Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8049

Search results for: Chinese national space administration

8049 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro

Abstract:

The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

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8048 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

Abstract:

The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

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8047 “Context” Thinking of Contemporary Urban History Space under the Basis of Enlightenment of Chinese Traditional Cultural Philology: Taking West Expansion Plan of Tianyi Pavilion as An Example

Authors: Wei Yan, Wei Dong

Abstract:

Facing the understanding problem of update and preservation of urban history space under background of rapid Chinese urbanization, so at first there is a need to dig the philosophic principles of “antithesis” and “unification” which are contained in the traditional Chinese literature known as “antithesis” and do the job of planning translation by personal understanding in order to form understanding and value systems of dialectical urban history space under the foundation of “antithesis”. Then we could put forward a “context” concept for urban history space under the foregoing basis. After that, we will take the update and preservation of Ningbo Tianyi Pavilion’s historical district as an example to discuss problems related to understanding of urban history area under the basis of Chinese tradition culture, improvement of value system, construction of urban trait space and Chinese “localization” of planning theory.

Keywords: antithesis, traditional values, city renewal and conservation, the “context” of city history space

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8046 Incorporating Chinese Calligraphic Concept in 3D Space

Authors: Woon Lam Ng.

Abstract:

This paper explores the basic structures of Chinese calligraphy brushwork, its textures, its characteristic forms, and how its strength can be incorporated into 3d animation. It investigates how these structures could create visual simplification and suggest movement. The conceptual difference between realistic rendering and the Chinese calligraphic concept of simplification is discussed. With the help of the Python programmable environment in Maya, the concept of Chinese calligraphy in 3d space and its idea of visual simplification and abstraction were explored. The work demonstrates how the Chinese calligraphic brushwork could suggest the dynamics of motion in 3d space. Some limitations of the Maya emitting process are also discussed. Possible further explorations through additional mathematical adjustments to the selected Maya shader are also suggested to enhance the presentation.

Keywords: calligraphy, brushwork, dynamics, movements

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8045 The 'Human Medium' in Communicating the National Image: A Case Study of Chinese Middle-Class Tourists Visiting Japan

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

In recent years, the prosperity of mass tourism in China has accelerated the breadth and depth of direct communication between countries, and the national image has been placed in a new communication context. Outbound tourists are not only directly involved in the formation of the national image, but are also the most direct medium and the most active symbol representing the national image. This study uses Chinese middle-class tourists visiting Japan as a case study, and analyzes, through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, the communication function of the national image transmitted by 'human medium' in tourism activities. It also explores the 'human medium' in the era of mass tourism. This study hopes to build a bridge for tourism research and national image and media studies. It will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for promoting the national image, strengthening exchanges between tourists and local populations, and expanding the tourism market in the future.

Keywords: human medium, national image, communication, Chinese middle class, outbound tourists

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8044 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia

Abstract:

’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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8043 Practicing Spectacular Urbanism in China: Mega-Events, the City of the Spectacle, and Spatialization of State Power

Authors: George Lin

Abstract:

This study examines a practice in which Chinese municipal governments actively pursue momentary and spectacular urbanism through the hosting of mega-events as an instrument to reproduce urban space for the enhancement of place competitiveness and advancement of political career. Practicing event-driven spectacular urbanism is found to have a short-term impact upon the economy and an effect upon the career advancement of the party secretary more than the mayor. Hosting mega-events has been used as a means to create “a harmonious society” and unified social space whereby grievance and discontents are grossed over, ignored, excluded and marginalized. Geographically, a new urban space has been created for the central city to reassert/consolidate its leading competitive position in the regional and national economy at the expense of the disadvantaged and marginalized. Findings of this research call for a critical re-evaluation of the sophisticated state-space inter-relations in the ongoing processes of planetary urbanization and global urban revolution in which China has taken an important part.

