Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5883

Search results for: seismic behavior

5883 SMRF Seismic Response: Unequal Beam Depths

Authors: Babak H. Mamaqani, Alimohammad Entezarmahdi


There are many researches on parameters affecting seismic behavior of steel moment frames. Great deal of these researches considers cover plate connections with or without haunch and direct beam to column connection for exterior columns. Also there are experimental results for interior connections with equal beam depth on both sides but not much research has been performed on the seismic behavior of joints with unequal beam depth. Based on previous experimental results, a series of companion analyses have been set up considering different beam height and connection detailing configuration to investigate the seismic behavior of the connections. Results of this study indicate that when the differences between beams height on both side increases, use of haunch connection system leads to significant improvement in the seismic response whereas other configurations did not provide satisfying results.

Keywords: analytical modeling, Haunch connection, seismic design, unequal beam depth

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5882 Dynamic Test and Numerical Analysis of Twin Tunnel

Authors: Changwon Kwak, Innjoon Park, Dongin Jang


Seismic load affects the behavior of underground structure like tunnel broadly. Seismic soil-structure interaction can play an important role in the dynamic behavior of tunnel. In this research, twin tunnel with flexible joint was physically modeled and the dynamic centrifuge test was performed to investigate seismic behavior of twin tunnel. Seismic waves have different frequency were exerted and the characteristics of response were obtained from the test. Test results demonstrated the amplification of peak acceleration in the longitudinal direction in seismic waves. The effect of the flexible joint was also verified. Additionally, 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis was conducted and the analysis results exhibited good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: 3-dimensional finite difference dynamic analysis, dynamic centrifuge test, flexible joint, seismic soil-structure interaction

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5881 Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Steel Frame with Hysteresis Envelope Model of Joints

Authors: Krolo Paulina


The seismic response of moment-resisting steel frames depends on the behavior of the joints, especially when they are considered as ductile zones. The aim of this research is to provide a realistic assessment of the moment-resisting steel frame behavior under seismic loading using nonlinear static pushover analysis (N2 method). The hysteresis behavior of the joints in the frame model was described using a new hysteresis envelope model. The obtained seismic response was compared with the results of the seismic analysis obtained for the same steel frame that takes into account the monotonic model of the joints.

Keywords: beam-to-column joints, hysteresis envelope model, moment-resisting frame, nonlinear static pushover analysis, N2 method

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5880 The Effect of Connections Form on Seismic Behavior of Portal Frames

Authors: Kiavash Heidarzadeh


The seismic behavior of portal frames is mainly based on the shape of their joints. In these structures, vertical and inclined connections are the two general forms of connections. The shapes of connections can make differences in seismic responses of portal frames. Hence, in this paper, for the first step, the non-linear performance of portal frames with vertical and inclined connections has been investigated by monotonic analysis. Also, the effect of section sizes is considered in this analysis. For comparison, hysteresis curves have been evaluated for two model frames with different forms of connections. Each model has three various sizes of the column and beam. Other geometrical parameters have been considered constant. In the second step, for every model, an appropriate size of sections has been selected from the previous step. Next, the seismic behavior of each model has been analyzed by the time history method under three near-fault earthquake records. Finite element ABAQUS software is used for simulation and analysis of samples. Outputs show that connections form can impact on reaction forces of portal frames under earthquake loads. Also, it is understood that the load capacity in frames with vertical connections is more than the frames with inclined connections.

Keywords: inclined connections, monotonic, portal frames, seismic behavior, time history, vertical connections

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5879 Seismic Assessment of RC Structures

Authors: Badla Oualid


A great number of existing buildings are designed without seismic design criteria and detailing rules for dissipative structural behavior. Thus, it is of critical importance that the structures that need seismic retrofitting are correctly identified, and an optimal retrofitting is conducted in a cost effective fashion. Among the retrofitting techniques available, steel braces can be considered as one of the most efficient solution among seismic performance upgrading methods of RC structures. This paper investigates the seismic behavior of RC buildings strengthened with different types of steel braces, X-braced, inverted V braced, ZX braced, and Zipper braced. Static non linear pushover analysis has been conducted to estimate the capacity of three story and six story buildings with different brace-frame systems and different cross sections for the braces. It is found that adding braces enhances the global capacity of the buildings compared to the case with no bracing and that the X and Zipper bracing systems performed better depending on the type and size of the cross section.

