(III) from tannery wastewater. The pH of this effluent was around 6, and its chromium concentration was 300 mg/l. The results expose that the sequence of complexing ligand in the effluent is the same in chromium solution, determined via our previous study. However, the adsorbed quantity is less due to the presence of other metallic ions in tannery wastewater. We conclude that the best complexing ligand-based chitosan is chitosan nanoaprticles whether it’s in chromium solution or in tannery wastewater. Nanoparticles are the best complexing ligand after 24 h of contact nanoparticles can remove 70% of chromium from this tannery wastewater.

Keywords: nanoparticles, whiskers, chitosan, chromium

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226 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas


Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

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225 Preparation of Chromium Nanoparticles on Carbon Substrate from Tannery Waste Solution by Chemical Method Compared to Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Mahmoud A. Rabah, Said El Sheikh


This work shows the preparation of chromium nanoparticles from tannery waste solution on glassy carbon by chemical method compared to electrokinetic process. The waste solution contains free and soluble fats, calcium, iron, magnesium and high sodium in addition to the chromium ions. Filtration helps removal of insoluble matters. Diethyl ether successfully extracted soluble fats. The method started by removing calcium as insoluble oxalate salts at hot conditions in a faint acidic medium. The filtrate contains iron, magnesium, chromium ions and sodium chloride in excess. Chromium was separated selectively as insoluble hydroxide sol-gel at pH 6.5, filtered and washed with distilled water. Part of the gel reacted with sulfuric acid to produce chromium sulfate solution having 15-25 g/L concentration. Electrokinetic deposition of chromium nanoparticles on a carbon cathode was carried out using platinum anode under different galvanostatic conditions. The chemical method involved impregnating the carbon specimens with chromium hydroxide gel followed by reduction using hydrazine hydrate or by thermal reduction using hydrogen gas at 1250°C. Chromium grain size was characterized by TEM, FT-IR and SEM. Properties of the Cr grains were correlated to the conditions of the preparation process. Electrodeposition was found to control chromium particles to be more identical in size and shape as compared to the chemical method.

Keywords: chromium, electrodeposition, nanoparticles, tannery waste solution

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224 Treatment of Tannery Effluents by the Process of Coagulation

Authors: Gentiana Shegani


Coagulation is a process that sanitizes leather effluents. It aims to reduce pollutants such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), chloride, sulphate, chromium, suspended solids, and other dissolved solids. The current study aimed to evaluate coagulation efficiency of tannery wastewater by analysing the change in organic matter, odor, colour, ammonium ions, nutrients, chloride, H2S, sulphate, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, faecal pollution, and chromium hexavalent before and after treatment. Effluent samples were treated with coagulants Ca(OH)2 and FeSO4 .7H2O. The best advantages of this treatment included the removal of: COD (81.60%); ammonia ions (98.34%); nitrate ions (92%); chromium hexavalent (75.00%); phosphate (70.00%); chloride (69.20%); and H₂S (50%). Results also indicated a high level of efficiency in the reduction of fecal pollution indicators. Unfortunately, only a modest reduction of sulphate (19.00%) and TSS (13.00%) and an increase in TDS (15.60%) was observed.

Keywords: coagulation, effluent, tannery, treatment

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223 Chromium Reduction Using Bacteria: Bioremediation Technologies

Authors: Baljeet Singh Saharan


Bioremediation is the demand of the day. Tannery and textile effluents/waste waters have lots of pollution due to presence of hexavalent Chromium. Methodologies used in the present investigations include isolation, cultivation and purification of bacterial strain. Further characterization techniques and 16S rRNA sequencing were performed. Efficient bacterial strain capable of reducing hexavalent chromium was obtained. The strain can be used for bioremediation of industrial effluents containing hexavalent Cr. A gram negative, rod shaped and yellowish pigment producing bacterial strain from tannery effluent was isolated using nutrient agar. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity indicated that isolate SA13A is associated with genus Luteimonas (99%). This isolate has been found to reduce 100% of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) (100 mg L-1) 100% in 16 h. Growth conditions were optimized for Cr (VI) reduction. Maximum reduction was observed at a temperature of 37 °C and pH 8.0. Additionally, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A showed resistance against various heavy metals like Cr+6, Cr+3, Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 and Cd+2 . Hence, Luteimonas aestuarii SA13A could be used as potent Cr (VI) reducing strain as well as significant bioremediator in heavy metal contaminated sites.

