Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 300

Search results for: rivers

300 Energy Potential of Salinity Gradient Mixing: Case Study of Mixing Energies of Rivers of Goa with the Arabian Sea

Authors: Arijit Chakraborty, Anirban Roy


The Indian peninsula is strategically located in the Asian subcontinent with the Himalayas to the North and Oceans surrounding the other three directions with annual monsoons which takes care of water supply to the rivers. The total river water discharge into the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea is 628 km³/year and 274 km³/year, respectively. Thus huge volumes of fresh water meet saline water, and this mixing of two streams of dissimilar salinity gives rise to tremendous mixing energies which can be harvested for various purposes like energy generation using pressure retarded osmosis or reverse electrodialysis. The present paper concentrates on analyzing the energy of mixing for the rivers in Goa. Goa has 10 rivers of various sizes all which meet the Arabian Sea. In the present work, the 8 rivers and their salinity (NaCl concentrations) have been analyzed along with their seasonal fluctuations. Next, a Gibbs free energy formulation has been implemented to analyze the energy of mixing of the selected rivers. The highest and lowest energies according to the seasonal fluctuations have been evaluated, and this provides two important insights into (i) amount of energy that can be harvested and (ii) decision on the location of such systems.

Keywords: Gibbs energy, mixing energy, salinity gradient energy, thermodynamics

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299 Increasing Sustainability Using the Potential of Urban Rivers in Developing Countries with a Biophilic Design Approach

Authors: Mohammad Reza Mohammadian, Dariush Sattarzadeh, Mir Mohammad Javad Poor Hadi Hosseini


Population growth, urban development and urban buildup have disturbed the balance between the nature and the city, and so leading to the loss of quality of sustainability of proximity to rivers. While in the past, the sides of urban rivers were considered as urban green space. Urban rivers and their sides that have environmental, social and economic values are important to achieve sustainable development. So far, efforts have been made at various scales in various cities around the world to revitalize these areas. On the other hand, biophilic design is an innovative design approach in which attention to natural details and relation to nature is a fundamental concept. The purpose of this study is to provide an integrated framework of urban design using the potential of urban rivers (in order to increase sustainability) with a biophilic design approach to be used in cities in developing countries. The methodology of the research is based on the collection of data and information from research and projects including a study on biophilic design, investigations and projects related to the urban rivers, and a review of the literature on sustainable urban development. Then studying the boundary of urban rivers is completed by examining case samples. Eventually, integrated framework of urban design, to design the boundaries of urban rivers in the cities of developing countries is presented regarding the factors affecting the design of these areas. The result shows that according to this framework, the potential of the river banks is utilized to increase not only the environmental sustainability but also social, economic and physical stability with regard to water, light, and the usage of indigenous materials, etc.

Keywords: urban rivers, biophilic design, urban sustainability, nature

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
298 Study on Practice of Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers by Diverting Clean Water

Authors: Manjie Li, Xiangju Cheng, Yongcan Chen


With rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, water environmental deterioration is widespread in majority of urban rivers, which seriously affects city image and life satisfaction of residents. As an emergency measure to improve water quality, clean water diversion is introduced for water environmental management. Lubao River and Southwest River, two urban rivers in typical plain tidal river network, are identified as technically and economically feasible for the application of clean water diversion. One-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model is developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of water level and water quality, with satisfactory accuracy. The mathematical model after calibration is applied to investigate hydrodynamic and water quality variations in rivers as well as determine the optimum operation scheme of water diversion. Assessment system is developed for evaluation of positive and negative effects of water diversion, demonstrating the effectiveness of clean water diversion and the necessity of pollution reduction.

Keywords: assessment system, clean water diversion, hydrodynamic-water quality model, tidal river network, urban rivers, water environment improvement

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297 A New Approach to Achieve the Regime Equations in Sand-Bed Rivers

Authors: Farhad Imanshoar


The regime or equilibrium geometry of alluvial rivers remains a topic of fundamental scientific and engineering interest. There are several approaches to analyze the problem, namely: empirical formulas, semi-theoretical methods and rational (extreme) procedures. However, none of them is widely accepted at present, due to lack of knowledge of some physical processes associated with channel formation and the simplification hypotheses imposed in order to reduce the high quantity of involved variables. The study presented in this paper shows a new approach to estimate stable width and depth of sand-bed rivers by using developed stream power equation (DSPE). At first, a new procedure based on theoretical analysis and by considering DSPE and ultimate sediment concentration were developed. Then, experimental data for regime condition in sand-bed rivers (flow depth, flow width, sediment feed rate for several cases) were gathered. Finally, the results of this research (regime equations) are compared with the field data and other regime equations. A good agreement was observed between the field data and the values resulted from developed regime equation.

Keywords: regime equations, developed stream power equation, sand-bed rivers, semi-theoretical methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
296 Investigation of Effective Parameters on Water Quality of Iranian Rivers Using Hydrochemical and Statistical Methods