Keywords: seismic design, strengthening, RC frames, steel bracing, pushover analysis

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5878 On the Seismic Response of Collided Structures

Authors: George D. Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos G. Pnevmatikos


This study examines the inelastic behavior of adjacent planar reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames subjected to strong ground motions. The investigation focuses on the effects of vertical ground motion on the seismic pounding. The examined structures are modeled and analyzed by RUAUMOKO dynamic nonlinear analysis program using reliable hysteretic models for both structural members and contact elements. It is found that the vertical ground motion mildly affects the seismic response of adjacent buildings subjected to structural pounding and, for this reason, it can be ignored from the displacement and interstorey drifts assessment. However, the structural damage is moderately affected by the vertical component of earthquakes.

Keywords: nonlinear seismic behavior, reinforced concrete structures, structural pounding, vertical ground motions

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5877 Assessment of Seismic Behavior of Masonry Minarets by Discrete Element Method

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


Mosques and minarets can be severely damaged as a result of earthquakes. Non-linear behavior of minarets of Mihrimah Sultan and Süleymaniye Mosques and the minaret of St. Sophia are analyzed to investigate seismic response, damage and failure mechanisms of minarets during earthquake. Selected minarets have different height and diameter. Discrete elements method was used to create the numerical minaret models. Analyses were performed using sine waves. Two parameters were used for evaluating the results: the maximum relative dislocation of adjacent drums and the maximum displacement at the top of the minaret. Both parameters were normalized by the drum diameter. The effects of minaret geometry on seismic behavior were evaluated by comparing the results of analyses.

Keywords: discrete element method, earthquake safety, nonlinear analysis, masonry structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
5876 Study of Seismic Behavior of an Earth Dam with Sealing Walls: The Case of Kef Eddir’s Dam, Tipaza, Algeria

Authors: M. Boumaiza, S. Mohamadi, B. Moussai


In this article the study of the seismic response of an earth dam with sealing walls has been made by introducing the effect of the change of position and depth of the sealing wall and the effect of non-linear behavior of soil of the foundation by taking into account the variation of the viscous damping and shear modulus in each layer of soil on the seismic response of the dam. As a case study, we take the Algerian dam Kef-Eddir which lies in the far west of the territory of the Wilaya of Tipaza (wadi Eddamous), classified according to the RPA 2003 as a high seismicity zone (zone III). With a height of 71m above the foundation and a width of 478m. The seismic event applied to the rock, is the earthquake of Chenoua (29 October, 1989), with a magnitude Mw=6 that hit the region.

Keywords: earth dam, earthquake, sealing walls, viscous damping

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5875 Structural Behavior of Incomplete Box Girder Bridges Subjected to Unpredicted Loads

Authors: E. H. N. Gashti, J. Razzaghi, K. Kujala


In general, codes and regulations consider seismic loads only for completed structures of the bridges while, evaluation of incomplete structure of bridges, especially those constructed by free cantilever method, under these loads is also of great importance. Hence, this research tried to study the behavior of incomplete structure of common bridge type (box girder bridge), in construction phase under vertical seismic loads. Subsequently, the paper provided suitable guidelines and solutions to withstand this destructive phenomena. Research results proved that use of preventive methods can significantly reduce the stresses resulted from vertical seismic loads in box cross sections to an acceptable range recommended by design codes.

Keywords: box girder bridges, prestress loads, free cantilever method, seismic loads, construction phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
5874 An Advanced Exponential Model for Seismic Isolators Having Hardening or Softening Behavior at Large Displacements

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino


In this paper, an advanced Nonlinear Exponential Model (NEM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement in the relatively large displacements range and a hardening or softening behavior at large displacements, is presented. The mathematical model is validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops obtained during cyclic tests, conducted on a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted analytically. Good agreement between the experimental and simulated results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the force-displacement relationship of seismic isolation devices within the large displacements range. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, unable to simulate the response of seismic isolators at large displacements, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order nonlinear ordinary differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort. Furthermore, the proposed model can simulate the smooth transition of the hysteresis loops from small to large displacements by adopting only one set of five parameters determined from the experimental hysteresis loops having the largest amplitude.