Keywords: Chinese cities, mega events, urbanism, urbanization

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8042 Interpreting Some Transformational Aspects of Pentatonicism in Post-tonal Chinese Music on Dual Interval Space

Authors: Man-Ching Yu

Abstract:

In Chinese music, pentatonic collection is central in constituting all the harmonic and melodic elements; most of the traditional Chinese musicians particularly emphasize the importance of the smoothness between pentatonic collections when one collection modulates to another collection, articulating the roles of the pentatonic common tones. On the contrary, in post-tonal Chinese music the central features of the pentatonic modulations tend to reflect a larger number of semitonal relationships with a lesser number of common tones. This paper offers an analytical account of the transformations between pentatonic collections that arise in post-tonal Chinese music by adopting the methodology of the Tonnetz, in particular, Dual Interval Space (DIS), to elaborate and reexamine pentatonicism by focusing on the transformations between pentatonic elements, especially semitonal motion and common tones. In the essay, various pentatonic passages will be analyzed by means of DIS for highlighting the transformation of the collections. It will be shown that the pentatonic collections that are in semitonal, third, and augmented fourth relationships exhibit the maximum number of semitonal shifts.

Keywords: tonnetz, pentatonicism, post-tonal Chinese music, dual interval space, transformation

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8041 Spreading Japan's National Image through China during the Era of Mass Tourism: The Japan National Tourism Organization’s Use of Sina Weibo

Authors: Abigail Qian Zhou

Abstract:

Since China has entered an era of mass tourism, there has been a fundamental change in the way Chinese people approach and perceive the image of other countries. With the advent of the new media era, social networking sites such as Sina Weibo have become a tool for many foreign governmental organizations to spread and promote their national image. Among them, the Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) was one of the first foreign official tourism agencies to register with Sina Weibo and actively implement communication activities. Due to historical and political reasons, cognition of Japan's national image by the Chinese has always been complicated and contradictory. However, since 2015, China has become the largest source of tourists visiting Japan. This clearly indicates that the broadening of Japan's national image in China has been effective and has value worthy of reference in promoting a positive Chinese perception of Japan and encouraging Japanese tourism. Within this context and using the method of content analysis in media studies through content mining software, this study analyzed how JNTO’s Sina Weibo accounts have constructed and spread Japan's national image. This study also summarized the characteristics of its content and form, and finally revealed the strategy of JNTO in building its international image. The findings of this study not only add a tourism-based perspective to traditional national image communications research, but also provide some reference for the effective international dissemination of national image in the future.

Keywords: national image, international communication, tourism, Japan, China

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8040 Innovative Pictogram Chinese Characters Representation

Authors: J. H. Low, S. H. Hew, C. O. Wong

Abstract:

This paper proposes an innovative approach to represent the pictogram Chinese characters. The advantage of this representation is using an extraordinary to represent the pictogram Chinese character. This extraordinary representation is created accordingly to the original pictogram Chinese characters revolution. The purpose of this innovative creation is to assistant the learner learning Chinese as second language (SCL) in Chinese language learning specifically on memorize Chinese characters. Commonly, the SCL will give up and frustrate easily while memorize the Chinese characters by rote. So, our innovative representation is able to help on memorize the Chinese character by the help of visually storytelling. This innovative representation enhances the Chinese language learning experience of SCL.

Keywords: Chinese e-learning, innovative Chinese character representation, knowledge management, language learning

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8039 An Innovative Poly System Theory for the Go-Out of Chinese Culture

Authors: Jianhua Wang, Ying Zhou, Han Guo

Abstract:

Translation underwent culture turn for more than half a century, which brought translation and its studies beyond intra-texts. Different cultures in recent years have developed towards a translation turn, which made a great contribution to relocate national or local cultures being localized to become regional or global cultures. As China grows quickly economically integrating into the world, it becomes urgent to relate China’s story and disseminate the Chinese culture. Due to the weaknesses and drawbacks of different existing cultural translation theories for Chinese culture to go out, a new perspective on translation turn for the go-out of Chinese culture should be drawn to spread better and disseminate Chinese culture to other countries. Based on the existing cultural translation theories, the equivalence of ideology, style of the translator and agency of the support are proposed to draw a new perspective: an innovative poly-system theory for Chinese culture translation.