Authors: Maryam Sayadi, Rana Sedighpour, Hossein Rezaie


In this study, in order to evaluate water quality of Gamasiab and Gharehsoo rivers located in Kermanshah province, the information of a 5-year statistical period during the years 2014-2018 was used. To evaluate the hydrochemistry of water, first the type and hydrogeochemical facies of river water were determined using Stiff and Piper diagrams. Then, based on Gibbs diagram and combination diagrams, the factors controlling the chemical parameters of the two rivers were identified. Saturation indices were used to predict the possibility of dissolution and deposition of some minerals. Then, in order to classify water in different sections, fourteen water quality indicators for different uses along with WHO standard were used. Finally, factor analysis was used to determine the processes affecting the hydrochemistry of the two rivers. The results of this study showed that in both rivers, the predominant type and facies are bicarbonate of calcite. Also, the main factor in changing the chemical quality of water in both Gamasiab and Gharehsoo rivers is the water-rock reaction. According to the results of factor analysis in both rivers, two factors have the greatest impact on water quality in the region. Among the parameters of Gamasiab river in the first factor, HCO3-, Na+ and Cl-, respectively, had the highest factor loads, and in the second factor, SO42- and Mg2+ were selected as the main parameters. The parameters Ca2+, Cl- and Na have the highest factor loads in the first factor and in the second factor Mg2+ and SO42- have the highest factor loads in Gharehsoo river. The dissolution of carbonate formations due to their abundance and expansion in the two basins has a more significant effect on changing water chemistry. It has saturated the water of rivers with aragonite, calcite and dolomite. Due to the low contribution of the second factor in changing the chemical parameters, the water of both rivers is saturated with respect to evaporative minerals such as gypsum, halite and anhydrite in all stations. Based on Schoeller diagrams, Wilcox and other quality indicators in these two sections, the amount of main physicochemical parameters are in the desired range for drinking and agriculture. The results of Langelier, Ryznar, Larson-Skold and Puckorius indices showed that water is corrosive in industry.

Keywords: factor analysis, hydrochemical, saturation index, surface water quality

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295 The Effects of Land Use Types to Determine the Status of Sustainable River

Authors: Michael Louis Sunaris, Robby Yussac Tallar


The concept of sustainable river is evolving in Indonesia today. Many rivers condition in Indonesia have decreased by quality and quantity. The degradation of this condition is caused by rapid land use change as a result of increased population growth and human activity. It brings the degradation of the existing watersheds including some types of land use that an important factor in determining the status of river sustainability. Therefore, an evaluation method is required to determine the sustainability status of waterbody within watershed. The purpose of this study is to analyze various types of land use in determining the status of river sustainability. This study takes the watersheds of Citarum Upstream as a study area. The results of the analysis prove the index of sustainability status of the river that changes from good to bad or average in the rivers in the study area. The rapid and uncontrolled changes of land use especially in the upper watersheds area are the main causes that happened over time. It was indicated that the cumulative runoff coefficients were increased significantly. These situations indicated that the damage of watersheds has an impact on the water surplus or deficit problem yearly. Therefore, the rivers in Indonesia should be protected and conserved. The sustainability index of the rivers is an index to indicate the condition of watersheds by defining status of rivers in order to achieve sustainable water resource management.

Keywords: land use change, runoff coefficient, a simple index, sustainable river

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294 Spatial Variability of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Two Streams of the Olifants River System, South Africa

Authors: Abraham Addo-Bediako, Sophy Nukeri, Tebatso Mmako


Many freshwater ecosystems have been subjected to prolonged and cumulative pollution as a result of human activities such as mining, agricultural, industrial and human settlements in their catchments. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial variability of heavy metal pollution of sediments and possible sources of pollutants in two streams of the Olifants River System, South Africa. Stream sediments were collected and analysed for Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn) concentrations using inductively coupled plasma-mass mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In both rivers, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn fell within the concentration ranges recommended by CCME and ANZECC, while the concentrations of Cr and Ni exceeded the standards; the results indicated that Cr and Ni in the sediments originated from human activities and not from natural geological background. The index of geo-accumulation (Igeo) was used to assess the degree of pollution. The results of the geo-accumulation index evaluation showed that Cr and Ni were present in the sediments of the rivers at moderately to extremely polluted levels, while As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn existed at unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Generally, heavy metal concentrations increased along the gradient in the rivers. The high concentrations of Cr and Ni in both rivers are of great concern, as previously these two rivers were classified to be supplying the Olifants River with water of good quality. There is a critical need, therefore to monitor heavy metal concentrations and distributions, as well as a comprehensive plan to prevent health risks, especially those communities still reliant on untreated water from the rivers, as sediment pollution may pose a risk of secondary water pollution under sediment disturbance and/or changes in the geo-chemistry of sediments.

Keywords: geo-accumulation index, heavy metals, sediment pollution, water quality

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293 Participation of Students and Lecturers in Social Networking for Teaching and Learning in Public Universities in Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Nkeiruka Queendarline Nwaizugbu


The use of social media and mobile devices has become acceptable in virtually all areas of today’s world. Hence, this study is a survey that was carried out to find out if students and lecturers in public universities in Rivers State use social networking for educational purposes. The sample of the study comprised of 240 students and 99 lecturers from the University of Port Harcourt and the Rivers State University of science and Technology. The study had five research questions, two hypotheses and the instrument for data collection was a 4-point Likert-type rating scale questionnaire. The data was analysed using mean, standard deviation and z-test. The findings gotten from the analysed data shows that students participate in social networking using different types of web applications but they hardly use them for educational purposes. Some recommendations were also made.

