Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 43

Search results for: eco-friendly

43 Development of Ecofriendly Ionic Liquid Modified Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Determination of Anti-Hyperlipidemic Drugs

Authors: Hassan M. Albishri, Fatimah Al-Shehri, Deia Abd El-Hady

Abstract:

Among the analytical techniques, reverse phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) is currently used in pharmaceutical industry. Ecofriendly analytical chemistry offers the advantages of decreasing the environmental impact with the advantage of increasing operator safety which constituted a topic of industrial interest. Recently, ionic liquids have been successfully used to reduce or eliminate the conventional organic toxic solvents. In the current work, a simple and ecofriendly ionic liquid modified RPLC (IL-RPLC) method has been firstly developed and compared with RPLC under acidic and neutral mobile phase conditions for simultaneous determination of atorvastatin-calcium, rosuvastatin and simvastatin. Several chromatographic effective parameters have been changed in a systematic way. Adequate results have been achieved by mixing ILs with ethanol as a mobile phase under neutral conditions at 1 mL/min flow rate on C18 column. The developed IL-RPLC method has been validated for the quantitative determination of drugs in pharmaceutical formulations. The method showed excellent linearity for analytes in a wide range of concentrations with acceptable precise and accurate data. The current IL-RPLC technique could have vast applications particularly under neutral conditions for simple and greener (bio)analytical applications of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: ionic liquid, RPLC, anti-hyperlipidemic drugs, ecofriendly

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42 Simple Ecofriendly Cyclodextrine-Surfactant Modified UHPLC Method for Quantification of Multivitamins in Pharmaceutical and Food Samples

Authors: Hassan M. Albishri, Abdullah Almalawi, Deia Abd El-Hady

Abstract:

A simple and ecofriendly cyclodextrine-surfactant modified UHPLC (CDS-UPLC) method for rapid and sensitive simultaneous determination of multi water-soluble vitamins such as ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride and thiamine hydrochloride in commercial pharmaceuticals and milk samples have been firstly developed. Several chromatographic effective parameters have been changed in a systematic way. Adequate results have been achieved by a mixture of β-cyclodextrine (β-CD) and cationic surfactant under acidic conditions as an eco-friendly isocratic mobile phase at 0.02 mL/min flow rate. The proposed CDS- UHPLC method has been validated for the quantitative determination of multivitamins within 8 min in food and pharmaceutical samples. The method showed excellent linearity for analytes in a wide range of 10-1000 ng/µL. The repeatability and reproducibility of data were about 2.14 and 4.69 RSD%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of analytes ranged between 0.86 and 5.6 ng/µL with a range of 81.8 -115.8% recoveries in tablets and milk samples. The current first CDS- UHPLC method could have vast applications for the precise analysis of multivitamins in complicated matrices.

Keywords: ecofriendly, cyclodextrine-surfactant, multivitamins, UHPLC

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41 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari

Abstract:

In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: biocomposite, biosorption, cadmium, non-linear analysis, ultrasound

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40 HCIO4-SiO2 Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-A]Indazole-Triones

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani, Tayebe Heidari-Rakati

Abstract:

An environmentally benign protocol for the one-pot, three-component synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by condensation of dimedone, urazole and aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by HClO4/SiO2 NPS as an ecofriendly catalyst with high catalytic activity and reusability at 100 ºC under solvent-free conditions is reported. The reaction proceeds to completion within 20-30 min in 77-86 % yield.

Keywords: one-pot reaction, dimedone, triazoloindazole, urazole

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39 Bioremediation of Sewage Sludge Contaminated with Fluorene Using a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant

Authors: X. Vecino, J. M. Cruz, A. Moldes

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The disposal and the treatment of sewage sludge is an expensive and environmentally complex problem. In this work, a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor was used as ecofriendly and cost-competitive alternative for the mobilization and bioremediation of fluorene in sewage sludge. Results have demonstrated that this biosurfactant has the capability to mobilize fluorene to the aqueous phase, reducing the amount of fluorene in the sewage sludge from 484.4 mg/Kg up to 413.7 mg/Kg and 196.0 mg/Kg after 1 and 27 days respectively. Furthemore, once the fluorene was extracted the lipopeptide biosurfactant contained in the aqueous phase allowed the bio-degradation, up to 40.5 % of the initial concentration of this polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.

