Search results for: circularity index
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3517

Search results for: circularity index

3517 Methodology to Assess the Circularity of Industrial Processes

Authors: Bruna F. Oliveira, Teresa I. Gonçalves, Marcelo M. Sousa, Sandra M. Pimenta, Octávio F. Ramalho, José B. Cruz, Flávia V. Barbosa

Abstract:

The EU Circular Economy action plan, launched in 2020, is one of the major initiatives to promote the transition into a more sustainable industry. The circular economy is a popular concept used by many companies nowadays. Some industries are better forwarded to this reality than others, and the tannery industry is a sector that needs more attention due to its strong environmental impact caused by its dimension, intensive resources consumption, lack of recyclability, and second use of its products, as well as the industrial effluents generated by the manufacturing processes. For these reasons, the zero-waste goal and the European objectives are further being achieved. In this context, a need arises to provide an effective methodology that allows to determine the level of circularity of tannery companies. Regarding the complexity of the circular economy concept, few factories have a specialist in sustainability to assess the company’s circularity or have the ability to implement circular strategies that could benefit the manufacturing processes. Although there are several methodologies to assess circularity in specific industrial sectors, there is not an easy go-to methodology applied in factories aiming for cleaner production. Therefore, a straightforward methodology to assess the level of circularity, in this case of a tannery industry, is presented and discussed in this work, allowing any company to measure the impact of its activities. The methodology developed consists in calculating the Overall Circular Index (OCI) by evaluating the circularity of four key areas -energy, material, economy and social- in a specific factory. The index is a value between 0 and 1, where 0 means a linear economy, and 1 is a complete circular economy. Each key area has a sub-index, obtained through key performance indicators (KPIs) regarding each theme, and the OCI reflects the average of the four sub-indexes. Some fieldwork in the appointed company was required in order to obtain all the necessary data. By having separate sub-indexes, one can observe which areas are more linear than others. Thus, it is possible to work on the most critical areas by implementing strategies to increase the OCI. After these strategies are implemented, the OCI is recalculated to check the improvements made and any other changes in the remaining sub-indexes. As such, the methodology in discussion works through continuous improvement, constantly reevaluating and improving the circularity of the factory. The methodology is also flexible enough to be implemented in any industrial sector by adapting the KPIs. This methodology was implemented in a selected Portuguese small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) tannery industry and proved to be a relevant tool to measure the circularity level of the factory. It was witnessed that it is easier for non-specialists to evaluate circularity and identify possible solutions to increase its value, as well as learn how one action can impact their environment. In the end, energetic and environmental inefficiencies were identified and corrected, increasing the sustainability and circularity of the company. Through this work, important contributions were provided, helping the Portuguese SMEs to achieve the European and UN 2030 sustainable goals.

Keywords: circular economy, circularity index, sustainability, tannery industry, zero-waste

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3516 Defining a Framework for Holistic Life Cycle Assessment of Building Components by Considering Parameters Such as Circularity, Material Health, Biodiversity, Pollution Control, Cost, Social Impacts, and Uncertainty

Authors: Naomi Grigoryan, Alexandros Loutsioli Daskalakis, Anna Elisse Uy, Yihe Huang, Aude Laurent (Webanck)

Abstract:

In response to the building and construction sectors accounting for a third of all energy demand and emissions, the European Union has placed new laws and regulations in the construction sector that emphasize material circularity, energy efficiency, biodiversity, and social impact. Existing design tools assess sustainability in early-stage design for products or buildings; however, there is no standardized methodology for measuring the circularity performance of building components. Existing assessment methods for building components focus primarily on carbon footprint but lack the comprehensive analysis required to design for circularity. The research conducted in this paper covers the parameters needed to assess sustainability in the design process of architectural products such as doors, windows, and facades. It maps a framework for a tool that assists designers with real-time sustainability metrics. Considering the life cycle of building components such as façades, windows, and doors involves the life cycle stages applied to product design and many of the methods used in the life cycle analysis of buildings. The current industry standards of sustainability assessment for metal building components follow cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA), track Global Warming Potential (GWP), and document the parameters used for an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD). Developed by the Ellen Macarthur Foundation, the Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) is a methodology utilizing the data from LCA and EPDs to rate circularity, with a "value between 0 and 1 where higher values indicate a higher circularity+". Expanding on the MCI with additional indicators such as the Water Circularity Index (WCI), the Energy Circularity Index (ECI), the Social Circularity Index (SCI), Life Cycle Economic Value (EV), and calculating biodiversity risk and uncertainty, the assessment methodology of an architectural product's impact can be targeted more specifically based on product requirements, performance, and lifespan. Broadening the scope of LCA calculation for products to incorporate aspects of building design allows product designers to account for the disassembly of architectural components. For example, the Material Circularity Indicator for architectural products such as windows and facades is typically low due to the impact of glass, as 70% of glass ends up in landfills due to damage in the disassembly process. The low MCI can be combatted by expanding beyond cradle-to-grave assessment and focusing the design process on disassembly, recycling, and repurposing with the help of real-time assessment tools. Design for Disassembly and Urban Mining has been integrated within the construction field on small scales as project-based exercises, not addressing the entire supply chain of architectural products. By adopting more comprehensive sustainability metrics and incorporating uncertainty calculations, the sustainability assessment of building components can be more accurately assessed with decarbonization and disassembly in mind, addressing the large-scale commercial markets within construction, some of the most significant contributors to climate change.