Keywords: base isolation, hardening behavior, nonlinear exponential model, seismic isolators, softening behavior

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5873 Evaluation of Response Modification Factor and Behavior of Seismic Base-Isolated RC Structures

Authors: Mohammad Parsaeimaram, Fang Congqi


In this paper, one of the significant seismic design parameter as response modification factor in reinforced concrete (RC) buildings with base isolation system was evaluated. The seismic isolation system is a capable approach to absorbing seismic energy at the base and transfer to the substructure with lower response modification factor as compared to non-isolated structures. A response spectrum method and static nonlinear pushover analysis in according to Uniform Building Code (UBC-97), have been performed on building models involve 5, 8, 12 and 15 stories building with fixed and isolated bases consist of identical moment resisting configurations. The isolation system is composed of lead rubber bearing (LRB) was designed with help UBC-97 parameters. The force-deformation behavior of isolators was modeled as bi-linear hysteretic behavior which can be effectively used to create the isolation systems. The obtained analytical results highlight the response modification factor of considered base isolation system with higher values than recommended in the codes. The response modification factor is used in modern seismic codes to scale down the elastic response of structures.

Keywords: response modification factor, base isolation system, pushover analysis, lead rubber bearing, bi-linear hysteretic

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5872 Seismic Behavior of Short Core Buckling Restrained Braces

Authors: Nader Hoveidae


This paper investigates the seismic behavior of a new type of buckling restrained braces (BRBs) called "Short Core BRBs" in which a shorter core segment is used as an energy dissipating part and an elastic part is serially connected to the core. It seems that a short core BRB is easy to be fabricated, inspected and replaced after a severe earthquake. In addition, the energy dissipating capacity in a short core BRB is higher because of larger core strains. However, higher core strain demands result in high potential of low-cycle fatigue fracture. In this paper, a strategy is proposed to estimate the minimum core length in a short core BRBs. The seismic behavior of short core buckling restrained brace is experimentally examined. The results revealed that the short core buckling restrained brace is able to sustain large inelastic strains without any significant instability or strength degradation.

Keywords: short core, Buckling Restrained Brace, finite element analysis, cyclic test

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5871 A Numerical Study on the Seismic Performance of Built-Up Battened Columns

Authors: Sophia C. Alih, Mohammadreza Vafaei, Farnoud Rahimi Mansour, Nur Hajarul Falahi Abdul Halim


Built-up columns have been widely employed by practice engineers in the design and construction of buildings and bridges. However, failures have been observed in this type of columns in previous seismic events. This study analyses the performance of built-up columns with different configurations of battens when it is subjected to seismic loads. Four columns with different size of battens were simulated and subjected to three different intensities of axial load along with a lateral cyclic load. Results indicate that the size of battens influences significantly the seismic behavior of columns. Lower shear capacity of battens results in higher ultimate strength and ductility for built-up columns. It is observed that intensity of axial load has a significant effect on the ultimate strength of columns, but it is less influential on the yield strength. For a given drift value, the stress level in the centroid of smaller size battens is significantly more than that of larger size battens signifying damage concentration in battens rather than chords. It is concluded that design of battens for shear demand lower than code specified values only slightly reduces initial stiffness of columns; however, it improves seismic performance of battened columns.

Keywords: battened column, built-up column, cyclic behavior, seismic design, steel column

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5870 Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade, E. Izadi, M. Hossein Zade


The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.

Keywords: steel tank, soil-structure, sandy soil, seismic load

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5869 Seismic Reliability of Two-DegreE-of-Freedom Systems with Supplemental Damping

Authors: A.D. García-Soto, Miguel Jaimes, J.G. Valdés-Vázquez, A. Hernández-Martínez


The seismic reliability of two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) systems with and without supplemental damping are computed. The used records are scaled from realistic records using standard incremental dynamic Analysis (IDA). The total normalized shear base is computed for both cases using different scaling factors, and it is considered as the demand. The seismic reliability is computed using codified design to stipulate the capacity and, after some assumptions, applying the first-order reliability method (FORM). The 2DOF considered can be thought as structures with non-linear behavior, with and without seismic protection, subjected to earthquake activity in Mexico City. It is found that the reliability of 2DOF structures retrofitted with supplemental damper at its first story is generally higher than the reliability of 2DOF structures without supplemental damping.