Keywords: cultural translation theory, Chinese culture, innovative poly system, global cultures

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8038 Chinese Remainder Theorem and Decidability

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami

Abstract:

The Chinese remainder theorem deals with systems of modular equations. It has many applications. The Chinese remainder theorem requires that modules be pairwise coprime. In this paper, we discuss the general Chinese remainder theorem, which does not require this restriction on modules. We also show interesting applications of the general Chinese remainder theorem in proving decidability.

Keywords: Chinese remainder theorem, decidability, general Chinese remainder theorem, quantifier-elimination

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8037 Cultural Understanding in Chinese Language Education for Foreigners: A Quest for Better Integration

Authors: Linhan Sun

Abstract:

With the gradual strengthening of China's economic development, more and more people around the world are learning Chinese due to economic and trade needs, which has also promoted the research related to Chinese language education for foreigners. Because the Chinese language system is different from the Western language system, learning Chinese is not easy for many learners. In addition, language learning cannot be separated from the learning and understanding of culture. How to integrate cultural learning into the curriculum of Chinese language education for foreigners is the focus of this study. Through a semi-structured in-depth interview method, 15 foreigners who have studied or are studying Chinese participated in this study. This study found that cultural learning and Chinese as a foreign language are relatively disconnected. In other words, learners were able to acquire a certain degree of knowledge of the Chinese language through textbooks or courses but did not gain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

Keywords: Chinese language education, Chinese culture, qualitative methods, intercultural communication

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8036 Analysis of Space Requirements of Chinese Square-Dancing Space through Newspaper Reports

Authors: Xiaobing Liu, Bo Zhang, Xiaolong Zhao

Abstract:

The square-dancing is one of the most popular new physical activities in China in recent years, which has become a hotspot of Chinese landscape research. This paper collects 749 news reports from four authoritative newspapers in Harbin for 3 years, and probes into the space use needs of participants and non-participants of square-dancing. In this paper, the research results are compared with the contents of three related planning and design codes in China, and some modification or supplementary suggestions are proposed from three aspects, such as decision-making process, total-quantity control, and site design. Different from the traditional research, this research does not use the data from interviews and the questionnaires, but uses the traditional media report content for analyzing. To some extent, it avoids the research result being excessively subjective, enhances objectivity and the authority.

Keywords: China, landscape, space design, square-dancing

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8035 The Same Rules of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine in Treating Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Hypertension

Authors: Heng W. Chang, Mao F. Sun

Abstract:

Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria (CIU) and hypertension are rarely discussed together in modern and traditional Chinese medicine, and often belong to different medical departments. However, in traditional Chinese medicinal theory, the two diseases have some similar characters. For example, they are both relevant to 'wind'. This study conducted a literature review using the China National Knowledge Infrastructure to identify herbs yielding the same effect for the two diseases. The finding showed that the common herbs used most frequently is Rehmanniae. The conclusion is that the same TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) mechanism of the two diseases may be 'blood heat'. It requires further study to prove it in the future.

Keywords: urticaria, herbs, hypertension, Rehmanniae

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8034 Intercultural Strategies of Chinese Composers in the Organizational Structure of Their Works

Authors: Bingqing Chen

Abstract:

The Opium War unlocked the gate of China. Since then, modern western culture has been imported strongly and spread throughout this Asian country. The monologue of traditional Chinese culture in the past has been replaced by the hustle and bustle of multiculturalism. In the field of music, starting from school music, China, a country without the concept of composition, was deeply influenced by western culture and professional music composition, and entered the era of professional music composition. Recognizing the importance of national culture, a group of insightful artists began to try to add ‘China’ to musical composition. However, due to the special historical origin of Chinese professional musical composition and the three times of cultural nihilism in China, professional musical composition at this time failed to interpret the deep language structure of local culture within Chinese traditional culture, but only regarded Chinese traditional music as a ‘melody material library.’ At this time, the cross-cultural composition still takes Western music as its ‘norm,’ while our own music culture only exists as the sound of the contrast of Western music. However, after reading scores extensively, watching video performances, and interviewing several active composers, we found that at least in the past 30 years, China has created some works that can be called intercultural music. In these kinds of music, composers put Chinese and Western, traditional and modern in an almost equal position to have a dialogue based on their deep understanding and respect for the two cultures. This kind of music connects two music worlds, and links the two cultural and ideological worlds behind it, and communicates and grows together. This paper chose the works of three composers with different educational backgrounds, and pay attention to how composers can make a dialogue at the organizational structure level of their works. Based on the strategies adopted by composers in structuring their works, this paper expounds on how the composer's music procedure shows intercultural in terms of whole sound effects and cultural symbols. By actively participating in this intercultural practice, composers resorting to various musical and extra-musical procedures to arrive at the so-called ‘innovation within tradition.’ Through the dialogue, we can activate the space of creative thinking and explore the potential contained in culture. This interdisciplinary research promotes the rethinking of the possibility of innovation in contemporary Chinese intercultural music composition, spanning the fields of sound studies, dialogue theory, cultural research, music theory, and so on. Recently, China is calling for actively promoting 'the construction of Chinese music canonization,’ expecting to form a particular music style to show national-cultural identity. In the era of globalization, it is possible to form a brand-new Chinese music style through intercultural composition, but it is a question about talents, and the key lies in how composers do it. There is no recipe for the formation of the Chinese music style, only the composers constantly trying and tries to solve problems in their works.

Keywords: dialogism, intercultural music, national-cultural identity, organization/structure, sound

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8033 Patriotic Education through Private/Everyday Narratives: What We Can Learn from Young People

Authors: Yijie Wang, Hanwei Cheng

Abstract:

Under the Chinese educational context, the materials for patriotic education typically take the form of grand narratives. However, in post-modern times the younger members of society tend to welcome elements of more micro and personal nature. It is therefore important to explore how patriotism can be integrated into an ‘everyday’, private narrative that holds more attraction for the young. Based on semi-structured interviews of eight Chinese graduate students, this research examines how Chinese young people draw materials to establish national identity and develop love for the country from everyday-life details, as well as how they perceive, interpret and articulate their patriotism through private narratives. And implications for patriotic education are proposed accordingly. Several conclusions are drawn from the pre-interviews. Firstly, sensory experiences that remind people of their country—such as the taste of Chinese delicacies and the sound of a traditional instrument—are a major source of patriotic feelings. Secondly, the love for the country often stems from and is continued to be mediated by the emotional attachment with other people, typically significant others, and patriotism is articulated (or acknowledged) by the young as a kind of ‘sentiment’ rather than ‘faith’ or ‘belief’. Thirdly, for young people who are currently studying abroad, their birth country represents a kind of familiar, well-accustomed life or lifestyle, and any nostalgic realization of it leads to increased national belonging and sense of identity. Fourthly, the awareness of the country’s transformations—positive ones and neutral ones alike—triggers young people affections towards the country, and even negative transformations may result in promoted sense of self-involvement and therefore consolidate national identity. Implications for patriotic education can be drawn accordingly, and although the research is conducted under the Chinese context, it will hopefully contribute to the understanding of relevant fields.

Keywords: national identity, patriotic education, private narrative, young people

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8032 An Exploratory Study of Chinese Paper-Cut Art in Household Product Design

Authors: Ruining Wu, Na Song

Abstract:

Paper-cut, as one of the Chinese traditional folk decoration art, has become a unique visual aesthetic characteristics of the Chinese nation in the long-term evolution of cultural symbols. Chinese paper-cut art is the treasure-house for product design in natural resources. This paper first analyzed Chinese folk art of historical origin, cultural background, cultural values, aesthetic value, style features of Chinese paper cut art, then analyzed the design thought and design cases of paper-cut art application in different areas, such as clothing design, logo design and product design areas. Through the research of Chinese paper-cut art culture and design elements, this paper aims to build a household product design concept of Chinese traditional culture.