Keywords: internet access, mobile learning, participation, social media, social networking, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
292 The Physicochemical Properties of Two Rivers in Eastern Cape South Africa as Relates to Vibrio Spp Density

Authors: Oluwatayo Abioye, Anthony Okoh


In the past view decades; human has experienced outbreaks of infections caused by pathogenic Vibrio spp which are commonly found in aquatic milieu. Asides the well-known Vibrio cholerae, discovery of other pathogens in this genus has been on the increase. While the dynamics of occurrence and distribution of Vibrio spp have been linked to some physicochemical parameters in salt water, data in relation to fresh water is limited. Hence, two rivers of importance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa were selected for this study. In all, eleven sampling sites were systematically identified and relevant physicochemical parameters, as well as Vibrio spp density, were determined for the period of six months using standard instruments and methods. Results were statistically analysed to determined key physicochemical parameters that determine the density of Vibrio spp in the selected rivers. Results: The density of Vibrio spp in all the sampling points ranges between < 1 CFU/mL to 174 x 10-2 CFU/mL. The physicochemical parameters of some of the sampling points were above the recommended standards. The regression analysis showed that Vibrio density in the selected rivers depends on a complex relationship between various physicochemical parameters. Conclusion: This study suggests that Vibrio spp density in fresh water does not depend on only temperature and salinity as suggested by earlier studies on salt water but rather on a complex relationship between several physicochemical parameters.

Keywords: vibrio density, physicochemical properties, pathogen, aquatic milieu

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291 Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Rivers, Sediments and Wastewater Effluents in Vhembe District of South Africa Using GC-TOF-MS

Authors: Joshua N. Edokpayi, John O. Odiyo, Titus A. M. Msagati, Elizabeth O. Popoola


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to assess the concentrations and possible sources of 16 PAHs classified by the United State Environmental Protection Agency as priority pollutants in Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers and sediments. Effluents from Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant and Siloam waste stabilization ponds were also investigated. Diagnostic ratios were used to evaluate the possible sources of PAHs. PAHs in the water samples were extracted using 1:1 dichloromethane and n-hexane mixtures, while those in the sediment samples were extracted with 1:1 acetone and dichloromethane using ultrasonication method. The extracts were purified using SPE technique and reconstituted in n-hexane before analyses with GC-TOF-MS. The results obtained indicate the prevalence of high molecular weight PAHs in all the samples. PAHs concentrations in water and sediment samples from all the sampling sites were in the range of 13.174-26.382 mg/L and 27.10-55.93 mg/kg, respectively. Combustion of biomass was identified as the major possible source of PAHs. Effluents from wastewater treatment facilities were also considered as major anthropogenic contributions to the levels of PAHs determined in both river waters and sediments. Mvudi and Nzhelele Rivers show moderate to high contamination level of PAHs.

Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, rivers, sediments, wastewater effluents

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290 Chongqing, a Megalopolis Disconnected with Its Rivers: An Assessment of Urban-Waterside Disconnect in a Chinese Megacity and Proposed Improvement Strategies, Chongqing City as a Case Study

Authors: Jaime E. Salazar Lagos


Chongqing is located in southwest China and is becoming one of the most significant cities in the world. Its urban territories and metropolitan-related areas have one of the largest urban populations in China and are partitioned and shaped by two of the biggest and longest rivers on Earth, the Yangtze and Jialing Rivers, making Chongqing a megalopolis intersected by rivers. Historically, Chongqing City enjoyed fundamental connections with its rivers; however, current urban development of Chongqing City has lost effective integration of the riverbanks within the urban space and structural dynamics of the city. Therefore, there exists a critical lack of physical and urban space conjoined with the rivers, which diminishes the economic, tourist, and environmental development of Chongqing. Using multi-scale satellite-map site verification the study confirmed the hypothesis and urban-waterside disconnect. Collected data demonstrated that the Chongqing urban zone, an area of 5292 square-kilometers and a water front of 203.4 kilometers, has only 23.49 kilometers of extension (just 11.5%) with high-quality physical and spatial urban-waterside connection. Compared with other metropolises around the world, this figure represents a significant lack of spatial development along the rivers, an issue that has not been successfully addressed in the last 10 years of urban development. On a macro scale, the study categorized the different kinds of relationships between the city and its riverbanks. This data was then utilized in the creation of an urban-waterfront relationship map that can be a tool for future city planning decisions and real estate development. On a micro scale, we discovered there are three primary elements that are causing the urban-waterside disconnect: extensive highways along the most dense areas and city center, large private real estate developments that do not provide adequate riverside access, and large industrial complexes that almost completely lack riverside utilization. Finally, as part of the suggested strategies, the study concludes that the most efficient and practical way to improve this situation is to follow the historic master-planning of Chongqing and create connective nodes in critical urban locations along the river, a strategy that has been used for centuries to handle the same urban-waterside relationship. Reviewing and implementing this strategy will allow the city to better connect with the rivers, reducing the various impacts of disconnect and urban transformation.

Keywords: Chongqing City, megalopolis, nodes, riverbanks disconnection, urban

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289 Calls for a Multi-Stakeholder Funding Strategy for Live Births Registration: A Case Study of Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Moses Obenade, Francis I. Okpiliya, Gordon T. Amangabara


According to the 2006 Census of Nigeria, there are 2,525,690 females out of the total population of 5,198,716 of Rivers State. Of that figure, about 90 percent are still within the reproductive age of (0-49). With an annual growth rate of 3.4 percent, the population of Rivers State is estimated to grow to 7,262,755 by 2016. This means an increase of 2,064,039 within a ten year period. From a projected population increase of 182,766 in 2007 only 30,394 live births were registered while an astronomical increase of 543,275 live births were registered in 2008 as against the anticipated increase of 188,980. Preliminary investigations revealed that this exceptional figure in 2008 was occasioned by manpower and logistics support provided by the Rivers State Government for the Port Harcourt office of the National Population Commission (NPC). The mop-up exercise of 2008 by NPC that was engineered from the support provided by the Rivers State Government indicates that the agency needs the co-operation and partnership of the three tiers of government and the communities in performing its statutory duties that is pertinent to national planning, growth and development. Because the incentives received from Rivers State Government did not continue in 2009, live births registration noise-dived to only 60,546 from the expected increase of 195,405. It was further observed that Port Harcourt City and Obio/Akpor Local Government Areas which constitute the state capital have the highest number of live births registration during the period of 2007 to 2014 covered by this paper. This trend of not adequately accounting for or registering all live births in the state has continued till date without being addressed by the authorities concerned. The current situation if left unchecked portend serious danger for the state and indeed Nigeria, as paucity of data could hamper sound economic planning as well as proper allocation of resources to targeted sectors. This paper therefore recommends an innovative multi-stakeholder funding strategy comprising the federal, state, local government and communities. Their participation in an integrated manner will aid the achievement of comprehensive live births registration in the state. It is hoped that investments in education, health and social sectors could help in addressing most of the problems bedeviling the nation as such as lowering of fertility and improving lives.

