Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6365

Search results for: glass ceramic materials

6365 Influence of Milled Waste Glass to Clay Ceramic Foam Properties Made by Direct Foaming Route

Authors: A. Shishkin, V. Mironovs, D. Goljandin, A. Korjakins

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to develop sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using widely available natural resources- clay and milled waste glass. Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) with addition of milled waste glass in 5, 7 and 10 wt% by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). For more efficient clay and waste glass milling and mixing, the high velocity disintegrator was used. The CCF with 5, 7, and 10 wt% were obtained at 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 °C firing temperature and they have demonstrated mechanical compressive strength for all 12 samples ranging from 3.8 to 14.3 MPa and porosity 76-65%. Obtained CCF has compressive strength 14.3 MPa and porosity 65.3%.

Keywords: ceramic foam, waste glass, clay foam, glass foam, open cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
6364 Reducing the Chemical Activity of Ceramic Casting Molds for Producing Decorated Glass Moulds

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz

Abstract:

Ceramic molding can produce castings with fine detail, smooth surface and high degree of dimensional accuracy. All these features are the key factors for producing decorated glass moulds. In the ceramic mold casting process, the fundamental parameters affecting the mold-metal reactions are the composition and the properties of the refractory materials used in the production of ceramic mold. As a result of the reactions taking place between the liquid metal and mold surface, it is not possible to achieve a perfect surface quality, a fine surface detail and maintain a high standard dimensional tolerances. The present research examines the effects of the binder composition on the structural and physical properties of the zircon ceramic mold. In the experiment, the ceramic slurry was prepared by mixing the refractory powders (zircon(ZrSiO4), mullit(3Al2O32SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3)) with the low alkaline silica (ethyl silicate (C8H20O4Si)) and acidic type gelling material suitable binder and gelling agent. This was followed by pouring that ceramic slurry on to a silicon pattern. After being gelled, the mold was removed from the silicon pattern and dried. Then, the ceramic mold was subjected to the reaction sintering at 1600°C for 2 hours in the furnace. The stainless steel (SS) was cast into the sintered ceramic mold. At the end of this process it was observed that the surface quality of decorated glass mold.

Keywords: ceramic mold, stainless steel casting, decorated glass mold

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
6363 Ceramic Glazes from Recycled Bottle Glass

Authors: Suraphan Rattanavadi

Abstract:

This research was a study based on an application of used glass in producing glaze on ceramics. The aim was to identify the factors in the production process that affected ceramic product property when used glass was applied as the ceramic glaze. The study factors included appropriate materials, appropriate temperature used in fusion process, percentage of water absorption, fluidity, crazing and appropriate proportion in glaze production by Biaxial Blend Technique and use of oxide in glaze coloring both on test and real product. The test of fluidity revealed that the glazes number 15 and 16 had appropriate fluidity ratio for use as basic glaze. When each glaze was mixed with oxide at different proportion, it was discovered that the glaze number 16 showed glossy brown with beautiful but not clear crazing, due to its dark shade. This was from the mixture of kaolin and pieces of glass at the ratio of 1:3 (kaolin : pieces of glass), affecting at 10% with iron oxide. When 0.5% of copper carbonate and 0.1% of tin oxide were added, the result was the glaze with glossy, Muzo emerald (green- blue) color with beautiful and clear crazing. Lastly, 0.4% of cobalt carbonate was added, ending in the glaze with glossy, bright blue with beautiful but not clear, due to its dark shade.

Keywords: glaze, recycled, bottle glass, ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
6362 Pick and Place System for Dip Glaze Using PID Controller

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri

Abstract:

Glazes ceramics are ceramic materials produced through controlled crystallization of a parent glass. The great variety of compositions and the possibility of developing special micro structures with specific technological properties have allowed glass ceramic materials to be used in a wide range of applications. At the same time, glazes ceramics need to improvement in the mechanical and chemical properties of glazed. The pick and place station is equipped with a three-axis module. test piece housings placed on the vacuum are detected module picks up a test piece insert from the slide and places it on the test piece housing. Overall, glazes ceramics are compared with automatically and manually of speed and position control. The handling modules of automatic transfer are a new generation of high speed and precision then these color results from absorption and thickness than manual is also included.