Keywords: fluorene, lipopeptide biosurfactant, mobilization, sewage sludge

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38 Ecolabelling : Normative Power or Corporate Strategy? : A Study Case of Textile Company in Indonesia

Authors: Suci Lestari Yuana, Shofi Fatihatun Sholihah, Derarika Ensta Jesse

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Textile is one of buyer-driven industry which rely on label trust from the consumers. Most of textile manufacturers produce textile and textile products based on consumer demands. The company’s policy is highly depend on the dynamic evolution of consumers behavior. Recently, ecofriendly has become one of the most important factor of western consumers to purchase the textile and textile product (TPT) from the company. In that sense, companies from developing countries are encouraged to follow western consumers values. Some examples of ecolabel certificate are ISO (International Standard Organisation), Lembaga Ekolabel Indonesia (Indonesian Ecolabel Instution) and Global Ecolabel Network (GEN). The submission of national company to international standard raised a critical question whether this is a reflection towards the legitimation of global norms into national policy or it is actually a practical strategy of the company to gain global consumer. By observing one of the prominent textile company in Indonesia, this research is aimed to discuss what kind of impetus factors that cause a company to use ecolabel and what is the meaning behind it. Whether it comes from normative power or the strategy of the company. This is a qualitative research that choose a company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia as a case study in explaining the pratice of ecolabelling by textitle company. Some deep interview is conducted with the company in order to get to know the ecolabelling process. In addition, this research also collected some document which related to company’s ecolabelling process and its impact to company’s value. The finding of the project reflected issues that concerned several issues: (1) role of media as consumer information (2) role of government and non-government actors as normative agency (3) role of company in social responsibility (4) the ecofriendly consciousness as a value of the company. As we know that environmental norms that has been admitted internationally has changed the global industrial process. This environmental norms also pushed the companies around the world, especially the company in Sukoharjo, Central Java, Indonesia to follow the norm. The neglection toward the global norms will remained the company in isolated and unsustained market that will harm the continuity of the company. So, in buyer-driven industry, the characteristic of company-consumer relations has brought a fast dynamic evolution of norms and values. The creation of global norms and values is circulated by passing national territories or identities.

Keywords: ecolabeling, waste management, CSR, normative power

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37 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

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36 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

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Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

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35 A Comparative Laboratory Evaluation of Efficacy of Two Fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Acremonium perscinum, on Dichomeris eridantis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae, an Important Pest of Dalbergia sissoo

Authors: Gunjan Srivastava, Shamila Kalia

Abstract:

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., (Family- Leguminosae; Subfamily- Papilionoideae), is an economically and ecologically important tree species having medicinal value. Of the rich complex of insect fauna, ten have been recognized as potential pests of nurseries and plantations. Present study was conducted to explore an effective ecofriendly control of Dichomeris eridantis Meyrick, an important defoliator pest of D. sissoo. Health and environmental concerns demanded devising a bio-intensive pest management strategy and employing ecofriendly measures. In the present laboratory bioassay two entomopathogenic fungi Acremonium perscinum and Beauveria bassiana were tested and compared for evaluating the efficacy of their seven different concentrations (besides control) against the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of D. eridantis, on the basis of mean percent mortality data recorded and tabulated for seven days after treatment application. Analysis showed that both treatments vary significantly among themselves. Also, variations amongst instars and duration with respect to their mortality were highly significant (p < .001). All their interactions were found to vary significantly. B. bassiana at 0.25x107 spores / ml spore concentration caused maximum mean percent mortality (62.38%) followed by mean percent mortality at its 0.25x106 spores / ml concentration (56.67%). Mean percent mortality at maximum spore concentration (0.054x107 spores / ml) and next highest spore concentration (0.054 x106 spores / ml) due to A. perscinum treatment were far less effective (mean percent mortality of 45.40% and 31.29%, respectively). At 168 hours mean percent mortality of larval instars due to both fungal treatment applications reached its maximum (52.99%) whereas, at 24 hours mean percent mortality remained least (5.70%). In both cases, treatments were most effective against 3rd instar larvae and least effective against 5th instar larvae. A comparative acccount of efficacy of B. bassiana and A. perscinum on the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of D. eridantis on 5th, 6th and 7th post treatment observation days after their application, on the basis of their median lethal concentrations (LC50) proved B. bassiana to be more potential microbial pathogen of the two fungal microbes, for all the three instars (3rd, 4th and 5th) of D. eridantis, on all the three days (5th, 6th and 7th post observation days after application of both treatments). Percent mortality of D. eridantis increased in a dose dependent manner. Koch’s Postulates tested positive, thus confirming the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against the larval instars of D. eridantis. LC90 values of 0.280x1011 spores/ml, 0.301x108 spores/ml and 0.262x108 spores/ml concentrations of B. bassiana were standardized which can effectively cause mortality of all the larval instars of D. eridantis in the field after 5th, 6th and 7th day of their application, respectively. Therefore, these concentrations can be safely used in nurseries as well as plantations of D. sissoo for effective control of D. eridantis larvae.