Keywords: live births registration, population, rivers state, national population commission, Nigeria

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288 Spatio-Temporal Variability in Reciprocal Resource Subsidies across Adjacent Terrestrial and Aquatic Eastern Cape Ecosystems

Authors: Tiyisani L. Chavalala, Nicole B. Richoux, Martin H. Villet


Rivers and their adjacent ecosystems are linked by reciprocal ecological subsidies. Rivers receive nutrients and energy from land, and these transfers can represent important food subsidies, a phenomenon known as allochthony. Emergence of adult aquatic invertebrates can also provide important food sources to terrestrial consumers. Reciprocal subsidies are influenced by factors such as canopy cover, river flow rate and channel width, which can be highly variable through space and time. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the main trophic links between adjacent ecosystems (terrestrial and freshwater systems) in several Eastern Cape Rivers with different catchment sizes and flow rates and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect the strength of these links and their spatial dynamics. Food sources and consumers were sampled during four seasons (August 2016, November 2016, February 2017 and May 2017), and stable isotope ratios will serve as tracers to estimate the food web structures. Emergence traps are being used to quantify the rates of emergence of adult aquatic insects, and infall-pan traps are being used to quantify the terrestrial insects falling into rivers as potential food subsidies.

Keywords: emerging aquatic insects, in-falling terrestrial insects, reciprocal resource subsidies, stable isotopes

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287 People's Perspective on Water Commons in Trans-Boundary Water Governance: A Case Study from Nepal

Authors: Sristi Silwal


South Asian rivers support ecosystems and sustain well-being of thousands of riparian communities. Rivers however are also sources of conflict between countries and one of the contested issues between governments of the region. Governments have signed treaties to harness some of the rivers but their provisions have not been successful in improving the quality of life of those who depend on water as common property resources. This paper will present a case of the study of the status of the water commons along the lower command areas of Koshi, Gandka and Mahakali rivers. Nepal and India have signed treaties for development and management of these rivers in 1928, 1954 and 1966. The study investigated perceptions of the local community on climate-induced disasters, provision of the treaties such as water for irrigation, participation in decision-making and specific impact of women. It looked at how the local community coped with adversities. The study showed that the common pool resources are gradually getting degraded, flood events increasing while community blame ‘other state’ and state administration for exacerbating these ills. The level of awareness about provisions of existing treatise is poor. Ongoing approach to trans-boundary water management has taken inadequate cognizance of these realities as the dominant narrative perpetuates cooperation between the governments. The paper argues that on-going discourses on trans-boundary water development and management need to use a new metrics of taking cognizance of the condition of the commons and that of the people depended on them for sustenance. In absence of such narratives, the scale of degradation would increase making those already marginalized more vulnerable to impacts of global climate change.

Keywords: climate change vulnerability, conflict, cooperation, water commons

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286 Geomorphologic Evolution of the Southern Habble-Rud River Basin, North of Iran

Authors: Maryam Jaberi, Siavosh Shayan, Mojtaba Yamani


Habble-Rud River basin (HR), up to 100 km length, one of the largest watersheds which drain into deserts to the north of Central Iran (Dasht-e Kavir). This stream is oblique with the NE-SW trending, flow in the southern range of central Alborz Mountains and the northern border of Central Iran. The end of the ~17 km suddenly change direction and with the southern trending to have a morphology which meanders passes through the Alborz Mountain ridge and flows into the Garmsar plain where it forms one of the largest alluvial fans in Iran, i.e. the vast Garmsar alluvial fan with an area of 476 km2. This study was carried out through morphometric analyses, longitudinal river profiles, and study of geomorpholic evidence such as fluvial terraces, gypsum-salt domes, seismic data, and satellite images. This study aimed to investigate the changes in the pattern of rivers in the southern part of the HR river basin. The southern part of HR river basin located at the southern foothills of the Central Alborz is characterized the thrust faults (Sorkheh-Kalut and Garmsar faults), folds,diapirs and arid climate. The activity of more than 10 salt domes that belong to the Oligocene-Miocene period has considerably influenced the pattern of streams in this region. Dissolution of these domes has not only reduced the quality of water and soil resources, but also has led to the formation of badlands and gullies.Our results indicated that the pattern of rivers in the southern part of HR river basin was influenced by discharge of the HR river in Quaternary, geological structure, subsidence of Central Iran and vertical uplift of Alborz mountain. These agents caused the formation meanders in the southern part of the HR River and evaluation of the seasonal rivers like Shoor-Darre and Garmabsar.