Keywords: architectural products, early-stage design, life cycle assessment, material circularity indicator

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3515 Light-Entropy Continuum Theory

Authors: Christopher Restall

Abstract:

field causing attraction between mixed charges of matter during charge exchanges with antimatter. This asymmetry is caused from none-trinary quark amount variation in matter and anti-matter during entropy progression. This document explains how a circularity critique exercise assessed scientific knowledge and develop a unified theory from the information collected. The circularity critique, creates greater intuition leaps than an individual would naturally, the information collected can be integrated and assessed thoroughly for correctness.

Keywords: unified theory of everything, gravity, quantum gravity, standard model

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3514 Effects of Canned Cycles and Cutting Parameters on Hole Quality in Cryogenic Drilling of Aluminum 6061-6T

Authors: M. N. Islam, B. Boswell, Y. R. Ginting

Abstract:

The influence of canned cycles and cutting parameters on hole quality in cryogenic drilling has been investigated experimentally and analytically. A three-level, three-parameter experiment was conducted by using the design-of-experiment methodology. The three levels of independent input parameters were the following: for canned cycles—a chip-breaking canned cycle (G73), a spot drilling canned cycle (G81), and a deep hole canned cycle (G83); for feed rates—0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm/rev; and for cutting speeds—60, 75, and 100 m/min. The selected work and tool materials were aluminum 6061-6T and high-speed steel (HSS), respectively. For cryogenic cooling, liquid nitrogen (LN2) was used and was applied externally. The measured output parameters were the three widely used quality characteristics of drilled holes—diameter error, circularity, and surface roughness. Pareto ANOVA was applied for analyzing the results. The findings revealed that the canned cycle has a significant effect on diameter error (contribution ratio 44.09%) and small effects on circularity and surface finish (contribution ratio 7.25% and 6.60%, respectively). The best results for the dimensional accuracy and surface roughness were achieved by G81. G73 produced the best circularity results; however, for dimensional accuracy, it was the worst level.

Keywords: circularity, diameter error, drilling canned cycle, pareto ANOVA, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
3513 Interconnections of Circular Economy, Circularity, and Sustainability: A Systematic Review and Conceptual Framework

Authors: Anteneh Dagnachew Sewenet, Paola Pisano

Abstract:

The concept of circular economy, circularity, and sustainability are interconnected and promote a more sustainable future. However, previous studies have mainly focused on each concept individually, neglecting the relationships and gaps in the existing literature. This study aims to integrate and link these concepts to expand the theoretical and practical methods of scholars and professionals in pursuit of sustainability. The aim of this systematic literature review is to comprehensively analyze and summarize the interconnections between circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. Additionally, it seeks to develop a conceptual framework that can guide practitioners and serve as a basis for future research. The review employed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 78 articles were analyzed, utilizing the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The analysis involved summarizing and systematizing the conceptualizations of circularity and its relationship with the circular economy and long-term sustainability. The review provided a comprehensive overview of the interconnections between circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. Key themes, theoretical frameworks, empirical findings, and conceptual gaps in the literature were identified. Through a rigorous analysis of scholarly articles, the study highlighted the importance of integrating these concepts for a more sustainable future. This study contributes to the existing literature by integrating and linking the concepts of circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. It expands the theoretical understanding of how these concepts relate to each other and provides a conceptual framework that can guide future research in this field. The findings emphasize the need for a holistic approach in achieving sustainability goals. The data collection for this review involved identifying relevant articles from the Scopus and Web of Science databases. The selection of articles was made based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PRISMA protocol guided the systematic analysis of the selected articles, including summarizing and systematizing their content. This study addressed the question of how circularity is conceptualized and related to both the circular economy and long-term sustainability. It aimed to identify the interconnections between these concepts and bridge the gap in the existing literature. The review provided a comprehensive analysis of the interconnections between the circular economy, circularity, and sustainability. It presented a conceptual framework that can guide practitioners in implementing circular economy strategies and serve as a basis for future research. By integrating these concepts, scholars, and professionals can enhance the theoretical and practical methods in pursuit of a more sustainable future. The findings emphasize the importance of taking a holistic approach to achieve sustainability goals and highlight conceptual gaps that can be addressed in future studies.