Keywords: Acremonium perscinum, Beauveria bassiana, Dalbergia sissoo, Dichomeris eridantis

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34 Enhancement of Building Sustainability by Using Environment-Friendly Material

Authors: Rina Yadav, Meng-Ting Tsai

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In the present scenario, sustainable buildings are in high demand. The essential decision for building sustainability is made during the design and preconstruction stages. Main objective of this study is reduction of unfavorable environmental impacts, which is a major cause of global warming. Based on this problem, to diminish the environmental hazards, present research study is applied to provide a guideline to designer that will be useful for material selection stage of designing. This can be achieved by using local available materials such as wood, mud, bamboos instead of cement, steel, concrete by reducing carbon dioxide emission. Energy simulation will be analyzed by software to get the comparable result. It will be encouraging and motivational for designer while using ecofriendly material to achieve points in Leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) in green rating system.

Keywords: sustainability design, lead rating, LEED, building performance analyses

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
33 Effect of Runup over a Vertical Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater and Quarter Circle Pile Supported Caisson Breakwater

Authors: T. J. Jemi Jeya, V. Sriram

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Pile Supported Caisson breakwater is an ecofriendly breakwater very useful in coastal zone protection. The model is developed by considering the advantages of both caisson breakwater and pile supported breakwater, where the top portion is a vertical or quarter circle caisson and the bottom portion consists of a pile supported breakwater defined as Vertical Pile Supported Breakwater (VPSCB) and Quarter-circle Pile Supported Breakwater (QPSCB). The study mainly focuses on comparison of run up over VPSCB and QPSCB under oblique waves. The experiments are carried out in a shallow wave basin under different water depths (d = 0.5 m & 0.55 m) and under different oblique regular waves (00, 150, 300). The run up over the surface is measured by placing two run up probes over the surface at 0.3 m on both sides from the centre of the model. The results show that the non-dimensional shoreward run up shows slight decrease with respect to increase in angle of wave attack.

Keywords: Caisson breakwater, pile supported breakwater, quarter circle breakwater, vertical breakwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
32 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye

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Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, ecofriendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
31 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo

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For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

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30 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

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This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

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29 Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nano Particles Using Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Extract and Its Application for Solar Cell

Authors: Prasanta Sutradhar, Mitali Saha

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With an increasing awareness of green and clean energy, zinc oxide based solar cells were found to be suitable candidates for cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy conversion devices. In this work, we have reported the green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) by thermal method and under microwave irradiation using the aqueous extract of tomatoes as non-toxic and ecofriendly reducing material. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infra-red spectroscopy (IR), particle size analyser (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X- ray diffraction study (XRD). A series of ZnO nanocomposites with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) and graphene oxide (GO) were prepared for photovoltaic application. Structural and morphological studies of these nanocomposites were carried out using UV-vis, SEM, XRD, and AFM. The current-voltage measurements of the nanocomposites demonstrated enhanced power conversion efficiency of 6.18% in case of ZnO/GO/TiO2 nanocomposite.