Keywords: paper-cut art, culture, household products, design

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8031 Commodification of the Chinese Language: Investigating Language Ideology in the Chinese Complementary Schools’ Online Discourse

Authors: Yuying Liu

Abstract:

Despite the increasing popularity of Chinese and the recognition of the growing commodifying ideology of Chinese language in many contexts (Liu and Gao, 2020; Guo, Shin and Shen 2020), the ideological orientations of the Chinese diaspora community towards the Chinese language remain under-researched. This research contributes seeks to bridge this gap by investigating the micro-level language ideologies embedded in the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. Informed by Ruíz’s (1984) metaphorical representations of language, 11 Chinese complementary schools’ websites were analysed as discursive texts that signal the language policy and ideology to prospective learners and parents were analysed. The results of the analysis suggest that a move from a portrayal of Chinese as linked to student heritage identity, to the commodification of linguistic and cultural diversity, is evident. It denotes the growing commodifying ideology among the Chinese complementary schools in the Republic of Ireland. The changing profile of the complementary school, from serving an ethnical community to teaching Chinese as a foreign language for the wider community, indicates the possibility of creating the a positive synergy between the Complementary school and the mainstream education. This study contributes to the wider discussions of language ideology and language planning, with regards to modern language learning and heritage language maintenance.

Keywords: the Chinese language;, Chinese as heritage language, Chinese as foreign language, Chinese community schools

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8030 Exploring the Mechanisms of Quality Assurance in the Chinese Translation Industry

Authors: Youru Zhou

Abstract:

This paper seeks to unveil the quality assurance practices in the Chinese translation industry. Since China’s reform and opening up, the Chinese language service industry has enjoyed impressively rapid growth. However, while still in its early stage of professionalization, the Chinese translation industry is also facing many challenges, such as the lack of clear admission requirements, a powerful regulation authority and a great number of qualified professionals. ‘How quality is assured’ means a great deal to translation in China at this stage. In order to examine the mechanisms in which quality is assured, this paper studied four international and national standards that have gained widespread adoption by Chinese translation companies and examined the content that is relevant to translation quality assurance. Case studies with six selected Chinese translation companies of different sizes were conducted to confirm and exemplify the descriptions on the standards. It has been found that quality in the industry is a relative concept which is mainly determined by the demand of clients. Furthermore, the procedures of translation can vary from task to task dependent on the agreement made between the service provider and clients. Finally, there are companies relying on expert-oriented mechanisms to assure the quality of translation, while other companies and standards insist on process-oriented ones.

Keywords: case study, Chinese translation industry, professional practice, translation quality assurance, translation standards

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8029 A Preliminary Study of the Reconstruction of Urban Residential Public Space in the Context of the “Top-down” Construction Model in China: Based on Research of TianZiFang District in Shanghai and Residential Space in Hangzhou

Authors: Wang Qiaowei, Gao Yujiang

Abstract:

With the economic growth and rapid urbanization after the reform and openness, some of China's fast-growing cities have demolished former dwellings and built modern residential quarters. The blind, incomplete reference to western modern cities and the one-off construction lacking feedback mechanism have intensified such phenomenon, causing the citizen gradually expanded their living scale with the popularization of car traffic, and the peer-to-peer lifestyle gradually settled. The construction of large-scale commercial centers has caused obstacles to small business around the residential areas, leading to space for residents' interaction has been compressed. At the same time, the advocated Central Business District (CBD) model even leads to the unsatisfactory reconstruction of many historical blocks such as the Hangzhou Southern Song Dynasty Imperial Street. However, the popularity of historical spaces such as Wuzhen and Hongcun also indicates the collective memory and needs of the street space for Chinese residents. The evolution of Shanghai TianZiFang also proves the importance of the motivation of space participants in space construction in the context of the “top-down” construction model in China. In fact, there are frequent occurrences of “reconstruction”, which may redefine the space, in various residential areas. If these activities can be selectively controlled and encouraged, it will be beneficial to activate the public space as well as the residents’ intercourse, so that the traditional Chinese street space can be reconstructed in the context of modern cities.