Keywords: circularity, circular economy, sustainability, innovation

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3512 Increased Circularity in Metals Production Using the Ausmelt TSL Process

Authors: Jacob Wood, David Wilson, Stephen Hughes

Abstract:

The Ausmelt Top Submerged Lance (TSL) Process has been widely applied for the processing of both primary and secondary copper, nickel, lead, tin, and zinc-bearing feed materials. Continual development and evolution of the technology over more than 30 years has resulted in a more intense smelting process with higher energy efficiency, improved metal recoveries, lower operating costs, and reduced fossil fuel consumption. This paper covers a number of recent advances to the technology, highlighting their positive impacts on smelter operating costs, environmental performance, and contribution towards increased circularity in metals production.

Keywords: ausmelt TSL, smelting, circular economy, energy efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3511 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

Abstract:

Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

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3510 Large Core Silica Few-Mode Optical Fibers with Reduced Differential Mode Delay and Enhanced Mode Effective Area over 'C'-Band

Authors: Anton V. Bourdine, Vladimir A. Burdin, Oleg R. Delmukhametov

Abstract:

This work presents a fast and simple method for the design of large core silica optical fibers with differential mode delay (DMD) management. Some results are reported concerned with refractive index profile optimization for 42 µm core 16-LP-mode optical fiber for next-generation optical networks. Here special refractive index profile form provides total DMD reducing over all mode staff under desired enhanced mode effective area. Method for the simulation of 'real manufactured' few-mode optical fiber (FMF) core geometry differing from the desired optimized structure by core non-symmetrical ellipticity and refractive index profile deviation including local fluctuations is proposed. Results of the following analysis of optimized FMF with inserted geometry distortions performed by earlier on developed modification of rigorous mixed finite-element method showed strong DMD degradation that requires additional higher-order mode management. In addition, this work also presents a method for design mode division multiplexer channel precision spatial positioning scheme at FMF core end that provides one of the potentiality solutions of described DMD degradation problem concerned with 'distorted' core geometry due to features of optical fiber manufacturing techniques.

Keywords: differential mode delay, few-mode optical fibers, nonlinear Shannon limit, optical fiber non-circularity, ‘real manufactured’ optical fiber core geometry simulation, refractive index profile optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
3509 Assessing Circularity Potentials and Customer Education to Drive Ecologically and Economically Effective Materials Design for Circular Economy - A Case Study

Authors: Mateusz Wielopolski, Asia Guerreschi

Abstract:

Circular Economy, as the counterargument to the ‘make-take-dispose’ linear model, is an approach that includes a variety of schools of thought looking at environmental, economic, and social sustainability. This, in turn, leads to a variety of strategies and often confusion when it comes to choosing the right one to make a circular transition as effective as possible. Due to the close interplay of circular product design, business model and social responsibility, companies often struggle to develop strategies that comply with all three triple-bottom-line criteria. Hence, to transition to circularity effectively, product design approaches must become more inclusive. In a case study conducted with the University of Bayreuth and the ISPO, we correlated aspects of material choice in product design, labeling and technological innovation with customer preferences and education about specific material and technology features. The study revealed those attributes of the consumers’ environmental awareness that directly translate into an increase of purchase power - primarily connected with individual preferences regarding sports activity and technical knowledge. Based on this outcome, we constituted a product development approach that incorporates the consumers’ individual preferences towards sustainable product features as well as their awareness about materials and technology. It allows deploying targeted customer education campaigns to raise the willingness to pay for sustainability. Next, we implemented the customer preference and education analysis into a circularity assessment tool that takes into account inherent company assets as well as subjective parameters like customer awareness. The outcome is a detailed but not cumbersome scoring system, which provides guidance for material and technology choices for circular product design while considering business model and communication strategy to the attentive customers. By including customer knowledge and complying with corresponding labels, companies develop more effective circular design strategies, while simultaneously increasing customers’ trust and loyalty.