Keywords: glaze, PID control, pick and place, ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
6361 Studies on Distribution of the Doped Pr3+ Ions in the LaF3 Based Transparent Oxyfluoride Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Biswajit Pal, Amit Mallik, Anil K. Barik

Abstract:

Current years have witnessed a phenomenal growth in the research on the rare earth-doped transparent host materials, the essential components in optoelectronics that meet up the increasing demand for fabrication of high quality optical devices especially in telecommunication system. The combination of low phonon energy (because of fluoride environment) and high chemical durability with superior mechanical stability (due to oxide environment) makes the oxyfluoride glass–ceramics the promising and useful materials in optoelectronics. The present work reports on the undoped and doped (1 mol% Pr2O3) glass ceramics of composition 16.52 Al2O3•1.5AlF3• 12.65LaF3•4.33Na2O•64.85 SiO2 (mol%), prepared by melting technique initially that follows annealation at 450 ºC for 1 h. The glass samples so obtained were heat treated at constant 600 ºC with a variation in heat treatment schedule (10- 80 h). TEM techniques were employed to structurally characterize the glass samples. Pr2O3 affects the phase separation in the glass and delays the onset of crystallization in the glass ceramic. The modified crystallization mechanism is established from the analysis of advanced STEM/EDXS results. The phase separated droplets after annealing turn into 10-20 nm of LaF3 nano crystals those upon scrutiny are found to be dotted with the doped Pr3+ ions within the crystals themselves. The EDXS results also suggest that the inner LaF3 crystal core is swallowed by an Al enriched layer that follows a Si enriched surrounding shell as the outer core. This greatly increases the viscosity in the periphery of the crystals that restricts further crystal growth to account for the formation of nano sized crystals.

Keywords: advanced STEM/EDXS, crystallization mechanism, nano crystals, pr3+ ion doped glass and glass ceramic, structural characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
6360 Effect of BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ Glass Additive on Structural and Dielectric Properties of BaTiO₃ Ceramics

Authors: El Mehdi Haily, Lahcen Bih, Mohammed Azrour, Bouchaib Manoun

Abstract:

The effects of xBi₂O₃-yBaO-zP₂O₅ (BBP) glass addition on the sintering, structural, and dielectric properties of BaTiO₃ ceramic (BT) are studied. The BT ceramic was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction method while the glasses BaO-Bi₂O₃-P₂O₅ (BBP) were elaborated by melting and quenching process. Different composites BT-xBBP were formed by mixing the BBP glasses with BT ceramic. For each glass composition, where the ratio (x:y:z) is maintained constant, we have developed three composites with different glass weight percentage (x = 2.5, 5, and 7.5 wt %). Addition of the glass helps in better sintering at lower temperatures with the presence of liquid phase at the respective sintering temperatures. The results showed that the sintering temperature decreased from more than 1300°C to 900°C. Density measurements of the composites are performed using the standard Archimedean method with water as medium liquid. It is found that their density and molar volume decrease and increase with glass content, respectively. Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize their structural approach. This technique has allowed the identification of different structural units of phosphate and the characteristic vibration modes of the BT. The electrical properties of the composite samples are carried out by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz under various temperatures from 300 to 473 K. The obtained results show that their dielectric properties depend both on the content of the glass in the composite and the Bi/P ratio in the glasses.

Keywords: phosphate, glasses, composite, Raman spectroscopy, dielectric properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
6359 Vitrification and Devitrification of Chromium Containing Tannery Ash

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Kaimakamis, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vourlias, Konstantinos Chrysafis, Philomela Komninou, Theodoros Karakostas

Abstract:

Tannery industry produces high quantities of chromium containing waste which also have high organic content. Processing of this waste is important since the organic content is above the disposal limits and the containing trivalent chromium could be potentially oxidized to hexavalent in the environment. This work aims to fabricate new vitreous and glass ceramic materials which could incorporate the tannery waste in stabilized form either for safe disposal or for the production of useful materials. Tannery waste was incinerated at 500oC in anoxic conditions so most of the organic content would be removed and the chromium remained trivalent. Glass forming agents SiO2, Na2O and CaO were mixed with the resulting ash in different proportions with decreasing ash content. Considering the low solubility of Cr in silicate melts, the mixtures were melted at 1400oC and/or 1500oC for 2h and then casted on a refractory steel plate. The resulting vitreous products were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM and TEM). XRD reveals the existence of Cr2O3 (eskolaite) crystallites embedded in a glassy amorphous matrix. Such crystallites are not formed under a certain proportion of the waste in the ash-vitrified material. Reduction of the ash proportion increases chromium content in the silicate matrix. From these glassy products, glass-ceramics were produced via different regimes of thermal treatment.