Keywords: bioremediation, chromium, eco-friendly, heavy metals

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222 Ground Water Contamination by Tannery Effluents and Its Impact on Human Health in Peshawar, Pakistan

Authors: Fawad Ali, Muhammad Ateeq, Ikhtiar Khan


Ground water, a major source of drinking water supply in Peshawar has been severely contaminated by leather tanning industry. Effluents from the tanneries contain high concentration of chromium besides several other chemical species. Release of untreated effluents from the tanning industry has severely damaged surface and ground water, agriculture soil as well as vegetables and crops. Chromium is a well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic agent. Once in the human food chain, it causes multiple problems to the exposed population including various types of cancer, skin dermatitis, and DNA damage. In order to assess the extent of chromium and other heavy metals contamination, water samples were analyzed for heavy metals using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS, Analyst 700, Perkin Elmer). Total concentration of chromium was above the permissible limit (0.048 mg/l) in 85% of the groundwater (drinking water) samples. The concentration of cobalt, manganese, cadmium, nickel, lead, zinc and iron was also determined in the ground water, surface water, agriculture soil, and vegetables samples from the affected area.

Keywords: heavy metals, soil, groundwater, tannery effluents, food chain

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221 Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Vourlias, Eleni Pavlidou, Theodoros Karakostas, Philomela Komninou


A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800oC up to 1200oC. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800oC and 1000oC produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200oC gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications. Acknowledgement: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) – Research Funding Program: THALES “WasteVal”: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/or inter-institutional research and innovation.

Keywords: chromium-rich tannery residues, glass-ceramic materials, mechanical properties, microstructure

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220 Optimization of Bioremediation Process to Remove Hexavalent Chromium from Tannery Effluent

Authors: Satish Babu Rajulapati


The removal of toxic and heavy metal contaminants from wastewater streams and industrial effluents is one of the most important environmental issues being faced world over. In the present study three bacterial cultures tolerating high concentrations of chromium were isolated from the soil and wastewater sample collected from the tanneries located in Warangal, Telangana state. The bacterial species were identified as Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and pseudomonas sp. Preliminary studies were carried out with the three bacterial species at various operating parameters such as pH and temperature. The results indicate that pseudomonas sp. is the efficient one in the uptake of Cr(VI). Further, detailed investigation of Pseudomonas sp. have been carried out to determine the efficiency of removal of Cr(VI). The various parameters influencing the biosorption of Cr(VI) such as pH, temperature, initial chromium concentration, innoculum size and incubation time have been studied. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the removal of Cr(VI). Maximum Cr(VI) removal was found to be 85.72% Cr(VI) atpH 7, temperature 35 °C, initial concentration 67mg/l, inoculums size 9 %(v/v) and time 60 hrs.

Keywords: Staphylococcus sp, chromium, RSM, optimization, Cr(IV)

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219 Arundo Donax (Giant Reed) Phytoremediation Function of Chromium (Cr) Removal

Authors: Sadeg Abdurahman, Claudio Stockle, James Harsh, Marc Beutel, Usama Zaher


Pollution of the environment is a phenomenon which has taken a big part of importance of the world governments since the second half of the last century, this takes dangerous environmental, economic and social ranges dimensions especially after industrial advancement in industrialized country and good industrial expansion supported with modern technology and as chromium is known to be used in tannery factories. Chromium is considered a harm element to the environment due to its danger and transference through food, air, and water to the plants, animals and people. In this study the capacity of Arundo donax against chromium pollution was conducted. A. donax plants were grown-up under greenhouse conditions in pots contain nursery soil and feeding by Cr synthetic wastewater (0, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 ) for four weeks. Leaves, roots and stems dry matter production, color degree values, chlorophyll, growth parameters, and morphological characters were measured. The high Cr concentration was in roots was 1.15 mg kg-1 . Similarly, Cr concentration in stem was 0.469 mg kg-1 at 2.0 mg L-1 supplied Cr. In case of leaves, the maximum Cr concentration was 0.345 mg kg-1 at 2.0 g L-1 supplied Cr. The bioaccumulation and translocation factors was calculated. The macrophyte A. donax L. may be considered to be the most promising plant species in remediation of Cr-contaminated soil and wastewater due to its deeper root system as well as has higher efficiency to absorb chromium and other heavy metals as well.