Keywords: circularity, sustainability, product design, material choice, education, awareness, willingness to pay

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3508 A Comparative Study of Multi-SOM Algorithms for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters

Authors: Imèn Khanchouch, Malika Charrad, Mohamed Limam

Abstract:

The interpretation of the quality of clusters and the determination of the optimal number of clusters is still a crucial problem in clustering. We focus in this paper on multi-SOM clustering method which overcomes the problem of extracting the number of clusters from the SOM map through the use of a clustering validity index. We then tested multi-SOM using real and artificial data sets with different evaluation criteria not used previously such as Davies Bouldin index, Dunn index and silhouette index. The developed multi-SOM algorithm is compared to k-means and Birch methods. Results show that it is more efficient than classical clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering, SOM, multi-SOM, DB index, Dunn index, silhouette index

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3507 Effect of Addition and Reduction of Sharia Index Constituents

Authors: Rosyidah, Permata Wulandari

Abstract:

We investigate the price effect of addition and deletions from the Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI) and Jakarta Islamic Index (JII). Using event study methodology, we measure abnormal returns for firms over the period June 2019 - to December 2021. Through the sample of 107 additions and 95 deletions, we find evidence to support the theory of Muslim country investment behavior. We find that additions to the Islamic index led to a significant positive stock market reaction and deletions to the Islamic index led to a negative stock market reaction on Jakarta Islamic Index (JII) and there is no significant reaction of addition and deletion on Indonesia Sharia Stock Index (ISSI).

Keywords: abnormal return, abnormal volume, event study, index changes, sharia index

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
3506 A Dynamic Model for Circularity Assessment of Nutrient Recovery from Domestic Sewage

Authors: Anurag Bhambhani, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek, Zoran Kapelan

Abstract:

The food system depends on the availability of Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen (N). Growing population, depleting Phosphorus reserves and energy-intensive industrial nitrogen fixation are threats to their future availability. Recovering P and N from domestic sewage water offers a solution. Recovered P and N can be applied to agricultural land, replacing virgin P and N. Thus, recovery from sewage water offers a solution befitting a circular economy. To ensure minimum waste and maximum resource efficiency a circularity assessment method is crucial to optimize nutrient flows and minimize losses. Material Circularity Indicator (MCI) is a useful method to quantify the circularity of materials. It was developed for materials that remain within the market and recently extended to include biotic materials that may be composted or used for energy recovery after end-of-use. However, MCI has not been used in the context of nutrient recovery. Besides, MCI is time-static, i.e., it cannot account for dynamic systems such as the terrestrial nutrient cycles. Nutrient application to agricultural land is a highly dynamic process wherein flows and stocks change with time. The rate of recycling of nutrients in nature can depend on numerous factors such as prevailing soil conditions, local hydrology, the presence of animals, etc. Therefore, a dynamic model of nutrient flows with indicators is needed for the circularity assessment. A simple substance flow model of P and N will be developed with the help of flow equations and transfer coefficients that incorporate the nutrient recovery step along with the agricultural application, the volatilization and leaching processes, plant uptake and subsequent animal and human uptake. The model is then used for calculating the proportions of linear and restorative flows (coming from reused/recycled sources). The model will simulate the adsorption process based on the quantity of adsorbent and nutrient concentration in the water. Thereafter, the application of the adsorbed nutrients to agricultural land will be simulated based on adsorbate release kinetics, local soil conditions, hydrology, vegetation, etc. Based on the model, the restorative nutrient flow (returning to the sewage plant following human consumption) will be calculated. The developed methodology will be applied to a case study of resource recovery from wastewater. In the aforementioned case study located in Italy, biochar or zeolite is to be used for recovery of P and N from domestic sewage through adsorption and thereafter, used as a slow-release fertilizer in agriculture. Using this model, information regarding the efficiency of nutrient recovery and application can be generated. This can help to optimize the recovery process and application of the nutrients. Consequently, this will help to optimize nutrient recovery and application and reduce the dependence of the food system on the virgin extraction of P and N.