Keywords: ZnO, green synthesis, microwave, nanocomposites, I-V characteristics

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28 Extraction of Colorant and Dyeing of Gamma Irradiated Viscose Using Cordyline terminalis Leaves Extract

Authors: Urvah-Til-Vusqa, Unsa Noreen, Ayesha Hussain, Abdul Hafeez, Rafia Asghar, Sidrat Nasir

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Natural dyes offer an alternative better application in textiles than synthetic ones. The present study will be aimed to employ natural dye extracted from Cordyline terminalis plant and its application into viscose under the influence of gamma radiations. The colorant extraction will be done by boiling dracaena leaves powder in aqueous, alkaline and ethyl acetate mediums. Both dye powder and fabric will be treated with different doses (5-20 kGy) of gamma radiations. The antioxidant, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities of the extracts will also be determined. Different tests of fabric characterization (before and after radiations treatment) will be employed. Dyeing variables just as time, temperature and M: L will be applied for optimization. Standard methods for ISO to evaluate color fastness to light, washing and rubbing will be employed for improvement of color strength 1.5-15.5% of Al, Fe, Cr, and Cu as mordants will be employed through pre, post and meta mordanting. Color depth % & L*, a*, b* and L*, C*, h values will be recorded using spectra flash SF650.

Keywords: natural dyes, gamma radiations, Cordyline terminalis, ecofriendly dyes

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27 Influence of Stacking Sequence on Properties of Sheep-Wool/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: G. B. Manjunatha

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Natural fibers have been considerable demand in recent years due to their ecofriendly and renewable nature. The advantages of low density, acceptable specific properties, better thermal and insulate properties with low cost.In the present study, hybrid composite associating Sheep wool fiber and glass fiber reinforced with epoxy were developed and investigated the effect of stacking sequence on physical and chemical properties. The hybrid composite was designed for engineering applications as an alternative material to glass fiber composites. The hybrid composite laminates were fabricated by using hand lay-up technique at total fiber volume fraction of 60% (Sheep wool fiber 30% and Glass fiber 30%) and 40% reinforcement. The specimen preparation and testing were conducted as per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. Three different stacking are used. The result shows that tensile and bending tests of sequence of glass fiber between sheep wool fiber have high strength and maximum bending compared to other sequence of composites. At the same time better moisture and chemical absorption were observed.

Keywords: hybrid composites, mechanical properties, polymer composites, stacking sequence

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26 Properties of Bio-Phenol Formaldehyde Composites Filled with Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

Authors: Sharifah Nabihah Syed Jaafar, Umar Adli Amran, Rasidi Roslan, Chia Chin Hua, Sarani Zakaria

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Bio-composites derived from plant fiber and bio-derived polymer, are likely more ecofriendly and demonstrate competitive performance with petroleum based. In this research, the green phenolic resin was used as a matrix and oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) was used as filler. The matrix was synthesized from soda lignin, phenol and hydrochloric acid as a catalyst. The phenolic resin was synthesized via liquefaction and condensation to enhance the combination of phenol during the process. Later, the phenolic resin was mixed with EFB by using mechanical stirrer and was molded with hot press at 180 oC. In this research, the composites were prepared with EFB content of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The samples that viewed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the EFB filler remained embedded in the resin. From impact and hardness testing, samples 10% of EFB showed the optimum properties meanwhile sample 15% showed the optimum properties for flexural testing. Thermal stability of the composites was investigated using thermogravimetric (TGA) analysis and found that the weight loss and the activation energy (Ea) of the composites samples were decreased as the filler content increased.

Keywords: EFB, liquefaction, phenol formaldehyde, lignin

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25 Pre and Post Mordant Effect of Alum on Gamma Rays Assisted Cotton Fabric by Using Ipomoea indica Leaves Extract

Authors: Abdul Hafeez, Shahid Adeel, Ayesha Hussain

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There are number of plants species in the universe which give the protections from different diseases and give colour for the foods and textiles. The environmental condition of the universe suggested toward the ecofriendly textiles. The aim of the paper is to analyze the influence of pre & post mordanting of alum on radiated cotton fabric with Gamma Radiation of different doses by using Ipomoea indica leaves extract. Alum used as mordant with the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% as pre and post mordanting to observe the effect of light and colour fastness of radiated cotton. 6% of alum concentration in pre mordanting gave good colour strength 117.82 with darker in shade toward the greenish tone and in post mordanting 6% concentration gave good colour strength 102.19. The lab values show that the colour is darker in tone and gave bluish effect. Further results showed that alum gave good light and rubbing fastness on gamma radiated cotton fabric.