Keywords: 2DOF structures, IDA, FORM, seismic reliability

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5868 Seismic Activity and Groundwater Behavior at Kalabsha Area, Aswan, Egypt

Authors: S. M. Moustafa, A. Ezzat, Y. S. Taha, G. H. Hassib, S. Hamada


After the occurrence of 14, Nov, 1981 earthquake (M = 5.3), on Kalabska fault, south of Egypt, seismic stations distributed in and around the Kalabsha area, in order to monitoring, recording and studying the seismic activity in the area. In addition of that, from 1989 a number of piezometer wells drilled in the same area, distribed on at the both side of the active faults area and in different water bearing formations, in order to measuring the groundwater parameters (level, temperature, ph, and conductivity) to monitoring the relationship between those parameters and the seismic activity at Kalabsha area. The behavior of groundwater due to seismic activity over the world studied by several scientists i.e. H. Wakita (1979) on Izu-Oshima earthquake (M= 7.0) at Japan, M. E. Contadakis & G.asteriadis (1972), and Evans (1966), they found an anomalies on groundwater measurements prior, co, and post the occurrence of bigger earthquakes, referring to the probability of precursory evidence of impending earthquakes. In Kalabsha area south of Egypt, this study has been done using recorded seismic data, and the measurements of underground water parameters. same phenomena of anomalies founded on groundwater measurements pre, co. and post the occurrence of earthquakes with magnitude bigger than 3, and no systematic regularity exists for epicenter distance, duration of anomalies or time lag between anomalies appear and occurrence of events. Also the results found present strong relation between the groundwater in the upper unconfined aquifer Nubian Sandstone formation, and Kalabsha seismic activity, otherwise no relation between the seismic activities in the area with the deep groundwater in the lower confined aquifer Sandstone.

Keywords: seismicity, groundwater, Aswan, Egypt

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5867 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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5866 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structure Based on Plastic Rotation

Authors: Kahil Amar, Meziani Faroudja, Khelil Nacim


The principal objective of this study is the evaluation of the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures, taking into account of the behavior laws, reflecting the real behavior of materials, using CASTEM2000 software. A finite element model used is based in modified Takeda model with Timoshenko elements for columns and beams. This model is validated on a Vecchio experimental reinforced concrete (RC) frame model. Then, a study focused on the behavior of a RC frame with three-level and three-story in order to visualize the positioning the plastic hinge (plastic rotation), determined from the curvature distribution along the elements. The results obtained show that the beams of the 1st and 2nd level developed a very large plastic rotations, or these rotations exceed the values corresponding to CP (Collapse prevention with cp qCP = 0.02 rad), against those developed at the 3rd level, are between IO and LS (Immediate occupancy and life Safety with qIO = 0.005 rad and rad qLS = 0.01 respectively), so the beams of first and second levels submit a very significant damage.

Keywords: seismic performance, performance level, pushover analysis, plastic rotation, plastic hinge

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5865 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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5864 Modeling the Cyclic Behavior of High Damping Rubber Bearings

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Bilinear hysteresis models are usually used to describe the cyclic behavior of high damping rubber bearings. However, they neglect a number of phenomena (such as the interaction between axial load and shear force, buckling and post-buckling behavior, cavitation, scragging effects, etc.) that can significantly influence the dynamic behavior of such isolation devices. In this work, an advanced hysteresis model is examined and properly calibrated using consolidated procedures. Results of preliminary numerical analyses, performed in OpenSees, are shown and compared with the results of experimental tests on high damping rubber bearings and simulation analyses using alternative nonlinear models. The findings of this study can provide an useful tool for the accurate evaluation of the seismic response of structures with rubber-based isolation systems.

Keywords: seismic isolation, high damping rubber bearings, numerical modeling, axial-shear force interaction

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5863 Assessment of Bridge Performance with Laminated versus Spring Seismic Isolation

Authors: M. Z. Ramli, A. Adnan, Chee Wei Tan


To gain a better understanding of earthquake forces on reinforced concrete bridge piers with different bearing condition, a series of experiments was conducted on a realistic, 1:4 scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. The normal practices of laminated seismic isolation bearing is compared with the new design spring seismic isolation bearing where invented by Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research (e-SEER), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The nonlinear behavior of piers is modeled using the fibre beam theory to verify the experimental works. The hysteresis of bridge pier with different bearing condition was illustrated under different Peak Ground Acceleration (PGAs). The average slope of the hysteresis respectively to the global stiffness was also investigated.