Keywords: Arundo donax, Chromium pollution, heavy metals, phytoremediation, wastewater

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218 Groundwater Quality Assessment in the Vicinity of Tannery Industries in Warangal, India

Authors: Mohammed Fathima Shahanaaz, Shaik Fayazuddin, M. Uday Kiran


Groundwater quality is deteriorating day by day in different parts of the world due to various reasons, toxic chemicals are being discharged without proper treatment into inland water bodies and land which in turn add pollutants to the groundwater. In this kind of situation, the rural communities which do not have municipal drinking water have to rely on groundwater though it is polluted for various uses. Tannery industry is one of the major industry which provides economy and employment to India. Since most of the developed countries stopped using chemicals which are toxic, the tanning industry which uses chromium as its major element are being shifted towards developing countries. Most of the tanning industries in India can be found in clusters concentrated mainly in states of Tamilnadu, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and limited places of Punjab. Limited work is present in the case of tanneries of Warangal. There exists 18 group of tanneries in Desaipet, Enamamula region of Warangal, out of which 4 are involved in dry process and are low responsible for groundwater pollution. These units of tanneries are discharging their effluents after treatment into Sai Cheruvu. Though the treatment effluents are being discharged, the Sai Cheruvu is turned in to Pink colour, with higher levels of BOD, COD, chromium, chlorides, total hardness, TDS and sulphates. An attempt was made to analyse the groundwater samples around this polluted Sai Cheruvu region since literature shows that a single tannery can pollute groundwater to a radius of 7-8 kms from the point of disposal. Sample are collected from 6 different locations around Sai Cheruvu. Analysis was performed for determining various constituents in groundwater such as pH, EC, TDS, TH, Ca+2, Mg+2, HCO3-, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F and Cr+6. The analysis of these constitutes gave values greater than permissible limits. Even chromium is also present in groundwater samples which is exceeding permissible limits People in Paidepally and Sardharpeta villages already stopped the usage of groundwater. They are buying bottle water for drinking purpose. Though they are not using groundwater for drinking purpose complaints are made about using this water for washing also. So treatment process should be adopted for groundwater which should be simple and efficient. In this study rice husk silica (RHS) is used to treat pollutants in groundwater with varying dosages of RHS and contact time. Rice husk is treated, dried and place in a muffle furnace for 6 hours at 650°C. Reduction is observed in total hardness, chlorides and chromium levels are observed after the application RHS. Pollutants reached permissible limits for 27.5mg/l and 50 mg/l of dosage for a contact time of 130 min at constant pH and temperature.

Keywords: chromium, groundwater, rice husk silica, tanning industries

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217 Mental Well-Being and Quality of Life: A Comparative Study of Male Leather Tannery and Non-Tannery Workers of Kanpur City, India

