Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 354

Search results for: ceramic

354 Technological Properties and Characterization of Ceramic Slurries Based on Yttrium Iii Oxide for Shell Moulds Preparation

Authors: D. Jakubowska, M. Malek, P. Wisniewski, J. Mizera, K. J. Kurzydlowski


The goal of this study was to analyze the technological properties of ceramic slurries based on Ytttria (Y2O3) for fabrication “prime coat” in ceramic shell moulds for investment casting process. The Yttria with two different granulation of (200# and 325#) in ratio-65%-35% by weight were used for preparation the ceramic slurries. Solid phase was 77 wt.%. The experiment was carried out for 96h. Main technological properties like: viscosity, pH, plate weight test, and density were measured every 24h. Additionally, dynamic viscosity was performed after 96h of test. For further material characterization SEM observations, Zeta potential, XRD measurements were done. Those research showed that Yttria ceramic slurries had very promising properties and there are perspective for future fabrication.

Keywords: ceramic slurries, mechanizal properties, viscosity, fabrication

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
353 Experimental Investigation on High Performance Concrete with Silica Fume and Ceramic Waste

Authors: P. Vinayagam, A. Madhanagopal


This experimental investigation focuses on the study of the strength of concrete with ceramic waste as coarse aggregate. It is not a new concept of using alternate materials for aggregates. Pottery and ceramics have been an important part of human culture for thousands of years. The ceramic waste from ceramic and construction industries is a major contribution to construction demolition waste (CDW), representing a serious environmental, technical, and economical problem of today’s society. The major sources of ceramic waste are ceramic industry, building construction and building demolition. In ceramic industries, a significant part of the losses in the manufacturing of ceramic elements is not returned to the production process. In building construction, ceramic waste is produced during transportation to the building site, on the execution of several construction elements and on subsequent works. This waste is regionally deposited in dumping grounds, without any separation or reuse. In this study an attempt has been made to find the suitability of the ceramic industrial wastes as a possible replacement for conventional crushed stone coarse aggregate in high performance concrete. In this study, glazed stoneware pipe waste was used as coarse aggregates. In this investigation, physical properties of ceramic waste coarse aggregates were studied. Experiments were carried out to determine the strength of high performance concrete with silica fume and ceramic stoneware pipe waste coarse aggregate of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% different replacement ratios in comparison with those of corresponding conventional concrete mixes.

Keywords: ceramic waste, coarse aggregate replacement, glazed stoneware pipe waste, silica fume

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
352 Red Clay Properties and Application for Ceramic Production

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath


This research aimed at surveying the local red clay raw material sources in Samut Songkram province, Thailand to test the physical and chemical properties of the local red clay, including to find the approach to develop the local red clay properties for ceramic production. The findings of this research would be brought to apply in the ceramic production industry of the country all at the upstream level which was the community in the raw material source, at the mid water level which was the ceramic producer and at the downstream level which was the distributor and the consumer as well as the community producer who would apply them to their identity and need of the community business.

Keywords: chemical properties of red clay, physical properties of red clay, ceramic production, red clay product

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
351 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki


Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
350 Impact of the Xanthan Gum on Rheological Properties of Ceramic Slip

Authors: Souad Hassene Daouadji, Larbi Hammadi, Abdelkrim Hazzab


The slips intended for the manufacture of ceramics must have rheological properties well-defined in order to bring together the qualities required for the casting step (good fluidity for feeding the molds easily settles while generating a regular settling of the dough and for the dehydration phase of the dough in the mold a setting time relatively short is required to have a sufficient refinement which allows demolding both easy and fast). Many additives haveadded in slip of ceramic in order to improve their rheological properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of xanthan gumon rheological properties of ceramic Slip. The modified Cross model is used to fit the stationary flow curves of ceramic slip at different concentration of xanthan added. The thixotropic behavior studied of mixture ceramic slip-xanthan gumat constant temperature is analyzed by using a structural kinetic model (SKM) in order to account for time dependent effect.