Keywords: Ipomoea indica, gamma radiation, alum, light fastness

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24 Nanoderma: Ecofriendly Nano Biofungicides for Controlling Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Authors: Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam, Alexei R. Khokhlov

Abstract:

Studies on bioefficacy (in vitro and in vivo) and mode of action of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt and Russia might assist in the goal of sustainable agriculture. To our knowledge, few researchers have evaluated the combined antimicrobial effect of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) with bioorganic pesticides for controlling plant pathogens in the greenhouse and open field, decontrol investigated synergistic effect. In the current project, we will develop eco-friendly alternative management strategies including the use of heavy nanometal-tolerant Trichoderma strains and the main effective material in conventional fungicides (curpic, sulfur, phosphorus and zinc) for controlling plant diseases. Studies on bioefficacy and the mechanism of the nanocides against the most important plant diseases in Egypt were evaluated. There is a growing need to establish mechanisms of action for nano bio and/or fungicides to assist the design of new compounds or combinations of compounds, in order to understand resistance mechanisms and to provide a focus for toxicological attention. Nanofungicides represent an emerging technological development that could offer a range of benefits including increased efficacy, durability, and a reduction in the amounts of active ingredients that need to be used.

Keywords: biohybrids, biocides, bioagent, plant pathogenic fungi

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23 Evaluation of Eco Cement as a Stabilizer of Clayey Sand

Authors: Jeeja Menon, M. S. Ravikumar

Abstract:

With the advent of green technology and the concept of zero energy buildings, there is an emerging trend in the utilization of indigenous materials like soil as a construction material. However, fine soils like clays and sand have undesirable properties and stabilization of these soils is essential before it is used to develop a building unit. Eco cement or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS), a waste byproduct formed during the manufacture of iron has cementitious properties and has the potential of replacing cement which is the most common stabilizer used for improving the geotechnical properties of soil. This paper highlights the salient observations obtained by the investigations into the effect of GGBS as a stabilizer for clayey sand. The index and engineering properties of the soil on the addition of different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 5% & 6% of the dry weight of the soil) of GGBS are tested to arrive at the optimum binder content. The criteria chosen for evaluation are the unconfined compressive strength values of different soil- binder composition. The test results indicate that there are significant strength improvements by the addition of GGBS in the soil, and the optimum GGBS content was determined as 5%. Moreover, utilizing waste binders for developing an ecofriendly, less energy induced building units as well as for stabilizing soil will also contribute to the solid waste management, which is the current environmental crisis of the world.

Keywords: eco cement, GGBS, index properties, stabilization, unconfined compressive strength

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22 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao

Abstract:

Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

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21 Experimental Study on Strength and Durability Properties of Bio-Self-Cured Fly Ash Based Concrete under Aggressive Environments

Authors: R. Malathy

Abstract:

High performance concrete is not only characterized by its high strength, workability, and durability but also by its smartness in performance without human care since the first day. If the concrete can cure on its own without external curing without compromising its strength and durability, then it is said to be high performance self-curing concrete. In this paper, an attempt is made on the performance study of internally cured concrete using biomaterials, namely Spinacea pleracea and Calatropis gigantea as self-curing agents, and it is compared with the performance of concrete with existing self-cure chemical, namely polyethylene glycol. The present paper focuses on workability, strength, and durability study on M20, M30, and M40 grade concretes replacing 30% of fly ash for cement. The optimum dosage of Spinacea pleracea, Calatropis gigantea, and polyethylene glycol was taken as 0.6%, 0.24%, and 0.3% by weight of cement from the earlier research studies. From the slump tests performed, it was found that there is a minimum variation between conventional concrete and self-cured concrete. The strength activity index is determined by keeping compressive strength of conventionally cured concrete for 28 days as unity and observed that, for self-cured concrete, it is more than 1 after 28 days and more than 1.15 after 56 days because of secondary reaction of fly ash. The performance study of concretes in aggressive environment like acid attack, sea water attack, and chloride attack was made, and the results are positive and encouraging in bio-self-cured concretes which are ecofriendly, cost effective, and high performance materials.