Keywords: bridge, laminated seismic isolation, spring seismic isolation, Peak Ground Acceleration, stiffness

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5862 Dynamic Analysis of Double Deck Tunnel

Authors: C. W. Kwak, I. J. Park, D. I. Jang


The importance of cost-wise effective application and construction is getting increase due to the surge of traffic volume in the metropolitan cities. Accordingly, the necessity of the tunnel has large section becomes more critical. Double deck tunnel can be one of the most appropriate solutions to the necessity. The dynamic stability of double deck tunnel is essential against seismic load since it has large section and connection between perimeter lining and interim slab. In this study, 3-dimensional dynamic numerical analysis was conducted based on the Finite Difference Method to investigate the seismic behavior of double deck tunnel. Seismic joint for dynamic stability and the mitigation of seismic impact on the lining was considered in the modeling and analysis. Consequently, the mitigation of acceleration, lining displacement and stress were verified successfully.

Keywords: double deck tunnel, interim slab, 3-dimensional dynamic numerical analysis, seismic joint

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5861 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5860 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Bu Seog Ju


This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: seismic, bridge, FEM, evaluation, numerical analysis

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5859 Study of the Influence of Eccentricity Due to Configuration and Materials on Seismic Response of a Typical Building

Authors: A. Latif Karimi, M. K. Shrimali


Seismic design is a critical stage in the process of design and construction of a building. It includes strategies for designing earthquake-resistant buildings to ensure health, safety, and security of the building occupants and assets. Hence, it becomes very important to understand the behavior of structural members precisely, for construction of buildings that can yield a better response to seismic forces. This paper investigates the behavior of a typical structure when subjected to ground motion. The corresponding mode shapes and modal frequencies are studied to interpret the response of an actual structure using different fabricated models and 3D visual models. In this study, three different structural configurations are subjected to horizontal ground motion, and the effect of “stiffness eccentricity” and placement of infill walls are checked to determine how each parameter contributes in a building’s response to dynamic forces. The deformation data from lab experiments and the analysis on SAP2000 software are reviewed to obtain the results. This study revealed that seismic response in a building can be improved by introducing higher deformation capacity in the building. Also, proper design of infill walls and maintaining a symmetrical configuration in a building are the key factors in building stability during the earthquake.

Keywords: eccentricity, seismic response, mode shape, building configuration, building dynamics

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5858 Seismic Behavior of Pile-Supported Bridges Considering Soil-Structure Interaction and Structural Non-Linearity

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


Soil-structure interaction (SSI) in bridges under seismic excitation is a complex phenomenon which involves coupling between the non-linear behavior of bridge pier columns and SSI in the soil-foundation part. It is a common practice in the study of SSI to model the bridge piers as linear elastic while treating the soil and foundation with a non-linear or an equivalent linear modeling approach. Consequently, the contribution of soil and foundation to the SSI phenomenon is disproportionately highlighted. The present study considered non-linear behavior of bridge piers in FEM model of a 4-span, pile-supported bridge that was designed for five different soil conditions in a moderate seismic zone. The FEM model of the bridge system was subjected to a suite of 21 actual ground motions representative of three levels of earthquake hazard (i.e. Design Basis Earthquake, Functional Evaluation Earthquake and Maximum Considered Earthquake). Results of the FEM analysis were used to delineate the influence of pier column non-linearity and SSI on critical design parameters of the bridge system. It was found that pier column non-linearity influenced the bridge lateral displacement and base shear more than SSI for majority of the analysis cases for the class of bridge investigated in the study.

Keywords: bridge, FEM model, reinforced concrete pier, pile foundation, seismic loading, soil-structure interaction

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5857 Analyzing Time Lag in Seismic Waves and Its Effects on Isolated Structures

Authors: Faizan Ahmad, Jenna Wong


Time lag between peak values of horizontal and vertical seismic waves is a well-known phenomenon. Horizontal and vertical seismic waves, secondary and primary waves in nature respectively, travel through different layers of soil and the travel time is dependent upon the medium of wave transmission. In seismic analysis, many standardized codes do not require the actual vertical acceleration to be part of the analysis procedure. Instead, a factor load addition for a particular site is used to capture strength demands in case of vertical excitation. This study reviews the effects of vertical accelerations to analyze the behavior of a linearly rubber isolated structure in different time lag situations and frequency content by application of historical and simulated ground motions using SAP2000. The response of the structure is reviewed under multiple sets of ground motions and trends based on time lag and frequency variations are drawn. The accuracy of these results is discussed and evaluated to provide reasoning for use of real vertical excitations in seismic analysis procedures, especially for isolated structures.