Keywords: geomorphologic evaluation, rivers pattern, Habble-Rud River basin, seasonal rivers

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285 Flood Management Plans in Different Flooding Zones of Gujranwala and Rawalpindi Divisions, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naveed


In this paper, flood issues in Gujranwala and Rawalpindi divisions are discussed as a primary importance as these zones are affected continuously from flooding in recent years, provincial variability of the issue, introduce status of the continuous administration measures, their adequacy and future needs in flood administration are secured. Flood issues in these zones are exhibited by Chenab River Basin, Jhelum Rivers Basin. Some unique problems, related to floods in these divisions is lack of major dams on Chenab and Jhelum rivers and also mismanagement of rivers and canal water like dam break stream, and water signing in Tal zones, are additionally mentioned. There are major Nalaas in these regions like Nalaa Lai of Rawalpindi and Nalaa Daik, Nalaa Palkhu, Nalaa Aik of Gujranwala are major cause of floods in these regions other than rivers. Proper management of these Nalaas and moving of nearby population well in time could reduce impacts from flood in these regions. Progress of different flood administration measures, both auxiliary and non-basic, are discussed. Likewise, future needs to accomplish proficient and fruitful flood management measures in Pakistan are additionally brought up. In this paper, we describe different hard and soft engineering techniques to overcome flood situations in these zones as these zones are more vulnerable due to lack of management in canal and river water. Effective management and use of hard and soft techniques are need of time in coming future for controlling greater flooding in flood risk zones to overcome or minimize people’s death as well as agricultural and financial resources as flood and other natural disasters are a major drawback in the economic prosperity of the country.

Keywords: flood management, rivers, major dams, agricultural and financial loss, future management and control

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284 Mobility of Metallic Trace Elements (MTE) in Water and Sediment of the Rivers: Case of Nil River, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, S. Amiour, A. Chine, S. Khelili


The metallic trace elements (MTE) are present in water and sediments of the rivers with weak concentrations. Several physicochemical parameters (Eh, pH and oxygen dissolved) and chemical processes (adsorption, absorption, complexation and precipitation) as well as nature of the sediments control their mobility. In order to determine the effect of these factors on the mobility of some MTE (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in water of the rivers, a two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and chemistry of water and sediments of the Nil wadi (Algeria) was carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that each MTE has its own conditions of mobility and generally are very influence by the variations of the pH and Eh. Under the natural conditions, neutral pH with basic and medium oxidizing, only the lead presented in water with raised values, indicating its solubility in water and its salting out of the sediments. The other MTE present raised concentrations in the sediments, indicating their trapping by adsorption and/or chemical precipitation. The chemical form of each ETM was given by Eh-pH diagrams. The spatio-temporal monitoring of these ETM shows the effect of the rains, the dry periods and the rejects in the variation of their concentrations.

Keywords: chemistry, metallic trace elements, sediment, water

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283 Assessment of Surface Water Quality in Belarus

Authors: Anastasiya Vouchak, Aliaksandr Volchak


Belarus is not short of water. However, there is a problem of water quality. Its pollution has both natural and man-made origin. This research is based on data from State Water Cadastre of the Republic of Belarus registered from 1994 to 2014. We analyzed changes in such hydro-chemical criteria as concentration of ammonium ions, suspended matter, dissolved oxygen, oil-products, nitrites, phosphates in water, dichromate value, water impurity index, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Pollution of water with ammonium ions was observed in Belarus rivers of the Western Dvina, Polota, Schara, Usha, Muhavets, Berzina, Plissa, Svisloch, Pripiat, Yaselda in 2006-2014. The threshold limit value (TLV) was 1.5-3 times as much. Concentration of ammonia in the Berezina exceeded 3 – 5 times the TLVs in 2006-2010. Maximum excess of TLV was registered in the Svisloch (10 km downstream of Minsk) in 2006-2007. It was over 4 mg/dm³ whereas the norm is 0.39 mg/dm³. In 1997 there were ammonia pollution spots in the Dnieper, the Berezina, and the Svisloch Rivers. Since 2006 we have observed pollution spots in the Neman, Ross, Vilia, Sozh, Gorin Rivers, the Osipovichi and Soligorsk reservoirs. Dichromate value exceeds the TLVs in 40% cases. The most polluted waters are the Muhavets, Berezina, Pripiat, Yaselda, Gorin Rivers, the Vileyka and Soligorsk reservoirs. The Western Dvina, Neman, Viliya, Schara, Svisloch, and Plissa Rivers are less polluted. The Dnieper is the cleanest in this respect. In terms of BOD, water is polluted in the Neman, Muhavets, Svisloch, Yaselda, Gorin Rivers, the Osipovichi, Zaslavl, and Soligorsk reservoirs. The Western Dvina, Polota, Sozh, Iputs Rivers and Lake Naroch are not polluted in this respect. This criterion has been decreasing in 33 out of 42 cases. The least suspended matter is in the Berezina, Sozh, Iputs Rivers and Lake Naroch. The muddiest water is in the Neman, Usha, Svisloch, Pripyat, Yaselda Rivers, the Osipovichi and Soligorsk reservoirs. Water impurity index shows reduction of this criterion at all gauge stations. Multi-year average values predominantly (66.6%) correspond to the third class of water quality, i.e. moderately polluted. They include the Western Dvina, Ross, Usha, Muhavets, Dnieper, Berezina, Plissa, Iputs, Pripyat, Yaselda, Gorin Rivers, the Osipovichi and Soligorsk reservoirs. Water in the Svisloch River downstream of Minsk is of the forth quality class, i.e. most polluted. In the rest cases (33.3%) water is relatively clean. They include the Lidea, Schara, Viliya, Sozh Rivers, Lake Lukoml, Lake Naroch, Vileyka and Zaslavl reservoirs. Multi-year average values range from 7.0 to 9.5 mg О₂/dm³. The Yaselda has the least value - 6.7 mg О₂/dm³. A shortage of dissolved oxygen was found in the Berezina (2010), the Yaselda (2007), the Plissa (2011-2014), the Soligorsk reservoir (1996). Contamination of water with oil-products was observed everywhere in 1994-1999. Some spots were found in the Western Dvina, Vilia, Usha, Dnieper in 2003-2006, in the Svisloch in 2002-2012. We are observing gradual decrease of oil pollutants in surface water. The quality of 67 % surface water is referred to as moderately polluted.