Keywords: chromium containing tannery ash, glass ceramic materials, thermal processing, vitrification

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6358 Chemical and Oxygen Isotope Analysis of Roman Glasses from Northern Greece

Authors: P. Karalis, E. Dotsika, A. Godelitsas, M. Tassi, D. Ignatiadou

Abstract:

Glass artefacts originated from Northern Greece, dated between 1st and 6th AC, were analyzed for their oxygen isotopic and chemical compositions in order to identify their raw materials provenance. The chemical composition of these glasses is rather heterogeneous although they are all obtained with natron as flux, having both K₂O and MgO contents lower than 1.5 wt%. The majority of these samples have a homogeneous oxygen isotopic composition (𝛿18O= 16‰,), which is equal to or very close to the mean value of “Roman” glass (from about 15‰ to 16.0‰). The rest of the samples present heavily enriched 𝛿18O values that indicate that their raw materials differ from those normally used in Roman and Medieval glass production, and this matches with the possibility of the different origins of these materials. So, all these fragments are soda-lime-silica natron-glass produced from natron, possibly coming from more than one source.

Keywords: ancient glass, provenance of raw materials of ancient glass, roman glass, oxygen isotope analysis in glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
6357 Application of Ultrasonic Assisted Machining Technique for Glass-Ceramic Milling

Authors: S. Y. Lin, C. H. Kuan, C. H. She, W. T. Wang

Abstract:

In this study, ultrasonic assisted machining (UAM) technique is applied in side-surface milling experiment for glass-ceramic workpiece material. The tungsten carbide cutting-tool with diamond coating is used in conjunction with two kinds of cooling/lubrication mediums such as water-soluble (WS) cutting fluid and minimum quantity lubricant (MQL). Full factorial process parameter combinations on the milling experiments are planned to investigate the effect of process parameters on cutting performance. From the experimental results, it tries to search for the better process parameter combination which the edge-indentation and the surface roughness are acceptable. In the machining experiments, ultrasonic oscillator was used to excite a cutting-tool along the radial direction producing a very small amplitude of vibration frequency of 20KHz to assist the machining process. After processing, toolmaker microscope was used to detect the side-surface morphology, edge-indentation and cutting tool wear under different combination of cutting parameters, and analysis and discussion were also conducted for experimental results. The results show that the main leading parameters to edge-indentation of glass ceramic are cutting depth and feed rate. In order to reduce edge-indentation, it needs to use lower cutting depth and feed rate. Water-soluble cutting fluid provides a better cooling effect in the primary cutting area; it may effectively reduce the edge-indentation and improve the surface morphology of the glass ceramic. The use of ultrasonic assisted technique can effectively enhance the surface finish cleanness and reduce cutting tool wear and edge-indentation.

Keywords: glass-ceramic, ultrasonic assisted machining, cutting performance, edge-indentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
6356 Production of Composite Materials by Mixing Chromium-Rich Ash and Soda-Lime Glass Powder: Mechanical Properties and Microstructure

Authors: Savvas Varitis, Panagiotis Kavouras, George Vourlias, Eleni Pavlidou, Theodoros Karakostas, Philomela Komninou

Abstract:

A chromium-loaded ash originating from incineration of tannery sludge under anoxic conditions was mixed with low grade soda-lime glass powder coming from commercial glass bottles. The relative weight proportions of ash over glass powder tested were 30/70, 40/60 and 50/50. The solid mixtures, formed in green state compacts, were sintered at the temperature range of 800oC up to 1200oC. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) and micro-indentation. The above methods were employed to characterize the various phases, microstructure and hardness of the produced materials. Thermal treatment at 800oC and 1000oC produced opaque ceramic products composed of a variety of chromium-containing and chromium-free crystalline phases. Thermal treatment at 1200oC gave rise to composite products, where only chromium-containing crystalline phases were detected. Hardness results suggest that specific products are serious candidates for structural applications. Acknowledgement: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program “Education and Lifelong Learning” of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) – Research Funding Program: THALES “WasteVal”: Reinforcement of the interdisciplinary and/or inter-institutional research and innovation.