Authors: Gyan Kashyap, Shri Kant Singh


Improved mental health can be articulated as a good physical health and quality of life. Mental health plays an important role in survival of any one’s life. In today’s time people living with stress in life due to their personal matters, health problems, unemployment, work environment, living environment, substance use, life style and many more important reasons. Many studies confirmed that the significant proportion of mental health people increasing in India. This study is focused on mental well-being of male leather tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. Environment at work place as well as living environment plays an important health risk factors among leather tannery workers. Leather tannery workers are more susceptible to many chemicals and physical hazards, just because they are liable to be affected by their exposure to lots of hazardous materials and processes during tanning work in very hazardous work environment. The aim of this study to determine the level of mental health disorder and quality of life among male leather tannery and non-tannery workers in Kanpur city, India. This study utilized the primary data from the cross- sectional household study which was conducted from January to June, 2015 on tannery and non-tannery workers as a part of PhD program from the Jajmau area of Kanpur city, India. The sample of 286 tannery and 295 non-tannery workers has been collected from the study area. We have collected information from the workers of age group 15-70 those who were working at the time of survey for at least one year. This study utilized the general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and work related stress scale to test the mental wellbeing of male tannery and non-tannery workers. By using GHQ-12 and work related stress scale, Polychoric factor analysis method has been used for best threshold and scoring. Some of important question like ‘How would you rate your overall quality of life’ on Likert scale to measure the quality of life, their earnings, education, family size, living condition, household assets, media exposure, health expenditure, treatment seeking behavior and food habits etc. Results from the study revealed that around one third of tannery workers had severe mental health problems then non-tannery workers. Mental health problem shown the statistically significant association with wealth quintile, 56 percent tannery workers had severe mental health problem those belong to medium wealth quintile. And 42 percent tannery workers had moderate mental health problem among those from the low wealth quintile. Work related stress scale found the statistically significant results for tannery workers. Large proportion of tannery and non-tannery workers reported they are unable to meet their basic needs from their earnings and living in worst condition. Important result from the study, tannery workers who were involved in beam house work in tannery (58%) had severe mental health problem. This study found the statistically significant association with tannery work and mental health problem among tannery workers.

Keywords: GHQ-12, mental well-being, factor analysis, quality of life, tannery workers

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216 Experimental Studies on the Corrosion Effects of the Concrete Made with Tannery Effluent

Authors: K. Nirmalkumar


An acute water scarcity is prevailing in the dry season in and around Perundurai (Erode district, Tamil Nadu, India) where there are more number of tannery units. Hence an attempt was made to use the effluent from the tannery industry for construction purpose. The mechanical properties such as compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and the special properties such as chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack were studied by casting various concrete specimens in form of cube, cylinders and beams, etc. It was observed that the concrete had some reduction in strength while subjected to chloride attack, sulphate attack and chemical attack. So admixtures were selected and optimized in suitable proportion to counter act the adverse effects and the results were found to be satisfactory. In this research study the corrosion results of specimens prepared by using treated and untreated tannery effluent were compared with the concrete specimens prepared by using potable water. It was observed that by the addition of admixtures, the adverse effects due to the usage of the treated and untreated tannery effluent are counteracted.

Keywords: corrosion, calcium nitrite, concrete, fly ash

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215 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova


Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: environment, cement, chromium, leaching

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214 A Combination of Filtration and Coagulation Processes for Tannery Effluent Treatment

Authors: M. G. Mostafa, Manjushree Chowdhury, Tapan Kumar Biswas, , Ananda Kumar Saha


This study focused on effluents characterization and treatment process to reduce of toxicity from tannery effluents. Tanning industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. It is typically characterized as pollutants generated industries which produce wide varieties of high strength toxic chemicals. The study was conducted during the year 2008 to 2009 and the tannery effluents were collected three times in a year from the outlet of some selected leather industries located in Hagaribagh industrial zone Dhaka, Bangladesh. The analysis results of the raw effluents reveal that the effluents were yellowish-brown color, having basic pH, very high value of BOD5¬¬, COD, TDS, TSS, TS, and high concentrations of Cr, Na, SO42-, Cl- and other organic and inorganic constituents. The tannery effluents were treated with various doses of FeCl3 after settling and a subsequent filtration through sand-stone. The study observed that coagulant (FeCl3) 150 mg/L dose around neutral pH showed the best removal efficiency for major physico-chemical parameters. The analysis results of illustrate that the most of the physical and chemical parameters were found well below the prescribed permissible limits for effluent discharged. The study suggests that tannery effluents could be treated by a combined process consisting of settling, filtering and coagulating with FeCl3.

Keywords: characterization, effluent, tannery, treatment

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213 Removal of Chromium by UF5kDa Membrane: Its Characterization, Optimization of Parameters, and Evaluation of Coefficients