Keywords: belarus, hydro-chemical criteria, water pollution, water quality

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282 Results of the Field-and-Scientific Study in the Water Area of the Estuaries of the Major Rivers of the Black Sea and Sea Ports on the Territory of Georgia

Authors: Ana Gavardashvili


The field-and-scientific studies to evaluate the modern ecological state in the water area of the estuaries of the major water-abundant rivers in the coastal line of the Black Sea (Chorokhi, Kintrishi, Natanebi, Supsa, Khobistskali, Rioni and Enguri) and sea ports (Batumi, Poti) and sea terminals of the oil pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa, Kulevi) were accomplished in the months of June and July of 2015. GPS coordinates and GIS programs were used to fix the areas of the estuaries of the above-listed rivers on a digital map, with their values varying within the limits of 0,861 and 20,390 km2. Water samples from the Black Sea were taken from the river estuaries and sea ports during the field works, with their statistical series of 125 points. The temperatures of air (t2) and water in the Black Sea (t1) were measured locally, and their relative value is (t1 /t2 ) = 0,69 – 0,92. 125 water samples taken from the study object in the Black Sea coastal line were subject to laboratory analysis, and it was established that the Black Sea acidity (pH) changes within the limits of 7,71 – 8,22 in the river estuaries and within 8,42 - 8,65 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. As for the Sea water salinity index (TDS), it changes within the limits of 6,15 – 12,67 in the river estuaries, and (TDS) = 11,80 – 13,67 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. By taking the gained data and climatic changes into account, by using the theories of reliability and risk at the following stage, the nature of the changes of the function of the Black Sea ecological parameters will be established.

Keywords: acidity, estuary, salinity, sea

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281 Hydrological Benefits Sharing Concepts in Constructing Friendship Dams on Transboundary Tigris River Between Iraq and Turkey

Authors: Thair Mahmood Altaiee


Because of the increasing population and the growing water requirements from the transboundary water resources within riparian countries in addition to un-proper management of these transboundary water resources, it is likely that a conflicts on the water will be occurred. So it is mandatory to search solutions to mitigate the action and probabilities of these undesired conflicts. One of the solutions for these crises may be sharing the riparian countries in the management of their transboundary water resources and share benefit. Effective cooperation on a transboundary river is any action by the riparian countries that lead to improve management of the river to their mutual acceptance. In principle, friendship dams constructed by riparian countries may play an important role in preventing conflicts like the Turkish-Syrian friendship dam on Asi river (Orontes), Iranian-Tukmenistan dam on Hariroud river, Bulgarian-Turkish dam on Tundzha river, Brazil-Paraguay dam on Parana river, and Aras dam between Iran and Azerbaijan. The objective of this study is to focus the light on the hydrological aspects of cooperation in constructing dams on the transboundary rivers, which may consider an option to prevent conflicts on water between the riparian countries. The various kinds of benefits and external impacts associated with cooperation in dams construction on the transboundary rivers with a real examples will be presented and analyzed. The hydrological benefit sharing from cooperation in dams construction, which type of benefit sharing mechanisms are applicable to dams, and how they vary were discussed. The study considered the cooperative applicability to dams on shared rivers according to selected case study of friendship dams in the world to illustrate the relevance of the cooperation concepts and the feasibility of such propose cooperation between Turkey and Iraq within the Tigris river. It is found that the opportunities of getting benefit from cooperation depend mainly on the hydrological boundary and location of the dam in relation to them. The desire to cooperate on dams construction on transboundary rivers exists if the location of a dam upstream will increase aggregate net benefits. The case studies show that various benefit sharing mechanisms due to cooperation in constructing friendship dams on the riparian countries border are possible for example when the downstream state (Iraq) convinces the upstream state (Turkey) to share building a dam on Tigris river across the Iraqi –Turkish border covering the cost and sharing the net benefit derived from this dam. These initial findings may provide guidance for riparian states engaged in and donors facilitating negotiation on dam projects on transboundary rivers.

Keywords: friendship dams, transboundary rivers, water cooperation, benefit sharing

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280 Analysis and Evaluation of the Water Catch Basins of the Erosive-Mudflow Rivers of Georgia on the Example of the River Vere

Authors: Natia Gavardashvili


On June 13-14 of 2015, a landslide in village Akhaldaba was formed as a result of the intense rains in the water catch basin of the river Vere. As a result of the landslide movement, freshets and mudflows originated, and unfortunately, there were victims: zoo animals and birds were drawn in the flood and 12 people died due to the flooded motor road. The goal of the study is to give the analysis of the results of the field and scientific research held in 2015-2017 and to generalize them to the water catch basins of the erosive-mudflow rivers of other mountain landscapes of Georgia. By considering the field and scientific works, the main geographic, geological, climatic, hydrological and hydraulic properties of the erosive-mudflow tributaries of the water catch basin of the river Vere were evaluated and the probabilities of mudflow formation by considering relevant risk-factors were identified. The typology of the water catch basins of erosive-mudflow rivers of Georgia was identified on the example of the river Vere based on the field and scientific study, and their genesis, frequency of mudflow formation and volume of the drift material was identified. By using the empirical and theoretical dependencies, the amount of solid admixtures in the mudflow formed in the gorge of the river Jokhona, the right tributary of the river Vere was identified by considering the shape of the stones.