Keywords: ceramic slip, xanthan gum, modified cross model, thixotropy, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
349 Reducing the Chemical Activity of Ceramic Casting Molds for Producing Decorated Glass Moulds

Authors: Nilgun Kuskonmaz


Ceramic molding can produce castings with fine detail, smooth surface and high degree of dimensional accuracy. All these features are the key factors for producing decorated glass moulds. In the ceramic mold casting process, the fundamental parameters affecting the mold-metal reactions are the composition and the properties of the refractory materials used in the production of ceramic mold. As a result of the reactions taking place between the liquid metal and mold surface, it is not possible to achieve a perfect surface quality, a fine surface detail and maintain a high standard dimensional tolerances. The present research examines the effects of the binder composition on the structural and physical properties of the zircon ceramic mold. In the experiment, the ceramic slurry was prepared by mixing the refractory powders (zircon(ZrSiO4), mullit(3Al2O32SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3)) with the low alkaline silica (ethyl silicate (C8H20O4Si)) and acidic type gelling material suitable binder and gelling agent. This was followed by pouring that ceramic slurry on to a silicon pattern. After being gelled, the mold was removed from the silicon pattern and dried. Then, the ceramic mold was subjected to the reaction sintering at 1600°C for 2 hours in the furnace. The stainless steel (SS) was cast into the sintered ceramic mold. At the end of this process it was observed that the surface quality of decorated glass mold.

Keywords: ceramic mold, stainless steel casting, decorated glass mold

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
348 Optical and Surface Characteristics of Direct Composite, Polished and Glazed Ceramic Materials After Exposure to Tooth Brush Abrasion and Staining Solution

Authors: Maryam Firouzmandi, Moosa Miri


Aim and background: esthetic and structural reconstruction of anterior teeth may require the application of different restoration material. In this regard combination of direct composite veneer and ceramic crown is a common treatment option. Despite the initial matching, their long term harmony in term of optical and surface characteristics is a matter of concern. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare optical and surface characteristic of direct composite polished and glazed ceramic materials after exposure to tooth brush abrasion and staining solution. Materials and Methods: ten 2 mm thick disk shape specimens were prepared from IPS empress direct composite and twenty specimens from IPS e.max CAD blocks. Composite specimens and ten ceramic specimens were polished by using D&Z composite and ceramic polishing kit. The other ten specimens of ceramic were glazed with glazing liquid. Baseline measurement of roughness, CIElab coordinate, and luminance were recorded. Then the specimens underwent thermocycling, tooth brushing, and coffee staining. Afterword, the final measurements were recorded. Color coordinate were used to calculate ΔE76, ΔE00, translucency parameter, and contrast ratio. Data were analyzed by One-way ANOVA and post hoc LSD test. Results: baseline and final roughness of the study group were not different. At baseline, the order of roughness for the study group were as follows: composite < glazed ceramic < polished ceramic, but after aging, no difference. Between ceramic groups was not detected. The comparison of baseline and final luminance was similar to roughness but in reverse order. Unlike differential roughness which was comparable between the groups, changes in luminance of the glazed ceramic group was higher than other groups. ΔE76 and ΔE00 in the composite group were 18.35 and 12.84, in the glazed ceramic group were 1.3 and 0.79, and in polished ceramic were 1.26 and 0.85. These values for the composite group were significantly different from ceramic groups. Translucency of composite at baseline was significantly higher than final, but there was no significant difference between these values in ceramic groups. Composite was more translucency than ceramic at baseline and final measurement. Conclusion: Glazed ceramic surface was smoother than polished ceramic. Aging did not change the roughness. Optical properties (color and translucency) of the composite were influenced by aging. Luminance of composite, glazed ceramic, and polished ceramic decreased after aging, but the reduction in glazed ceramic was more pronounced.

Keywords: ceramic, tooth-brush abrasion, staining solution, composite resin

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347 Behavior of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composite with Nano-Ceramic Particle under Ballistic Impact and Quasi-Static Punch-Shear Loading

Authors: K. Rajalakshmi, A. Vasudevan


The performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite with the nano-ceramic particle as function of time and thickness of laminate which is subjected to ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading is investigated. The material investigated is made up of several layers of Kevlar fibres which are fabricated with nano-ceramic particles and epoxy resin by compression moulding. The ballistic impact and quasi-static punch-shear loading are studied experimentally and numerically. The failure mechanism is observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result obtained in the experiment and numerical studies are compared. Due to nano size of the ceramic particle, the strength to weight ratio and penetrating resistance will improve in Fibre Reinforced Polymer composite which will have better impact property compared to ceramic plates.