Keywords: chromium-rich tannery residues, glass-ceramic materials, mechanical properties, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
6355 Liquid-Liquid Transitions in Strontium Tellurite Melts

Authors: Rajinder Kaur, Atul Khanna

Abstract:

Transparent glass-ceramic and crystalline samples of the system: xSrO-(100-x)TeO2; x = 7.5 and 8.5 mol% were prepared by quenching the melts in the temperature range of 700 to 950oC. A very interesting effect of the temperature on the glass-forming ability (GFA) of strontium tellurite melts is observed,and it is found that the melts produce transparent glass-ceramics when it is solidified from lower temperatures in the range of 700-750oC, however, when the melts are cooled from higher temperatures in the range of 850-950oC, the GFA is significantly reduced andanti-glass and/or crystalline phases are produced on solidification.The effect of temperature on GFA of strontium tellurite melts is attributed to short-range structural transformations: TeO₄TeO₃ which procceds towards the right side with an increrase in temperature. This isomerization reaction lowers the melt viscosity and enhances the crystallization tedendency. It is concluded that the high-temperature strontium tellurite meltsfreeze faster into crystalline phases as compared to the melts at a lower temperature; the latter supercooland solidify into glassy phases.

Keywords: anti-glasss, ceramic, supercool liquid, raman spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
6354 A New Investigation Technique for Improvement of the Cullet for Pottery Glaze

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri

Abstract:

This research is experiment glaze from use cullet that is broken decayed from the used such as, glass bottle, windshield , etc. For seek raw material compensation that is raw material of the glaze in ceramic. The objective of the research for study the ratio of the glaze that is appropriate for glaze ceramic products and evaluate the experiment glaze on the vitreous china. The experiment has limits in using ceramic process such as, using calculation formula with triaxial, the empirical formula’s of Seger, and formula calculation is the percentage of the compound. for choose formula has will the possibility for glaze on vitreous china. The experiments in 108 triaxial can choose best formula and calculate is be left just 6 a formula for the calculation. The calculation is the percentage of the raw materials. Find that, three formulas in six formula there is percentage amount of the raw material that is cullet has the amount the little more 10 percentages then repeated experiment just three formulas. Overall, this research have three formulas for used its and we get all processes achieved and well done.

Keywords: cullet, glaze, pottery, ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
6353 3D Writing on Photosensitive Glass-Ceramics

Authors: C. Busuioc, S. Jinga, E. Pavel

Abstract:

Optical lithography is a key technique in the development of sub-5 nm patterns for the semiconductor industry. We have already reported that the best results obtained with respect to direct laser writing process on active media, such as glass-ceramics, are achieved only when the energy of the laser radiation is absorbed in discrete quantities. Further, we need to clarify the role of active centers concentration in silver nanocrystals natural generation, as well as in fluorescent rare-earth nanostructures formation. As a consequence, samples with different compositions were prepared. SEM, AFM, TEM and STEM investigations were employed in order to demonstrate that few nm width lines can be written on fluorescent photosensitive glass-ceramics, these being efficient absorbers. Moreover, we believe that the experimental data will lead to the best choice in terms of active centers amount, laser power and glass-ceramic matrix.

Keywords: glass-ceramics, 3D laser writing, optical disks, data storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
6352 Mineral Thermal Insulation Materials Based on Sodium Liquid Glass

Authors: Zin Min Htet, Tikhomirova Irina Nikolaevna, Karpenko Marina A.

Abstract:

In this paper, thermal insulation materials based on sodium liquid glass with light fillers as foam glass granules with different sizes and wollastonite - M325 (U.S.A production) were studied. Effective mineral thermal insulation materials are in demand in many industries because of their incombustibility and durability. A method for the preparation of such materials based on mechanically foamed sodium liquid glass and light mineral fillers is proposed. The thermal insulation properties depend on the type, amount of filler and on the foaming factor, which is determined by the concentration of the foaming agent. The water resistance of the material is provided by using an additive to neutralize the glass and transfer it to the silica gel.