Keywords: water catchment basin, erosion, mudflow, typology

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279 Reliable Method for Estimating Rating Curves in the Natural Rivers

Authors: Arash Ahmadi, Amirreza Kavousizadeh, Sanaz Heidarzadeh


Stage-discharge curve is one of the conventional methods for continuous river flow measurement. In this paper, an innovative approach is proposed for predicting the stage-discharge relationship using the application of isovel contours. Using the proposed method, it is possible to estimate the stage-discharge curve in the whole section with only using discharge information from just one arbitrary water level. For this purpose, multivariate relationships are used to determine the mean velocity in a cross-section. The unknown exponents of the proposed relationship have been obtained by using the second version of the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2), and the appropriate equation was selected by applying the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) approach. Results showed a close agreement between the estimated and observed data in the different cross-sections.

Keywords: rating curves, SPEA2, natural rivers, bed roughness distribution

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278 A Remote Sensing Approach to Estimate the Paleo-Discharge of the Lost Saraswati River of North-West India

Authors: Zafar Beg, Kumar Gaurav


The lost Saraswati is described as a large perennial river which was 'lost' in the desert towards the end of the Indus-Saraswati civilisation. It has been proposed earlier that the lost Saraswati flowed in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, parallel to the present day Indus River. It is believed that one of the earliest known ancient civilizations, the 'Indus-Saraswati civilization' prospered along the course of the Saraswati River. The demise of the Indus civilization is considered to be due to desiccation of the river. Today in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve, we observe an ephemeral river, known as Ghaggar. It is believed that along with the Ghaggar River, two other Himalayan Rivers Sutlej and Yamuna were tributaries of the lost Saraswati and made a significant contribution to its discharge. Presence of a large number of archaeological sites and the occurrence of thick fluvial sand bodies in the subsurface in the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve has been used to suggest that the Saraswati River was a large perennial river. Further, the wider course of about 4-7 km recognized from satellite imagery of Ghaggar-Hakra belt in between Suratgarh and Anupgarh strengthens this hypothesis. Here we develop a methodology to estimate the paleo discharge and paleo width of the lost Saraswati River. In doing so, we rely on the hypothesis which suggests that the ancient Saraswati River used to carry the combined flow or some part of the Yamuna, Sutlej and Ghaggar catchments. We first established a regime relationship between the drainage area-channel width and catchment area-discharge of 29 different rivers presently flowing on the Himalayan Foreland from Indus in the west to the Brahmaputra in the East. We found the width and discharge of all the Himalayan rivers scale in a similar way when they are plotted against their corresponding catchment area. Using these regime curves, we calculate the width and discharge of paleochannels originating from the Sutlej, Yamuna and Ghaggar rivers by measuring their corresponding catchment area from satellite images. Finally, we add the discharge and width obtained from each of the individual catchments to estimate the paleo width and paleo discharge respectively of the Saraswati River. Our regime curves provide a first-order estimate of the paleo discharge of the lost Saraswati.

Keywords: Indus civilization, palaeochannel, regime curve, Saraswati River

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277 The Monitoring of Surface Water Bodies from Tisa Catchment Area, Maramureş County in 2014

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, S. Nacu, R. Băstinaş


The Monitoring of Surface Water Bodies (Rivers) from Tisa Catchment Area - Maramureş County in 2014. This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

Keywords: monitoring, surveillance, water bodies, quality

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276 A webGIS Methodology to Support Sediments Management in Wallonia

Authors: Nathalie Stephenne, Mathieu Veschkens, Stéphane Palm, Christophe Charlemagne, Jacques Defoux


According to Europe’s first River basin Management Plans (RBMPs), 56% of European rivers failed to achieve the good status targets of the Water Framework Directive WFD. In Central European countries such as Belgium, even more than 80% of rivers failed to achieve the WFD quality targets. Although the RBMP’s should reduce the stressors and improve water body status, their potential to address multiple stress situations is limited due to insufficient knowledge on combined effects, multi-stress, prioritization of measures, impact on ecology and implementation effects. This paper describes a webGis prototype developed for the Walloon administration to improve the communication and the management of sediment dredging actions carried out in rivers and lakes in the frame of RBMPs. A large number of stakeholders are involved in the management of rivers and lakes in Wallonia. They are in charge of technical aspects (client and dredging operators, organizations involved in the treatment of waste…), management (managers involved in WFD implementation at communal, provincial or regional level) or policy making (people responsible for policy compliance or legislation revision). These different kinds of stakeholders need different information and data to cover their duties but have to interact closely at different levels. Moreover, information has to be shared between them to improve the management quality of dredging operations within the ecological system. In the Walloon legislation, leveling dredged sediments on banks requires an official authorization from the administration. This request refers to spatial information such as the official land use map, the cadastral map, the distance to potential pollution sources. The production of a collective geodatabase can facilitate the management of these authorizations from both sides. The proposed internet system integrates documents, data input, integration of data from disparate sources, map representation, database queries, analysis of monitoring data, presentation of results and cartographic visualization. A prototype of web application using the API geoviewer chosen by the Geomatic department of the SPW has been developed and discussed with some potential users to facilitate the communication, the management and the quality of the data. The structure of the paper states the why, what, who and how of this communication tool.