Keywords: seismic analysis, vertical accelerations, time lag, isolated structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
5856 Alternative Method of Determining Seismic Loads on Buildings Without Response Spectrum Application

Authors: Razmik Atabekyan, V. Atabekyan


This article discusses a new alternative method for determination of seismic loads on buildings, based on resistance of structures to deformations of vibrations. The basic principles for determining seismic loads by spectral method were developed in 40… 50ies of the last century and further have been improved to pursuit true assessments of seismic effects. The base of the existing methods to determine seismic loads is response spectrum or dynamicity coefficient β (norms of RF), which are not definitively established. To this day there is no single, universal method for the determination of seismic loads and when trying to apply the norms of different countries, significant discrepancies between the results are obtained. On the other hand there is a contradiction of the results of macro seismic surveys of strong earthquakes with the principle of the calculation based on accelerations. It is well-known, on soft soils there is an increase of destructions (mainly due to large displacements), even though the accelerations decreases. Obviously, the seismic impacts are transmitted to the building through foundation, but paradoxically, the existing methods do not even include foundation data. Meanwhile acceleration of foundation of the building can differ several times from the acceleration of the ground. During earthquakes each building has its own peculiarities of behavior, depending on the interaction between the soil and the foundations, their dynamic characteristics and many other factors. In this paper we consider a new, alternative method of determining the seismic loads on buildings, without the use of response spectrum. The following main conclusions: 1) Seismic loads are revealed at the foundation level, which leads to redistribution and reduction of seismic loads on structures. 2) The proposed method is universal and allows determine the seismic loads without the use of response spectrum and any implicit coefficients. 3) The possibility of taking into account important factors such as the strength characteristics of the soils, the size of the foundation, the angle of incidence of the seismic ray and others. 4) Existing methods can adequately determine the seismic loads on buildings only for first form of vibrations, at an average soil conditions.

Keywords: seismic loads, response spectrum, dynamic characteristics of buildings, momentum

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5855 Simulation of Dynamic Behavior of Seismic Isolators Using a Parallel Elasto-Plastic Model

Authors: Nicolò Vaiana, Giorgio Serino


In this paper, a one-dimensional (1d) Parallel Elasto- Plastic Model (PEPM), able to simulate the uniaxial dynamic behavior of seismic isolators having a continuously decreasing tangent stiffness with increasing displacement, is presented. The parallel modeling concept is applied to discretize the continuously decreasing tangent stiffness function, thus allowing to simulate the dynamic behavior of seismic isolation bearings by putting linear elastic and nonlinear elastic-perfectly plastic elements in parallel. The mathematical model has been validated by comparing the experimental force-displacement hysteresis loops, obtained testing a helical wire rope isolator and a recycled rubber-fiber reinforced bearing, with those predicted numerically. Good agreement between the simulated and experimental results shows that the proposed model can be an effective numerical tool to predict the forcedisplacement relationship of seismic isolators within relatively large displacements. Compared to the widely used Bouc-Wen model, the proposed one allows to avoid the numerical solution of a first order ordinary nonlinear differential equation for each time step of a nonlinear time history analysis, thus reducing the computation effort, and requires the evaluation of only three model parameters from experimental tests, namely the initial tangent stiffness, the asymptotic tangent stiffness, and a parameter defining the transition from the initial to the asymptotic tangent stiffness.

Keywords: base isolation, earthquake engineering, parallel elasto-plastic model, seismic isolators, softening hysteresis loops

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5854 Proposing a New Design Method for Added Viscoelastic Damper’s Application in Steel Moment-Frame

Authors: Saeed Javaherzadeh, Babak Dindar Safa


Structure, given its ductility, can depreciate significant amount of seismic energy in the form of hysteresis behavior; the amount of energy depreciation depends on the structure ductility rate. So in seismic guidelines such as ASCE7-10 code, to reduce the number of design forces and using the seismic energy dissipation capacity of structure, when entering non-linear behavior range of the materials, the response modification factor is used. Various parameters such as ductility modification factor, overstrength factor and reliability factor, are effective in determining the value of this factor. Also, gradually, energy dissipation systems, especially added dampers, have become an inseparable part of the seismic design. In this paper, in addition to reviewing of previous studies, using the response modification factor caused by using more added viscoelastic dampers, a new design method has introduced for steel moment-frame with added dampers installed. To do this, in addition to using bilinear behavior models and quick ways such as using the equivalent lateral force method and capacity spectrum method for the proposed design methodology, the results has been controlled with non-linear time history analysis for a number of structural. The analysis is done by Opensees Software.

Keywords: added viscoelastic damper, design base shear, response modification factor, non-linear time history

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