Keywords: thermal insulation material, sodium liquid glass, foam glass granules, foaming agent, hardener, thermal conductivity, apparent density, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
6351 Mechanical Tests and Analyzes of Behaviors of High-Performance of Polyester Resins Reinforced With Unifilo Fiberglass

Authors: Băilă Diana Irinel, Păcurar Răzvan, Păcurar Ancuța

Abstract:

In the last years, composite materials are increasingly used in automotive, aeronautic, aerospace, construction applications. Composite materials have been used in aerospace in applications such as engine blades, brackets, interiors, nacelles, propellers/rotors, single aisle wings, wide body wings. The fields of use of composite materials have multiplied with the improvement of material properties, such as stability and adaptation to the environment, mechanical tests, wear resistance, moisture resistance, etc. The composite materials are classified concerning type of matrix materials, as metallic, polymeric and ceramic based composites and are grouped according to the reinforcement type as fibre, obtaining particulate and laminate composites. Production of a better material is made more likely by combining two or more materials with complementary properties. The best combination of strength and ductility may be accomplished in solids that consist of fibres embedded in a host material. Polyester is a suitable component for composite materials, as it adheres so readily to the particles, sheets, or fibres of the other components. The important properties of the reinforcing fibres are their high strength and high modulus of elasticity. For applications, as in automotive or in aeronautical domain, in which a high strength-to-weight ratio is important, non-metallic fibres such as fiberglass have a distinct advantage because of their low density. In general, the glass fibres content varied between 9 to 33% wt. in the composites. In this article, high-performance types of composite materials glass-epoxy and glass-polyester used in automotive domain will be analyzed, performing tensile and flexural tests and SEM analyzes.

Keywords: glass-polyester composite, glass fibre, traction and flexion tests, SEM analyzes

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
6350 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
6349 Influence of Fluorine Concentration and Sintering Temperature on the Bioactivity of Apatite-Wollastonite Glass-Ceramics

Authors: Andualem Belachew Workie

Abstract:

In a spray pyrolysis process, apatite-Wollastonite glass-ceramics (AW GC) were fabricated with the composition 8.29MgO_50.09-x CaO_34.46SiO2_7.16P2O5_xCaF₂, where x = 0, 0.54, and 5.24 (wt. %). Based on the results, it appears that the CaF2 addition lowers the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallization temperature (Tc) of the glasscomposition. In addition, AW GC's bioactivity increases as the soaking time in simulated body fluid (SBF) increases. Adding CaF₂ and varying sintering temperatures altered the density and linear shrinkage percentage of the samples. The formation of fluorapatite with needle-like microstructure and the formation of the wollastonite phase was enhanced with higher CaF2 content, while the growth of the whitlockite phase took place at a higher heat treatment temperature. Adding high CaF₂ content with high sintering temperatures to apatite Wollastonite glass-ceramic composition facilitates the formation of fluorapatite, which is crucial for denture glass-ceramics.

Keywords: apatite-wollastonite glass ceramics, bioactivity, hydroxyapatite, calcium fluoride

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
6348 Nano Ceramics Materials in Clean Rooms: Properties and Characterization

Authors: HebatAllah Tarek, Zeyad El-Sayad, Ali F. Bakr

Abstract:

Surface coating can permit the bulk materials to remain unchanged, whereas the surface functionality is engineered to afford a more required characteristic. Nano-Ceramic coatings are considered ideal coatings on materials that can significantly improve the surface properties, including anti-fouling, self-cleaning, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, anti-scratch, waterproof, anti-acid rain and anti-asphalt. Furthermore, various techniques have been utilized to fabricate a range of different ceramic coatings with more desirable properties on Nano-ceramics, which make the materials usually used in in-service environments and worth mentioning that the practical part of this study will be applied in one of the most important architectural applications due to the contamination-free conditions provided by it in the manufacturing industry. Without cleanrooms, products will become contaminated and either malfunction or infect people with bacteria. Cleanrooms are used for the manufacture of items used in computers, cars, airplanes, spacecraft, televisions, disc players and many other electronic and mechanical devices, as well as the manufacture of medicines, medical devices, and foods. The aim of this study will be to examine the Nano-ceramics on porcelain and glass panels. The investigation will be included fabrications, methods, surface properties and applications in clean rooms. The unfamiliarity in this study is using Nano-ceramics in clean rooms instead of using them on metallic materials.