Keywords: sediments, web application, GIS, rivers management

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
275 Iraq Water Resources Planning: Perspectives and Prognoses

Authors: Nadhir Al-Ansari, Ammar A. Ali, Sven Knutsson


Iraq is located in the Middle East. It covers an area of 433,970 square kilometres populated by about 32 million inhabitants. Iraq greatly relies in its water resources on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Recently, Iraq is suffering from water shortage problems. This is due to external and internal factors. The former includes global warming and water resources policies of neighbouring countries while the latter includes mismanagement of its water resources. The supply and demand are predicted to be 43 and 66.8 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) respectively in 2015, while in 2025 it will be 17.61 and 77 BCM respectively. In addition, future prediction suggests that Tigris and Euphrates Rivers will be completely dry in 2040. To overcome this problem, prudent water management policies are to be adopted. This includes Strategic Water Management Vision, development of irrigation techniques, reduction of water losses, use of non-conventional water resources and research and development planning.

Keywords: Iraq, Tigris River, Euphrates River, water scarcity, water resources management

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
274 Assessment of the Water Quality of the Nhue River in Vietnam and its Suitability for Irrigation Water

Authors: Thi Lan Huong Nguyen, Motohei Kanayama, Takahiro Higashi, Van Chinh Le, Thu Ha Doan, Anh Dao Chu


The Nhue River in Vietnam is the main source of irrigation water for suburban agricultural land and fish farm. Wastewater from the industrial plants located along these rivers has been discharged, which has degraded the water quality of the rivers. The present paper describes the chemical properties of water from the river focusing on heavy metal pollution and the suitability of water quality for irrigation. Water from the river was heavily polluted with heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, and Ni. Dissolved oxygen, COD, and total suspended solids, and the concentrations of all heavy metals exceeded the Vietnamese standard for surface water quality in all investigated sites. The concentrations of some heavy metals such as Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni were over the internationally recommended WHO maximum limits for irrigation water. A wide variation in heavy metal concentration of water due to metal types is the result of wastewater discharged from different industrial sources.

Keywords: heavy metals, stream water, irrigation, industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
273 Combined Effect of Global Warming and Water Structures on Rivers’ Water Quality and Aquatic Life: Case Study of Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt

Authors: Sherine A. El Baradei


Global warming and climatic change are very important topics that are being studied and investigated nowadays as they have lots of diverse impacts on mankind, water quality, aquatic life, wildlife,…etc. Also, many water and hydraulics structures like dams and barrages are being built every day to satisfy water consumption needs, irrigation purposes and power generating purposes. Each of global warming and water structures alone has diversity of impacts on water quality and aquatic life in rivers. This research is investigating the dual combined effect of both water structures and global warming on the water quality and aquatic life through mathematical modeling. A case study of the Esna Barrage on the Nile River in Egypt is being studied. This research study is taking into account the effects of both seasons; namely, winter and summer and their effects on air and hence water temperature of the Nile reach under study. To do so, the study is conducted on the last 23 years to investigate the effect of global warming and climatic change on the studied river water. The mathematical model is then combining the dual effect of the Esna barrage and the global warming on the water quality; as well as, on aquatic life of the Nile reach under study. From the results of the mathematical model, it could be concluded that the dual effect of water structures and global warming is very negative on the water quality and the aquatic life in rivers upstream those structures.

Keywords: aquatic life, barrages, climatic change, dissolved oxygen, global warming, river, water quality, water structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
272 Stream Channel Changes in Balingara River, Sulawesi Tengah

Authors: Muhardiyan Erawan, Zaenal Mutaqin


Balingara River is one of the rivers with the type Gravel-Bed in Indonesia. Gravel-Bed Rivers easily deformed in a relatively short time due to several variables, that are climate (rainfall), river discharge, topography, rock types, and land cover. To determine stream channel changes in Balingara River used Landsat 7 and 8 and analyzed planimetric or two dimensions. Parameters to determine changes in the stream channel are sinuosity ratio, Brice Index, the extent of erosion and deposition. Changes in stream channel associated with changes in land cover then analyze with a descriptive analysis of spatial and temporal. The location of a stream channel has a low gradient in the upstream, and middle watershed with the type of rock in the form of gravel is more easily changed than other locations. Changes in the area of erosion and deposition influence the land cover changes.

Keywords: Brice Index, erosion, deposition, gravel-bed, land cover change, sinuosity ratio, stream channel change

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
271 Study on Ecological Water Demand Evaluation of Typical Mountainous Rivers in Zhejiang Province: Taking Kaihua River as an Example

Authors: Kaiping Xu, Aiju You, Lei Hua


In view of the ecological environmental problems and protection needs of mountainous rivers in Zhejiang province, a suitable ecological water demand evaluation system was established based on investigation and monitoring. Taking the Kaihua river as an example, the research on ecological water demand and the current situation evaluation were carried out. The main types of ecological water demand in Majin River are basic ecological flow and lake wetland outside the river, and instream flow and water demands for water quality in Zhongcun river. In the wet season, each ecological water demand is 18.05m3/s and 2.56m3 / s, and in the dry season is 3.00m3/s and 0.61m3/s. Three indexes of flow, duration and occurrence time are used to evaluate the ecological water demand. The degree of ecological water demand in the past three years is low level of satisfaction. Meanwhile, the existing problems are analyzed, and put forward reasonable and operable safeguards and suggestions.

Keywords: Zhejiang province, mountainous river, ecological water demand, Kaihua river, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 107