Keywords: rapid urbanization, traditional street space, space re-construction, bottom-up design

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8028 Securitization of Illegal Fishing Cases in Natuna Waters by Indonesian Government: Study Case of Chinese Vessels Shootouts 2016

Authors: Ray Maximillian, Idil Syawfi

Abstract:

Indonesia’s Exclusive Economic Zone and the infamous China’s nine-dash line are intersected in Natuna waters. Even though from Indonesia perspective, that line does not possess any legal basis, China treat that line as their national boundaries, therefore allowing Chinese fishermen to fish in the area. Under President Joko Widodo leadership, Indonesia which now focusing to suppress illegal fishing cases while emphasizing their maritime sovereignty is facing an imminent threat from China’s presence in Natuna. Tension between these countries spiked after three incident happened on 2016, especially after Indonesian navy shot Chinese fishermen vessel that suspected doing illegal fishing activity. This action seen as an attempt to secure Indonesia’s law enforcement in their waters after several months before such attempt was intervened by Chinese coast guard. Indonesia tries to securitize this issue to justify the shooting they done to Chinese vessels. In the process of securitization, it is imperative to identify the existential threat that leads to implementation of emergency measures which responded by units in the cases. Chinese coast guard presence in Natuna perceived as an existential threat to Indonesia, therefore, responded by shooting to Chinese vessels on the next encounter. This action then responded by Chinese government who said that there is overlapping claim between them and Indonesia in Natuna.

Keywords: China, illegal fishing, Indonesia, natuna, securitization

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8027 The Reform of Chinese Migration Law and Its Actual Implementation

Authors: Wang Jie

Abstract:

This article advances the reform of Chinese migration law through an analysis of the updated and former versions of the Chinese migration law, specifically for the Exit-Entry Administration Law of the People’s Republic of China and Regulations on Foreigners’ Permanent Residence in the People’s Republic of China(Exposure Draft), which was most recently issued in 2012 and 2020 respectively. After a fundamental reform of China’s migration law, China’s immigration legal framework has become relatively well developed compared with the previous one. Immigration procedures are available online and these procedures have become relatively simple. Comparative research for the Chinese migration laws has been done during the past several years for its legislation, legal reference for western countries and its preliminary implementation. Some results show that the reform is a superficial one and may not have a practical effect on China’s current immigration legal framework. However, complete results cannot be obtained only through the comparative research of legal definitions. Some practical case studies will also be required to analyze in detail to demonstrate the reasons that some reforms still remain at the superficial level and what further progress is required in China's immigration legal framework. This is a perspective that has been overlooked in most comparative law studies. In the first part, this article will conduct a simple comparative study of the reform of Chinese migration law and use cases studies to illustrate the reform of Chinese migration law. In the second part, this article will point out another perspective that is easily overlooked, that is, how do the Chinese nationals treat the reform: whether it is a legislative advance or a failure, and whether it deepens social tensions between nationals and immigrants. In the third part, the article will discuss Chinese migration law through China’s international law perspective with international organizations, such as International Organization for Migration and International Labour Organization will also be discussed to dialectically judge the reform of Chinese migration law. This article will adopt case and comparative studies to conduct overall research based on the reform of Chinese migration law and try to put forward more constructive advice for China’s immigration legal framework.

Keywords: Chinese migration law, reform, foreigners, immigration legal framework

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8026 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

Abstract:

Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values, Mergers and Acquisitions

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8025 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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8024 Translating Ex-landfill Development Needs and Adequacy of Open Space Provision in Malaysian Urban Development

Authors: S. Mazifah, A. Azahan, A. Kadir

Abstract:

This paper aims to examine the relationship between the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of open space provision in the context of sustainable urban development planning in Malaysia as seen from the perspective of the National Urban Policy. With a specific focus on the Action Plan DPN6 and DPN9, ex-landfill redevelopment needs and provision of open space are detailed to identify their potential and constraints in the development of sustainable cities. As a result, this paper found a link between the needs of urban ex-landfill redevelopment and approach to provide adequate urban open space. Through the proposal of the development of public park at urban ex-landfill sites, the needs of ex-landfill redevelopment and the adequacy of urban open space provision is being 'united' and translated as an approach to create a sustainable urban development in Malaysia.