Keywords: nano-ceramic coating, clean rooms, porcelain, surface properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
6347 XANES Studies on the Oxidation States of Copper Ion in Silicate Glass

Authors: R. Buntem, K. Samkongngam

Abstract:

The silicate glass was prepared using rice husk as the source of silica. The base composition of glass sample is composed of SiO2 (from rice husk ash), Na2CO3, K2CO3, ZnO, H3BO3, CaO, Al2O3 or Al, and CuO. Aluminum is used in place of Al2O3 in order to reduce Cu2+ to Cu+. The red color of Cu2O in the glass matrix was observed when the Al was added into the glass mixture. The expansion coefficients of the copper doped glass are in the range of 1.2 x 10-5-1.4x10-5 (ºC -1) which is common for the silicate glass. The finger prints of the bond vibrations were studied using IR spectroscopy. While the oxidation state and the coordination information of the copper ion in the glass matrix were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the data, Cu+ and Cu2+ exist in the glass matrix. The red particles of Cu2O can be formed in the glass matrix when enough aluminum was added.

Keywords: copper in glass, coordination information, silicate glass, XANES spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
6346 An Investigation of Raw Material Effects on Nano SiC Based Foam Glass Production

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Yasemin Kilic, Abdulkadir Sari, Burcu Duymaz, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is an innovative material which composed of glass and carbon/carbonate based minerals; and has incomparable properties like light weight, high thermal insulation and cellular structure with sufficient rigidity. In the present study, the effects of the glass type and mineral addition on the foam glass properties were investigated. Nano sized SiC was fixed as foaming agent at the whole of the samples, mixed glass waste and sheet glass were selectively used as glass sources; finally Al₂O₃ was optionally used as mineral additive. These raw material powders were mixed homogenously, pressed at same pressure and sintered at same schedule. Finally, obtained samples were characterized based on the required properties of foam glass material, and optimum results were determined. At the end of the study, 0.049 W/mK thermal conductivity, 72 % porosity, and 0.21 kg/cm² apparent density with 2.41 MPa compressive strength values were achieved with using nano sized SiC, sheet glass and Al₂O₃ mineral additive. It can be said that the foam glass materials can be preferred as an alternative insulation material rather than polymeric based conventional insulation materials because of supplying high thermal insulation properties without containing unhealthy chemicals and burn risks.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, silicon carbide, waste glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
6345 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method

Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj

Abstract:

Two Lithium disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through glass melting method and then fabricated into dental crowns via hot pressing at 850˚C and 900˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on theirs phase formation and microstructure. The factor such as heat treatment temperature (as-cast glass, 600˚C and 700˚C) of the glass ceramics used to press was also investigated the effect of an initial microstructure before pressing. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. X-ray diffraction result shows that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F, SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formation but have less effect during pressing. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed microstructure of lath-like of Li2Si2O5 in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by hot pressing and compiled microstructure.

Keywords: lithium disilicate, hot pressing, dental crown, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
6344 To Optimise the Mechanical Properties of Structural Concrete by Partial Replacement of Natural Aggregates by Glass Aggregates

Authors: Gavin Gengan, Hsein Kew

Abstract:

Glass from varying recycling processes is considered a material that can be used as aggregate. Waste glass is available from different sources and has been used in the construction industry over the last decades. This current study aims to use recycled glass as a partial replacement for conventional aggregate materials. The experimental programme was designed to optimise the mechanical properties of structural concrete made with recycled glass aggregates (GA). NA (natural aggregates) was partially substituted by GA in a mix design of concrete of 30N/mm2 in proportions of 10%, 20%, and 25% 30%, 40%, and 50%. It was found that with an increasing proportion of GA, there is a decline in compressive strength. The optimum percentage replacement of NA by GA is 25%. The heat of hydration was also investigated with thermocouples placed in the concrete. This revealed an early acceleration of hydration heat in glass concrete, resulting from the thermal properties of glass. The gain in the heat of hydration and the better bonding of glass aggregates together with the pozzolanic activity of the finest glass particles caused the concrete to develop early age and long-term strength higher than that of control concrete