Keywords: circular economy, dynamic substance flow, nutrient cycles, resource recovery from water

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3505 Comparison of the H-Index of Researchers of Google Scholar and Scopus

Authors: Adian Fatchur Rochim, Abdul Muis, Riri Fitri Sari

Abstract:

H-index has been widely used as a performance indicator of researchers around the world especially in Indonesia. The Government uses Scopus and Google scholar as indexing references in providing recognition and appreciation. However, those two indexing services yield to different H-index values. For that purpose, this paper evaluates the difference of the H-index from those services. Researchers indexed by Webometrics, are used as reference’s data in this paper. Currently, Webometrics only uses H-index from Google Scholar. This paper observed and compared corresponding researchers’ data from Scopus to get their H-index score. Subsequently, some researchers with huge differences in score are observed in more detail on their paper’s publisher. This paper shows that the H-index of researchers in Google Scholar is approximately 2.45 times of their Scopus H-Index. Most difference exists due to the existence of uncertified publishers, which is considered in Google Scholar but not in Scopus.

Keywords: Google Scholar, H-index, Scopus, performance indicator

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3504 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

Authors: P. Góes, J. Manzi

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, entropy, reactive

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3503 Relationships between Actors within Business Ecosystems That Adopt Circular Strategies: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Sophia Barquete, Adriana H. Trevisan, Janaina Mascarenhas

Abstract:

The circular economy (CE) aims at the cycling of resources through restorative and regenerative strategies. To achieve circularity, coordination of several actors who have different responsibilities is necessary. The interaction among multiple actors allows the connection between the CE and business ecosystem research fields. Although fundamental, the relationships between actors within an ecosystem to foster circularity are not deeply explored in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the possibilities of cooperation, competition, or even coopetition among the members of business ecosystems that adopt circular strategies. In particular, the motivations that make these actors interact to achieve a circular economy were investigated. A systematic literature review was adopted to select business ecosystem cases that adopt circular strategies. As a result, several motivations were identified for actors to engage in relationships within ecosystems, such as sharing knowledge and infrastructure, developing products with a circular design, promoting reverse logistics, among others. The results suggest that partnerships between actors are, in fact, important for the implementation of circular strategies. In order to achieve a complete and circular solution, actors must be able to clearly understand their roles and relationships within the network so that they can establish new partnerships or reframe those already established.

Keywords: business ecosystem, circular economy, cooperation, coopetition, competition

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
3502 An Efficiency Measurement of E-Government Performance for United Nation Ranking Index

Authors: Yassine Jadi, Lin Jie

Abstract:

In order to serve the society in an electronic manner, many developing countries have launched tremendous e-government projects. The strategies of development and implementation e-government system have reached different levels, and to ensure consistency of development, the governments need to evaluate e-government performance. The United nation has design e-government development ranking index (EGDI) that rely on three indexes, Online service index (OSI), Telecommunication Infrastructure index (TII), and human capital index( HCI) which are not reflecting the interaction between a government and their citizens. Based on data envelopment analyses (DEA) technique, we are using E-participating index (EPI) as an output of government effort to evaluate the performance of e-government system. Therefore, the ranking index can be achieved in efficiency manner.

Keywords: e-government, DEA, efficiency measurement, EGDI

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
3501 Eccentric Connectivity Index, First and Second Zagreb Indices of Corona Graph

Authors: A. Kulandai Therese

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The eccentric connectivity index based on degree and eccentricity of the vertices of a graph is a widely used graph invariant in mathematics.In this paper, we present the explicit eccentric connectivity index, first and second Zagreb indices for a Corona graph and sub division-related corona graphs.

Keywords: corona graph, degree, eccentricity, eccentric connectivity index, first zagreb index, second zagreb index, subdivision graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
3500 The Circularity of Re-Refined Used Motor Oils: Measuring Impacts and Ensuring Responsible Procurement

Authors: Farah Kanani

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Blue Tide Environmental is a company focused on developing a network of used motor oil recycling facilities across the U.S. They initiated the redesign of its recycling plant in Texas, and aimed to establish an updated carbon footprint of re-refined used motor oils compared to an equivalent product derived from virgin stock that is not re-refined. The aim was to quantify emissions savings of a circular alternative to conventional end-of-life combustion of used motor oil (UMO). To do so, they mandated an ISO-compliant carbon footprint, utilizing complex models requiring geographical and temporal accuracy to accommodate the U.S. refinery market. The quantification of linear and circular flows, proxies for fuel substitution and system expansion for multi-product outputs were all critical methodological choices and were tested through sensitivity analyses. The re-refined system consisted of continuous recycling of UMO and thus, end-of-life is considered non-existent. The unique perspective to this topic will be from a life cycle i.e. holistic one and essentially demonstrate using this example of how a cradle-to-cradle model can be used to quantify a comparative carbon footprint. The intended audience is lubricant manufacturers as the consumers, motor oil industry professionals and other industry members interested in performing a cradle-to-cradle modeling.