Authors: Bharti Verma, Chandrajit Balomajumder


Water pollution is escalated owing to industrialization and random ejection of one or more toxic heavy metal ions from the semiconductor industry, electroplating, metallurgical, mining, chemical manufacturing, tannery industries, etc., In semiconductor industry various kinds of chemicals in wafers preparation are used . Fluoride, toxic solvent, heavy metals, dyes and salts, suspended solids and chelating agents may be found in wastewater effluent of semiconductor manufacturing industry. Also in the chrome plating, in the electroplating industry, the effluent contains heavy amounts of Chromium. Since Cr(VI) is highly toxic, its exposure poses an acute risk of health. Also, its chronic exposure can even lead to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. On the contrary, Cr (III) which is naturally occurring, is much less toxic than Cr(VI). Discharge limit of hexavalent chromium and trivalent chromium are 0.05 mg/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. There are numerous methods such as adsorption, chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, and electrochemical methods for the heavy metal removal. The present study focuses on the removal of Chromium ions by using flat sheet UF5kDa membrane. The Ultra filtration membrane process is operated above micro filtration membrane process. Thus separation achieved may be influenced due to the effect of Sieving and Donnan effect. Ultrafiltration is a promising method for the rejection of heavy metals like chromium, fluoride, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, etc. from effluent water. Benefits behind ultrafiltration process are that the operation is quite simple, the removal efficiency is high as compared to some other methods of removal and it is reliable. Polyamide membranes have been selected for the present study on rejection of Cr(VI) from feed solution. The objective of the current work is to examine the rejection of Cr(VI) from aqueous feed solutions by flat sheet UF5kDa membranes with different parameters such as pressure, feed concentration and pH of the feed. The experiments revealed that with increasing pressure, the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) is increased. Also, the effect of pH of feed solution, the initial dosage of chromium in the feed solution has been studied. The membrane has been characterized by FTIR, SEM and AFM before and after the run. The mass transfer coefficients have been estimated. Membrane transport parameters have been calculated and have been found to be in a good correlation with the applied model.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, membrane process, waste water treatment, ultrafiltration

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212 An Investigation into the Impact of the Relocation of Tannery Industry on Water Quality Parameters of Urban River Buriganga

Authors: Md Asif Imrul, Maria Rafique, M. Habibur Rahman


The study deals with an investigation into the impact of the relocation of tannery industry on water quality parameters of Buriganga. For this purpose, previous records have been collected from authentic data resources and for the attainment of present values, several samples were collected from three major locations of the Buriganga River during summer and winter seasons in 2018 to determine the distribution and variation of water quality parameters. Samples were collected six ft below the river water surface. Analysis indicates slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.8-7.49) in nature. Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Solids (TS) & Total Suspended Solids (TSS) have been found greater in summer. On the other hand, Dissolved Oxygen is found greater in rainy seasons. Relocation shows improvement in water quality parameters. Though the improvement related to relocation of tannery industry is not adequate to turn the water body to be an inhabitable place for aquatic lives.

Keywords: Buriganga river, river pollution, tannery industry, water quality parameters

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211 Nickel and Chromium Distributions in Soil and Plant Influenced by Geogenic Sources

Authors: Mohamad Sakizadeh, Fatemeh Mehrabi Sharafabadi, Hadi Ghorbani


Concentrations of Cr and Ni in 97 plant samples (belonged to eight different plant species) and the associated soil groups were considered in this study. The amounts of Ni in soil groups fluctuated between 26.8 and 36.8 mgkg⁻¹ whereas the related levels of chromium ranged from 67.7 to 94.3mgkg⁻¹. The index of geoaccumulation indicated that 87 percents of the studied soils for chromium and 98.8 percents for nickel are located in uncontaminated zone. The results of Mann-Whitney U-test proved that agricultural practices have not significantly influenced the values of Ni and Cr. In addition, tillage had also little impact on the Ni and Cr transfer in the surface soil. Ni showed higher accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer factor compared with that of chromium in the studied plants. There was a high similarity between the accumulation pattern of Cr and Fe in most of the plant species.