Keywords: concrete, compressive strength, glass aggregates, heat of hydration, pozzolanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
6343 Optical and Surface Characteristics of Direct Composite, Polished and Glazed Ceramic Materials After Exposure to Tooth Brush Abrasion and Staining Solution

Authors: Maryam Firouzmandi, Moosa Miri

Abstract:

Aim and background: esthetic and structural reconstruction of anterior teeth may require the application of different restoration material. In this regard combination of direct composite veneer and ceramic crown is a common treatment option. Despite the initial matching, their long term harmony in term of optical and surface characteristics is a matter of concern. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare optical and surface characteristic of direct composite polished and glazed ceramic materials after exposure to tooth brush abrasion and staining solution. Materials and Methods: ten 2 mm thick disk shape specimens were prepared from IPS empress direct composite and twenty specimens from IPS e.max CAD blocks. Composite specimens and ten ceramic specimens were polished by using D&Z composite and ceramic polishing kit. The other ten specimens of ceramic were glazed with glazing liquid. Baseline measurement of roughness, CIElab coordinate, and luminance were recorded. Then the specimens underwent thermocycling, tooth brushing, and coffee staining. Afterword, the final measurements were recorded. Color coordinate were used to calculate ΔE76, ΔE00, translucency parameter, and contrast ratio. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and post hoc LSD test. Results: baseline and final roughness of the study group were not different. At baseline, the order of roughness for the study group were as follows: composite < glazed ceramic < polished ceramic, but after aging, no difference. Between ceramic groups was not detected. The comparison of baseline and final luminance was similar to roughness but in reverse order. Unlike differential roughness which was comparable between the groups, changes in luminance of the glazed ceramic group was higher than other groups. ΔE76 and ΔE00 in the composite group were 18.35 and 12.84, in the glazed ceramic group were 1.3 and 0.79, and in polished ceramic were 1.26 and 0.85. These values for the composite group were significantly different from ceramic groups. Translucency of composite at baseline was significantly higher than final, but there was no significant difference between these values in ceramic groups. Composite was more translucency than ceramic at baseline and final measurement. Conclusion: Glazed ceramic surface was smoother than polished ceramic. Aging did not change the roughness. Optical properties (color and translucency) of the composite were influenced by aging. Luminance of composite, glazed ceramic, and polished ceramic decreased after aging, but the reduction in glazed ceramic was more pronounced.

Keywords: ceramic, tooth-brush abrasion, staining solution, composite resin

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
6342 Experimental Investigation on High Performance Concrete with Silica Fume and Ceramic Waste

Authors: P. Vinayagam, A. Madhanagopal

Abstract:

This experimental investigation focuses on the study of the strength of concrete with ceramic waste as coarse aggregate. It is not a new concept of using alternate materials for aggregates. Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. The ceramic waste from ceramic and construction industries is a major contribution to construction demolition waste (CDW), representing a serious environmental, technical, and economical problem of today’s society. The major sources of ceramic waste are ceramic industry, building construction and building demolition. In ceramic industries, a significant part of the losses in the manufacturing of ceramic elements is not returned to the production process. In building construction, ceramic waste is produced during transportation to the building site, on the execution of several construction elements and on subsequent works. This waste is regionally deposited in dumping grounds, without any separation or reuse. In this study an attempt has been made to find the suitability of the ceramic industrial wastes as a possible replacement for conventional crushed stone coarse aggregate in high performance concrete. In this study, glazed stoneware pipe waste was used as coarse aggregates. In this investigation, physical properties of ceramic waste coarse aggregates were studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the strength of high performance concrete with silica fume and ceramic stoneware pipe waste coarse aggregate of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% different replacement ratios in comparison with those of corresponding conventional concrete mixes.