Keywords: circularity, used motor oil, re-refining, systems expansion

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3499 Brainwave Classification for Brain Balancing Index (BBI) via 3D EEG Model Using k-NN Technique

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

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In this paper, the comparison between k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) algorithms for classifying the 3D EEG model in brain balancing is presented. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 51 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, maximum PSD values were extracted as features from the model. There are three indexes for the balanced brain; index 3, index 4 and index 5. There are significant different of the EEG signals due to the brain balancing index (BBI). Alpha-α (8–13 Hz) and beta-β (13–30 Hz) were used as input signals for the classification model. The k-NN classification result is 88.46% accuracy. These results proved that k-NN can be used in order to predict the brain balancing application.

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, kNN

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
3498 Quality of Age Reporting from Tanzania 2012 Census Results: An Assessment Using Whipple’s Index, Myer’s Blended Index, and Age-Sex Accuracy Index

Authors: A. Sathiya Susuman, Hamisi F. Hamisi

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Background: Many socio-economic and demographic data are age-sex attributed. However, a variety of irregularities and misstatement are noted with respect to age-related data and less to sex data because of its biological differences between the genders. Noting the misstatement/misreporting of age data regardless of its significance importance in demographics and epidemiological studies, this study aims at assessing the quality of 2012 Tanzania Population and Housing Census Results. Methods: Data for the analysis are downloaded from Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Age heaping and digit preference were measured using summary indices viz., Whipple’s index, Myers’ blended index, and Age-Sex Accuracy index. Results: The recorded Whipple’s index for both sexes was 154.43; male has the lowest index of about 152.65 while female has the highest index of about 156.07. For Myers’ blended index, the preferences were at digits ‘0’ and ‘5’ while avoidance were at digits ‘1’ and ‘3’ for both sexes. Finally, Age-sex index stood at 59.8 where sex ratio score was 5.82 and age ratio scores were 20.89 and 21.4 for males and female respectively. Conclusion: The evaluation of the 2012 PHC data using the demographic techniques has qualified the data inaccurate as the results of systematic heaping and digit preferences/avoidances. Thus, innovative methods in data collection along with measuring and minimizing errors using statistical techniques should be used to ensure accuracy of age data.

Keywords: age heaping, digit preference/avoidance, summary indices, Whipple’s index, Myer’s index, age-sex accuracy index

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3497 The Research of Weights Identify of Harbin Ecological Security Evaluation Index Based on AHP

Authors: Rong Guo, Mengshi Huang, Yujing Bai

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With the rapid development of urbanization, the urban population increases and urban sprawl appeared. And these issues led to a sharp deterioration of the ecological environment. So, the urban ecological security evaluation was imminent. The weights identify of index was a key step of the research of ecological security evaluation. The AHP was widely used in the extensive research of weights identify of ecological security index. The characteristics of authority and quantitative can fully reflect the views of relevant experts. On the basis of building the ecological security evaluation index of Harbin, the paper combed and used the basic principle of the AHP, and calculated the weights of Harbin ecological security evaluation index through the process of the expert opinions “summary-feedback-summary”. And lay a foundation of future study of Harbin ecological security index, and guide the quantitative evaluation of Harbin ecological security.

Keywords: AHP, ecological security, evaluation Index, weights identify, harbin

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3496 On Estimating the Headcount Index by Using the Logistic Regression Estimator

Authors: Encarnación Álvarez, Rosa M. García-Fernández, Juan F. Muñoz, Francisco J. Blanco-Encomienda

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The problem of estimating a proportion has important applications in the field of economics, and in general, in many areas such as social sciences. A common application in economics is the estimation of the headcount index. In this paper, we define the general headcount index as a proportion. Furthermore, we introduce a new quantitative method for estimating the headcount index. In particular, we suggest to use the logistic regression estimator for the problem of estimating the headcount index. Assuming a real data set, results derived from Monte Carlo simulation studies indicate that the logistic regression estimator can be more accurate than the traditional estimator of the headcount index.