Keywords: bioconcentration factor, chromium, geoaccumulation index, nickel

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210 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed, Rachida Maachi


The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: tanning wastewater, biological treatment, protein removal, hexavalent chromium

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209 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira


Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification

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208 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid


This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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207 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi


Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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206 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini


Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomato

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205 Effects of Organic Chromium and Propylene Glycol on Milk Yield and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Early Lactation Dairy Cows

Authors: Cangir Uyarlar, Ismail Bayram, Ibrahim Sadi Cetingul, Mustafa Kabu, Eyup Eren Gultepe


This study was conducted to determine the effects of organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol on milk yield and some blood parameters related with liver fatty acid metabolism in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used as study material. Cows assigned to three groups as control (C), chromium (Cr) and chromium+propylene glycol (CP). Live weight, parity and body condition score were used as covariates for statistical analyses. The study began at calving and finished at 3 weeks after calving. All cows were consumed same diet. Organic chromium and organic chromium+propylene glycol were orally administrated to cows in treatment groups shortly after the morning milking. Blood samples were collected from all cows on 0 (calving), 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th, 21th days after calving. Then, samples were analyzed for BHBA (Betahydroxybutiric acids), NEFA (Non Esterified Fatty Acids), urea, total protein (TP) and glucose concentrations. Weekly milk yields were calculated from daily milk data on farm. Organic chromium treatment had no significant differences on serum biochemical parameters and milk yields. However, administration of organic chromium and propylene glycol combination decreased serum urea and total protein concentration, helped to protection from subclinical metabolic diseases via decreasing serum NEFA and BHBA concentrations. Also, this combination decreased serum glucose levels of cows. Neither only chromium nor chromium and propylene glycol combination did not affect milk yield throughout the study. These findings were suggested that orally administrations of chromium and propylene glycol combination improved liver glucose and fatty acid metabolism, decreased serum parameters which are representing subclinical diseases in early lactation dairy cows.

Keywords: chromium, early lactation dairy cows, propylene glycol, milk yield

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204 A Review: Role of Chromium in Broiler

Authors: Naveed Zahra, Zahid Kamran, Shakeel Ahmad


Heat stress is one of the most important environmental stressors challenging poultry production worldwide. The detrimental effect of heat stress results in reduction in the productive performance of poultry with high incidences of mortality. Researchers have made efforts to prevent such damage to poultry production through dietary manipulation. Supplementation with Chromium (Cr) might have some positive effects on some aspect of blood parameters and broilers performance. Chromium (Cr) the element whose trivalent Cr (III) organic state is present in trace amounts in animal feed and water is found to be a key element in evading heat stress and thus cutting down the heavy expenditure on air conditioning in broiler sheds. Chromium, along with other essential minerals is lost due to increased excretion during heat stress and thus its inclusion in broiler diet is kind of mandatory in areas of hot climate. Chromium picolinate in broiler diet has shown a hike in growth rate including muscle gain with body fat reduction under environmental stress. Fat reduction is probably linked to the ability of chromium to increase the sensitivity of the insulin receptors on tissues and thus the uptake of sugar from blood increases which decreases the amount of glucose to be converted to amino acids and stored in adipose tissue as triglycerides. Organic chromium has also shown to increase lymphocyte proliferation rate and antioxidant levels. So, the immune competency, muscle gain and fat reduction along with evasion of heat stress are good enough signs that indicate the fruitful inclusion of dietary chromium for broiler. This promising element may bring the much needed break in the local poultry industry. The task is now to set the exact dose of the element in the diet that would be useful enough and still not toxic to broiler. In conclusion there is a growing body of evidence which suggest that chromium may be an essential trace element for livestock and poultry. The nutritional requirement for chromium may vary with different species and physiological state within a species.

Keywords: broiler, chromium, heat stress, performance

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203 Decontamination of Chromium Containing Ground Water by Adsorption Using Chemically Modified Activated Carbon Fabric

Authors: J. R. Mudakavi, K. Puttanna


Chromium in the environment is considered as one of the most toxic elements probably next only to mercury and arsenic. It is acutely toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in the environment. Chromium contamination of soil and underground water due to industrial activities is a very serious problem in several parts of India covering Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh etc. Functionally modified Activated Carbon Fabrics (ACF) offer targeted chromium removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Activated carbon fabric is a light weight adsorbing material with high surface area and low resistance to fluid flow. We have investigated surface modification of ACF using various acids in the laboratory through batch as well as through continuous flow column experiments with a view to develop the optimum conditions for chromium removal. Among the various acids investigated, phosphoric acid modified ACF gave best results with a removal efficiency of 95% under optimum conditions. Optimum pH was around 2 – 4 with 2 hours contact time. Continuous column experiments with an effective bed contact time (EBCT) of 5 minutes indicated that breakthrough occurred after 300 bed volumes. Adsorption data followed a Freundlich isotherm pattern. Nickel adsorbs preferentially and sulphate reduces chromium adsorption by 50%. The ACF could be regenerated up to 52.3% using 3 M NaOH under optimal conditions. The process is simple, economical, energy efficient and applicable to industrial effluents and drinking water.