Keywords: ceramic waste, coarse aggregate replacement, glazed stoneware pipe waste, silica fume

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
6341 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma

Abstract:

The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
6340 Utilization of Waste Crushed Tile as Coarse Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Harkaranjit Singh, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Depletion of natural resources is a common phenomenon in developing countries like India due to rapid urbanization and industrialization involving construction of infrastructure and other amenities. In view of this, people have started searching for suitable other viable alternative materials for concrete so that the existing natural resources could be preserved to the possible extent for the future generation. In this process, different industrial waste materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, quarry dust, tile waste, bricks, broken glass waste, waste aggregate from demolition of structures, ceramic insulator waste, etc. have been tried as a viable substitute material to the conventional materials in concrete and has also been succeeded. This paper describes the studies conducted on strength characteristics of concrete made with utilizing of crushed tiles as a coarse aggregate. The waste crushed tiles can be used as coarse aggregates with the replacement ratio of 0, 50, 75 and 100% were used. Mechanical and physical tests were conducted on specimens. It was found that, the concrete made of waste ceramic tile aggregate produced more strength in compression, and flexure.

Keywords: compressive strength, flexural strength, waste crushed tile, concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
6339 An Investigation of Foam Glass Production from Sheet Glass Waste and SiC Foaming Agent

Authors: Aylin Sahin, Recep Artir, Mustafa Kara

Abstract:

Foam glass is a remarkable material with having incomparable properties like low weight, rigidity, high thermal insulation capacity and porous structure. In this study, foam glass production was investigated with using glass powder from sheet glass waste and SiC powder as foaming agent. Effects of SiC powders and sintering temperatures on foaming process were examined. It was seen that volume expansions (%), cellular structures and pore diameters of obtained foam glass samples were highly depending on composition ratios and sintering temperature. The study showed that various foam glass samples having with homogenous closed porosity, low weight and low thermal conductivity were achieved by optimizing composition ratios and sintering temperatures.

Keywords: foam glass, foaming, waste glass, silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
6338 Procedure for Impact Testing of Fused Recycled Glass

Authors: David Halley, Tyra Oseng-Rees, Luca Pagano, Juan A Ferriz-Papi

Abstract:

Recycled glass material is made from 100% recycled bottle glass and consumes less energy than re-melt technology. It also uses no additives in the manufacturing process allowing the recycled glass material, in principal, to go back to the recycling stream after end-of-use, contributing to the circular economy with a low ecological impact. The aim of this paper is to investigate the procedure for testing the recycled glass material for impact resistance, so it can be applied to pavements and other surfaces which are at risk of impact during service. A review of different impact test procedures for construction materials was undertaken, comparing methodologies and international standards applied to other materials such as natural stone, ceramics and glass. A drop weight impact testing machine was designed and manufactured in-house to perform these tests. As a case study, samples of the recycled glass material were manufactured with two different thicknesses and tested. The impact energy was calculated theoretically, obtaining results with 5 and 10 J. The results on the material were subsequently discussed. Improvements on the procedure can be made using high speed video technology to calculate velocity just before and immediately after the impact to know the absorbed energy. The initial results obtained in this procedure were positive although repeatability needs to be developed to obtain a correlation of results and finally be able to validate the procedure. The experiment with samples showed the practicality of this procedure and application to the recycled glass material impact testing although further research needs to be developed.

Keywords: construction materials, drop weight impact, impact testing, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
6337 Influence of Recycled Glass Content on the Properties of Concrete and Mortar

Authors: Bourmatte Nadjoua, Houari Hacène

Abstract:

The effect of replacement of fine aggregates with recycled glass on the fresh and hardened properties of concrete and mortar is studied. Percentages of replacement are 0–25% and 50% of aggregates with fine waste glass to produce concrete and percentage of replacement of 100% to produce mortar. As a result of the conducted study, the slump flow increased with the increase of recycled glass content. On the other hand, the compressive strength and tensile strength of recycled glass mixtures were decreased with the increase in the recycled glass content. The results showed that recycled glass aggregate can successfully be used with limited level for producing concrete. Mortar based on glass shows a compressive strength with 50% lower than that of control mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, concrete, mortar, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
6336 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.

Keywords: ceramic raw material, energy saving stove, stove design, performance of stove, stove for stew coconut sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 281