Keywords: poverty line, poor, risk of poverty, Monte Carlo simulations, sample

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3495 Comparative Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Modular Timber Construction and Assembly Typologies

Authors: Benjamin Goldsmith, Felix Heisel

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The building industry must reduce its emissions in order to meet 2030 neutrality targets, and modular and/or offsite construction is seen as an alternative to conventional construction methods which could help achieve this goal. Modular construction has previously been shown to be less wasteful and has a lower global warming potential (GWP). While many studies have been conducted investigating the life cycle impacts of modular and conventional construction, few studies have compared different types of modular assembly and construction in order to determine which offer the greatest environmental benefits over their whole life cycle. This study seeks to investigate three different modular construction types -infill frame, core, and podium- in order to determine environmental impacts such as GWP as well as circularity indicators. The study will focus on the emissions of the production, construction, and end-of-life phases. The circularity of the various approaches will be taken into consideration in order to acknowledge the potential benefits of the ability to reuse and/or reclaim materials, products, and assemblies. The study will conduct hypothetical case studies for the three different modular construction types, and in doing so, control the parameters of location, climate, program, and client. By looking in-depth at the GWP of the beginning and end phases of various simulated modular buildings, it will be possible to make suggestions on which type of construction has the lowest global warming potential.

Keywords: modular construction, offsite construction, life cycle analysis, global warming potential, environmental impact, circular economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
3494 Compression Index Estimation by Water Content and Liquid Limit and Void Ratio Using Statistics Method

Authors: Lizhou Chen, Abdelhamid Belgaid, Assem Elsayed, Xiaoming Yang

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Compression index is essential in foundation settlement calculation. The traditional method for determining compression index is consolidation test which is expensive and time consuming. Many researchers have used regression methods to develop empirical equations for predicting compression index from soil properties. Based on a large number of compression index data collected from consolidation tests, the accuracy of some popularly empirical equations were assessed. It was found that primary compression index is significantly overestimated in some equations while it is underestimated in others. The sensitivity analyses of soil parameters including water content, liquid limit and void ratio were performed. The results indicate that the compression index obtained from void ratio is most accurate. The ANOVA (analysis of variance) demonstrates that the equations with multiple soil parameters cannot provide better predictions than the equations with single soil parameter. In other words, it is not necessary to develop the relationships between compression index and multiple soil parameters. Meanwhile, it was noted that secondary compression index is approximately 0.7-5.0% of primary compression index with an average of 2.0%. In the end, the proposed prediction equations using power regression technique were provided that can provide more accurate predictions than those from existing equations.

Keywords: compression index, clay, settlement, consolidation, secondary compression index, soil parameter

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3493 The Threshold Values of Soil Water Index for Landslides on Country Road No.89

Authors: Ji-Yuan Lin, Yu-Ming Liou, Yi-Ting Chen, Chen-Syuan Lin

Abstract:

Soil water index obtained by tank model is now commonly used in soil and sand disaster alarm system in Japan. Comparing with the rainfall trigging index in Taiwan, the tank model is easy to predict the slope water content on large-scale landslide. Therefore, this study aims to estimate the threshold value of large-scale landslide using the soil water index Sixteen typhoons and heavy rainfall events, were selected to establish the, to relationship between landslide event and soil water index. Finally, the proposed threshold values for landslides on country road No.89 are suggested in this study. The study results show that 95% landslide cases occurred in soil water index more than 125mm, and 30% of the more serious slope failure occurred in the soil water index is greater than 250mm. Beside, this study speculates when soil water index more than 250mm and the difference value between second tank and third tank less than -25mm, it leads to large-scale landslide more probably.

Keywords: soil water index, tank model, landslide, threshold values

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3492 A Novel Spectral Index for Automatic Shadow Detection in Urban Mapping Based on WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

Authors: Kaveh Shahi, Helmi Z. M. Shafri, Ebrahim Taherzadeh

Abstract:

In remote sensing, shadow causes problems in many applications such as change detection and classification. It is caused by objects which are elevated, thus can directly affect the accuracy of information. For these reasons, it is very important to detect shadows particularly in urban high spatial resolution imagery which created a significant problem. This paper focuses on automatic shadow detection based on a new spectral index for multispectral imagery known as Shadow Detection Index (SDI). The new spectral index was tested on different areas of World-View 2 images and the results demonstrated that the new spectral index has a massive potential to extract shadows effectively and automatically.