Keywords: ex-landfill redevelopment, open spaces, National Urban Policy, sustainable urban development

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8023 Driving Mechanism of Urban Sprawl in Chinese Context from the Perspective of Domestic and Overseas Comparison

Authors: Tingke Wu, Yaping Huang

Abstract:

Many cities in China have been experiencing serious urban sprawl since the 1980s, which pose great challenges to a country with scare cultivated land and huge population. Because of different social and economic context and development stage, driving forces of urban sprawl in China are quite different from developed countries. Therefore, it is of great importance to probe into urban sprawl driving mechanism in Chinese context. By a comparison study of the background and features of urban sprawl between China and developed countries, this research establishes an analytical framework for sprawl dynamic mechanism in China. By literature review and analyzing data from national statistical yearbook, it then probes into the driving mechanism and the primary cause of urban sprawl. The results suggest that population increase, economic growth, traffic and information technology development lead to rapid expansion of urban space; defects of land institution and lack of effective guidance give rise to low efficiency of urban land use. Moreover, urban sprawl is ultimately attributed to imperfections of policy and institution. On this basis, this research puts forward several sprawl control strategies in Chinese context.

Keywords: China, driving forces, driving mechanism, land institution, urban expansion, urban sprawl

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8022 Language Learning Strategies of Chinese Students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand

Authors: Gunniga Anugkakul, Suwaree Yordchim

Abstract:

The objectives were to study language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by Chinese students, and the frequency of LLSs they used, and examine the relationship between the use of LLSs and gender. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford was administered to thirty-six Chinese students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in Thailand. The data obtained was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Three useful findings were found on the use of LLSs reported by Chinese students. First, Chinese students used overall LLSs at a high level. Second, among the six strategy groups, Chinese students employed compensation strategy most frequently and memory strategy least frequently. Third, the research results also revealed that gender had significant effect on Chinese Student’s use of overall LLSs.

Keywords: English language, language learning strategy, Chinese students, compensation strategy

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8021 Wh-Movement in Second Language Acquisition: Evidence from Magnitude Estimation

Authors: Dong-Bo Hsu

Abstract:

Universal Grammar (UG) claims that the constraints that are derived from this should operate in language users’ L2 grammars. This study investigated this hypothesis on knowledge of Subjacency and resumptive pronoun usage among Chinese learners of English. Chinese fulfills two requirements to examine the existence of UG, i.e., Subjacency does not operate in Chinese and resumptive pronouns in English are very different from those in Chinese and second L2 input undermines the knowledge of Subjacency. The results indicated that Chinese learners of English demonstrated a nearly identical pattern as English native speakers do but the resumptive pronoun in the embedding clauses. This may be explained in terms of the case that Chinese speakers’ usage of pronouns is not influenced by the number of embedding clauses. Chinese learners of English have full access to knowledge endowed by UG but their processing of English sentences may be different from native speakers as a general slow rate for processing in their L2 English.

Keywords: universal grammar, Chinese, English, wh-questions, resumption

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8020 From Tionghoa to Tjina: Historical Tracing on the Identity Politics in Demonization of Ethnic Chinese in Indonesia

Authors: Michael J. Kristiono

Abstract:

This paper attempts to investigate the reasons behind the negative sentiments directed towards Chinese Indonesians from International Relations (IR) perspective. By tracing back the treatment of the New Order government towards ethnic Chinese, it was found that such demonization initially happened due to two politically motivated reasons. Firstly, as part of de-Soekarnoization done by the New Order, the Chinese were outcast because Chinese identity does not conform to the 'Indonesian identity', which was in essence, the Javanese identity. Secondly, the condition reflected the change in Indonesian foreign policy which drifted apart from People’s Republic of China (PRC) as the latter was suspected to be involved in September 30 Movement. Then, this paper argues that due to those reasons, coupled by blatant maltreatment from the New Order Government, Chinese Indonesians were constructed as the Others, that is, as non-Indonesians. Such construct has been deeply embedded such that reconciliation attempts done by the Reformation Era government were not sufficient enough to stop ethnic discrimination towards Chinese Indonesians from happening even until the present.

Keywords: Chinese Indonesians, ethnic discrimination, identity, New Order

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