Keywords: bio materials, Calatropis gigantea, self curing concrete, Spinacea oleracea

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20 Antifeedant Activity of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) (Asteraceae) Extracts against Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Tarun Kumar Vats, Sanjiv Mullick, Vagisha Rawal, Ashok Kumar Singh

Abstract:

Antifeedant activity of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of powdered leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) was evaluated against the last instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.), an oligophagous pest of Crucifer crops. Cauliflower leaf discs treated with different concentrations of extracts were provided to last instar larvae in both no-choice and choice bioassays under the standard laboratory conditions. All three extracts showed antifeedant effects in both the test conditions. In no-choice condition, hexane extract was found to significantly reduce the leaf area consumption at all the tested concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%). Also, aqueous and methanol extracts significantly reduced the leaf area consumption at different concentrations (P<0.05). In choice tests, effect of aqueous extract was significantly higher at 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations as compared to control. However, significant activities of methanol and hexane extracts were recorded even at lowest concentrations of 1% (P < 0.05). Complete feeding inhibition of larvae was observed at 2% concentration of hexane extract. Antifeedant index values (AFI) obtained were found to increase in a dose dependent manner, i.e. higher the concentration, more the activity. The results clearly indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extracts for its use in the integrated management of P. xylostella, which will be ecofriendly and sustainable.

Keywords: ageratum conyzoides, plutella xylostella, crucifer, antifeedant index

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19 Oxyhydrogen Gas (HHO) as Replacement to Gasoline Fuel

Authors: Rishabh Pandey, Umang Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

In today’s era of technological advancement, we come across incalculable innovations, almost every day. No doubt that the society has developed a lot in learning and technology, but we should also take into account the problems and inflictions that are occurring. Focusing on the petroleum sector a trending global concern is toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions. It is well known that gasoline is non-renewable source of energy and its burning produces harmful emissions which are adversely affecting the environment, such issues are motivating us to seek alternative solutions that would not require much modification in engine design and help us come out with an outcome. Keeping in mind the importance of environment and human race, we present a factious idea of use of oxyhydrogen gas or HHO gas in place of gasoline in the vehicles and petroleum industry. This technology is prospering, highly efficient, could be used economically and safe, and it will be responsible for changing the future of oil and gas sector in accordance with protection to the environment. In the coming future, we will check the compatibility of HHO generator with fuel engine for production of oxyhydrogen gas with use of water and effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. We will also work on the comparison of HHO gas and commercially available gasoline fuel in support of their chemical structures; ignition rate; octane rating; knocking properties; storage; transportation and cost effectiveness and it is trusted that use of HHO gas will be ecofriendly as no harmful emissions are produced, rather the only emission is water. Additionally, this paper will include the use of HHO cell in fuel engines and challenges faced in installing it in the current period and provide effective solutions for the same.

Keywords: fuel, gas, generator, water

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18 Effect of Microwave Radiations on Natural Dyes’ Application on Cotton

Authors: Rafia Asghar, Abdul Hafeez

Abstract:

The current research was related with natural dyes’ extraction from the powder of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark and studied characterization of this dye under microwave radiation’s influence. Both cotton fabric and dyeing powder were exposed to microwave rays for different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) using conventional oven. Aqueous, 60% Methanol and Ethyl Acetate solubilized extracts obtained from Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark were also exposed to different time intervals (2minutes, 4 minutes, 6 minutes, 8 minutes and 10 minutes) of microwave rays exposure. Pre, meta and post mordanting with Alum (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10%) was done to improve color strength of the extracted dye. Exposure of Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark extract and cotton to microwave rays enhanced the extraction process and dyeing process by reducing extraction time, dyeing time and dyeing temperature. Microwave rays treatment had a very strong influence on color fastness and color strength properties of cotton that was dyes using Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for 30 minutes and dyeing cotton with that Neem bark extract for 75 minutes at 30°C. Among pre, meta and post mordanting, results indicated that 5% concentration of Alum in meta mordanting exhibited maximum color strength.

Keywords: dyes, natural dyeing, ecofriendly dyes, microwave treatment

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17 Application of Biopolymer for Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Simulated Effluent: A Green Method for Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rabiya, Ramkrishna Sen

Abstract:

The textile industry releases huge volume of effluent containing reactive dyes in the nearby water bodies. These effluents are significant source of water pollution since most of the dyes are toxic in nature. Moreover, it scavenges the dissolved oxygen essential to the aquatic species. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the dye effluent before it is discharged in the nearby water bodies. The present study focuses on removing the basic dye methylene blue from simulated wastewater using biopolymer. The biopolymer was partially purified from the culture of Bacillus licheniformis by ultrafiltration. Based on the elution profile of the biopolymer from ion exchange column, it was found to be a negatively charged molecule. Its net anionic nature allows the biopolymer to adsorb positively charged molecule, methylene blue. The major factors which influence the removal of dye by the biopolymer such as incubation time, pH, initial dye concentration were evaluated. The methylene blue uptake by the biopolymer is more (14.84 mg/g) near neutral pH than in acidic pH (12.05mg/g) of the water. At low pH, the lower dissociation of the dye molecule as well as the low negative charge available on the biopolymer reduces the interaction between the biopolymer and dye. The optimum incubation time for maximum removal of dye was found to be 60 min. The entire study was done with 25 mL of dye solution in 100 mL flask at 25 °C with an amount of 11g/L of biopolymer. To study the adsorption isotherm, the dye concentration was varied in the range of 25mg/L to 205mg/L. The dye uptake by the biopolymer against the equilibrium concentration was plotted. The plot indicates that the adsorption of dye by biopolymer follows the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R-square 0.99). Hence, these studies indicate the potential use of biopolymer for the removal of basic dye from textile wastewater in an ecofriendly and sustainable way.

Keywords: biopolymer, methylene blue dye, textile industry, wastewater

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16 Prospects in Development of Ecofriendly Biopesticides in Management of Postharvest Fungal Deterioration of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz)

Authors: Anderson Chidi Amadioha, Promise Chidi Kenkwo, A. A. Markson

Abstract:

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food and cash crop that provide cheap source of carbohydrate for food, feed and raw material for industries hence a commodity for feature economic development of developing countries. Despite the importance, its production potentials is undermined by disease agents that greatly reduce yield and render it unfit for human consumption and industrial use. Pathogenicity tests on fungal isolates from infected cassava revealed Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Trichodderma viride as rot-causing organisms. Water and ethanol extracts of Piper guineense, Ocimum graticimum, Cassia alata, and Tagetes erecta at 50% concentration significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogens in vitro and their development and spread in vivo. Low cassava rot incidence and severity was recorded when the extracts were applied before than after spray inoculating with spore suspension (1x105 spores/ml of distilled water) of the pathogenic organisms. The plant materials are readily available, and their extracts are biodegradable and cost effective. The fungitoxic potentials of extracts of these plant materials could be exploited as potent biopesticides in the management of postharvest fungal deterioration of cassava especially in developing countries where synthetic fungicides are not only scarce but also expensive for resource poor farmers who produce over 95% of the food consumed.

Keywords: cassava, biopesticides, in vitro, in vivo, pathogens, plant extracts

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15 Green Synthesized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: A Nano-Nutrient for the Growth and Enhancement of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Plant

Authors: G. Karunakaran, M. Jagathambal, N. Van Minh, E. Kolesnikov, A. Gusev, O. V. Zakharova, E. V. Scripnikova, E. D. Vishnyakova, D. Kuznetsov

Abstract:

Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs) are widely used in different applications due to its ecofriendly nature and biocompatibility. Hence, in this investigation, biosynthesized Fe2O3NPs influence on flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) plant was examined. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were found to be cubic phase which is confirmed by XRD analysis. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups corresponding to the iron oxide nanoparticle. The elemental analysis also confirmed that the obtained nanoparticle is iron oxide nanoparticle. The scanning electron microscopy and the transmission electron microscopy confirm that the average particle size was around 56 nm. The effect of Fe2O3NPs on seed germination followed by biochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. The results obtained after four days and 11 days of seed vigor studies showed that the seedling length (cm), average number of seedling with leaves, increase in root length (cm) was found to be enhanced on treatment with iron oxide nanoparticles when compared to control. A positive correlation was noticed with the dose of the nanoparticle and plant growth, which may be due to changes in metabolic activity. Hence, to evaluate the change in metabolic activity, peroxidase and catalase activities were estimated. It was clear from the observation that higher concentration of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3NPs 1000 mg/L) has enhanced peroxidase and catalase activities and in turn plant growth. Thus, this study clearly showed that biosynthesized iron oxide nanoparticles will be an effective nano-nutrient for agriculture applications.

Keywords: catalase, fertilizer, iron oxide nanoparticles, Linum usitatissimum L., nano-nutrient, peroxidase

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14 Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli, Alaaddin Cerit, Alize Yucel, Merve Gozukucuk

Abstract:

Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.

Keywords: biocomposite, epoxy resin, mussel shell, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 171