Keywords: spectral index, shadow detection, remote sensing images, World-View 2

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
3491 The Assessment of the Comparative Efficiency of Reforms through the Integral Index of Transformation

Authors: Samson Davoyan, Ashot Davoyan, Ani Khachatryan

Abstract:

The indexes (Global Competitiveness Index, Economic Freedom Index, Human Development Index, etc.) developed by different international and non-government organizations in time and space express the quantitative and qualitative features of different fields of various reforms implemented in different countries. The main objective of our research is to develop new methodology that we will use to create integral index based on many indexes and that will include many areas of reforms. To achieve our aim we have used econometric methods (regression model for panel data method). The basis of our methodology is the development of the new integral index based on quantitative assessment of the change of two main parameters: the score of the countries by different indexes and the change of the ranks of countries for following two periods of time. As a result of the usage of methods for analyzes we have defined the indexes that are used to create the new integral index and the scales for each of them. Analyzing quantitatively and qualitatively analysis through the integral index for more than 100 countries for 2009-2014, we have defined comparative efficiency that helps to conclude in which directions countries have implemented reforms more effectively compared to others and in which direction reforms have implemented less efficiently.

Keywords: development, rank, reforms, comparative, index, economic, corruption, social, program

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3490 Embracing Circular Economy: Unlocking Sustainable Growth in Emerging Markets

Authors: Mario Jose Paillacho Silva, José Ángel Pérez López

Abstract:

This article delves into the critical role of circular economy principles in unlocking sustainable growth and addressing environmental inequalities in emerging markets. Circular economy practices, rooted in regenerative systems and resource conservation, offer a transformative pathway for dynamic economies to achieve prosperity while minimizing environmental impact. The article comprehensively explores the understanding of the circular economy in emerging markets, emphasizing its economic benefits, social implications, and environmental advantages. It highlights key challenges and opportunities faced by these markets and emphasizes the crucial role of governments in creating supportive policy frameworks. It emphasizes how circular economy practices empower local communities and promote social inclusion and equality. Furthermore, the article underscores how the adoption of circular economy practices can mitigate waste, pollution, and resource scarcity, thus contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Integrating circular economy principles with the United Nations' sustainable development goals (SDGs), the article showcases the potential of circularity in fostering responsible consumption and production, sustainable economic growth, and environmental protection. Overall, the article advocates for cross-sector collaboration and knowledge sharing to overcome barriers and scale circular economy practices in emerging markets, ultimately leading to a more equitable, prosperous, and environmentally sustainable future.

Keywords: circular economy, sustainability, emerging markets, circularity

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3489 Sustainability Index for REDD-Plus Implementation in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Authors: Febrina Natalia, Noriyuki Tanaka, Mitsuru Osaki

Abstract:

Sustainability Index for REDD-plus implementation was constructed to evaluate the sustainability of different communities in 5 villages (Taruna Jaya, Tumbang Nusa, Marang, Terantang, and Seragam Jaya) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia based on the main objectives of REDD-plus project (reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation, increasing carbon stock, preserving biodiversity and sustaining forest management). This index was separately composed of 3 different components; (1) ecology, (2) economy, and (3) society. The index of sustainability was determined into four categories; 3,3-4,0 (excellent), 2,5-3,2 (good), 1,8-2,4 (fair), and 1,0-1,7 (poor). Overall, this technique aims to assist all stakeholders and local government in particular in providing information of villages’ sustainability index before implementing REDD-plus project that the assistance and benefits given to villages will be beneficial, effective and efficient.

Keywords: central kalimantan, Indonesia, REDD-plus, sustainability index

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
3488 Discrimination between Defective and Non-Defective Coffee Beans Using a Laser Prism Spectrometer

Authors: A. Belay, B. Kebede

Abstract:

The concentration- and temperature-dependent refractive indices of solutions extracted from defective and non-defective coffee beans have been investigated using a He–Ne laser. The refractive index has a linear relationship with the presumed concentration of the coffee solutions in the range of 0.5–3%. Higher and lower values of refractive index were obtained for immature and non-defective coffee beans, respectively. The Refractive index of bean extracts can be successfully used to separate defective from non-defective beans.

Keywords: coffee extract, refractive index, temperature dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 131