Keywords: activated carbon fabric, hexavalent chromium, adsorption, drinking water

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202 Study the Effect of Sensitization on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded AISI 304 Stainless Steel Joints

Authors: Viranshu Kumar, Hitesh Arora, Pradeep Joshi


SS 304 is Austenitic stainless steel with Chromium and Nickel as basic constituents. It has excellent corrosion resistance properties and very good weldability. Austenitic stainless steels have superior mechanical properties at high temperatures and are used extensively in a range of applications. SS 304L has wide applications in various industries viz. Nuclear, Pharmaceutical, marine, chemical etc. due to its excellent applications and ease of joining this material has become very popular for fabrication as well as weld surfacing. Austenitic stainless steels have a tendency to form chromium depleted zones at the grain boundaries during welding and heat treatment, where chromium combines with available carbon in the vicinity of the grain boundaries, to produce an area depleted in chromium, and thus becomes susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This phenomenon is known as sensitization.

Keywords: sensitization, SS 304, GTAW, mechanical properties, carbideprecipitationHAZ, microstructure, micro hardness, tensile strength

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201 Beneficial Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Glucose, HbA1C and Lipid Variables in Individuals with Newly Onset Type-2 Diabetes

Authors: Baljinder Singh, Navneet Sharma


Chromium is an essential nutrient involved in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It influences glucose metabolism by potentiating the action as taking part in insulin signal amplification mechanism. A placebo-controlled single blind, prospective study was carried out to investigate the effect of chromium supplementation on blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile in newly onset patients with type-2 diabetes. Total 40 newly onset type-2 diabetics were selected and after one month stabilization further randomly divided into two groups viz. study group and placebo group. The study group received 9 gm brewer’s yeast (42 μ Cr) daily and the other placebo group received yeast devoid of chromium for 3 months. Subjects were instructed not to change their normal eating and living habits. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and lipid profile were analyzed at beginning and completion of the study. Results revealed that fasting blood glucose level significantly reduced in the subjects consuming yeast supplemented with chromium (197.65±6.68 to 103.68±6.64 mg/dl; p<0.001). HbA1C values improved significantly from 9.51±0.26% to 6.86±0.28%; p<0.001 indicating better glycaemic control. In experimental group total cholesterol, TG and LDL levels were also significantly reduced from 199.66±3.11 to 189.26±3.01 mg/dl; p<0.02, 144.94±8.31 to 126.01±8.26; p<0.05 and 119.19±1.71 to 99.58±1.10; p<0.001 respectively. These data demonstrate beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid variables in subjects with newly onset type-2 diabetes.

Keywords: type-2 diabetes, chromium, glucose, HbA1C

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200 Effect of Chromium Yeast on Hematological Parameters in Camel Calves (Camelus dromedaries) Reared under Hot Summer Conditions

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Abdoun, Mohamed Abdulwahid Alsoufi, Ibrahim Abdullah Alhidary


The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary Cr supplementation on haematological parameters in camel calves reared under hot summer conditions. Fifteen male camel calves (5 – 6 months old) were randomly allotted to three dietary treatments (n = 5) for a period of 84 days. Camel calves were fed ad libitum on basal diet without Cr supplementation (control), basal diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 0.5) or basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cr/kg DM (Cr 1.0). During this, blood samples were collected every four weeks for hematological examination. The obtained results revealed that dietary Cr supplementation to camel calves reared under hot summer did not show significant effects (P> 0.05) on hematological variables. However, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in camel calves fed on diets supplemented with chromium. In conclusion, Chromium supplementation to the diet of camel calves did not show any significant effects on hematological variables. Whereas, the neutrophil to lymphocytes ratio (N: L ratio) was reduced in camel calves fed diets supplemented with chromium.

Keywords: camel calves, chromium, haematological, immune response

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199 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani


The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 192