Keywords: ballistic impact, Kevlar, nano ceramic, penetration, polymer composite, shear plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
346 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture

Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin


The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
345 Ceramic Ware Waste Potential as Co-Ballast in Dense Masonry Unit Production

Authors: A. A. Ajayi-Banji, M. A. Adegbile, T. D. Akpenpuun, J. Bello, O. Omobowale, D. A. Jenyo


Ceramic ware waste applicability as coarse aggregate was considered in this study for dense masonry unit production. The waste was crushed into 1.4 mm particle size and mixed with natural fine aggregate in the ratio 2:3. Portland ordinary cement, aggregate, and water mix ratio was 1:7:0.5. Masonry units produced were cured for 7, 21 and 28 days prior to compressive test. The result shows that curing age have a significant effect on all the compressive strength indices inspected except for Young’s modulus. Crushing force and the compressive strength of the ceramic-natural fine aggregate blocks increased by 11.7 – 54.7% and 11.6 – 59.2% respectively. The highest ceramic-natural fine block compressive strength at yield and peak, 4.97 MPa, was obtained after 21 days curing age. Ceramic aggregate introduced into the dense blocks improved the suitability of the blocks for construction purposes.

Keywords: ceramic ware waste, co-ballast, dense masonry unit, compressive strength, curing time

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
344 Design and Development of Ceramics Kiln by Application Burners Use from High Pressure of Household Gas Stove

Authors: Somboon Sarasit


This research aims to develop a model small ceramic kiln using burner from a high-pressure household gas stove. The efficiency of the kiln and community technology transfer. The study of history shows that this area used to be a source of pottery on the old capital of Ayutthaya. There is evidence from pottery kilns unearthed many types of wood kiln since 2535 and was assumed that the production will end when the war with Burma in the Ayutthaya period. The result of the research design and performance testing of ceramic kiln using burners by gas cooker and outside from 200-liter steel drums inside with ceramic fiber. It was found that the Graze Firing of the products to be at a temperature of 1230°C. The duration of the burn approximately 5-6 hours and uses only 3-4 kg of LPG products, a coffee can burn up to 40-50 pieces. It is an energy-efficient Kiln. Use safe and appropriate opportunities for entrepreneurs, small ceramic and entrepreneurs with new investments or those who want to produce ceramic products as a hobby. The community interest in the pottery to create a new one to continue the product development and manufacturing in the harshest existence forever.

Keywords: ceramics kiln design and development, ceramic gas kiln, burners application, high-pressure of household gas stove

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
343 Using of Cavitational Disperser for Porous Ceramic and Concrete Material Preparation

Authors: Andrei Shishkin, Aleksandrs Korjakins, Viktors Mironovs


Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) and foam concrete (FC), by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). Three foaming agents (FA) are compared for the FC and CCF production: SCHÄUMUNGSMITTEL W 53 FLÜSSIG (Zschimmer & Schwarz Gmbh, Germany), SCF-1245 (Sika, test sample, Latvia) and FAB-12 (Elade, Latvija). CCF were obtained at 950, 1000°C, 1150°C and 1150°C firing temperature and have mechanical compressive strength 1.2, 2.55, and 4.3 MPa and porosity 79.4, 75.1, 71.6%, respectively. Obtained FC has 6-14 MPa compressive strength and porosity 44-55%. The goal of this work was the development of a sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using HSMD.

Keywords: ceramic foam, foam concrete, clay foam, open cell, close cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
342 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
341 Development of Ceramic Spheres Buoyancy Modules for Deep-Sea Oil Exploration

Authors: G. Blugan, B. Jiang, J. Thornberry, P. Sturzenegger, U. Gonzenbach, M. Misson, D. Cartlidge, R. Stenerud, J. Kuebler


Low-cost ceramic spheres were developed and manufactured from the engineering ceramic aluminium oxide. Hollow spheres of 50 mm diameter with a wall thickness of 0.5-1.0 mm were produced via an adapted slip casting technique. It was possible to produce the spheres with good repeatability and with no defects or failures in the spheres due to the manufacturing process. The spheres were developed specifically for use in buoyancy devices for deep-sea exploration conditions at depths of 3000 m below sea level. The spheres with a 1.0 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 54% while the spheres with a 0.5 mm wall thickness exhibit a buoyancy of over 73%. The mechanical performance of the spheres was confirmed by performing a hydraulic burst pressure test on individual spheres. With a safety factor of 3, all spheres with 1.0 mm wall thickness survived a hydraulic pressure of greater than 150 MPa which is equivalent to a depth of more than 5000 m below sea level. The spheres were then incorporated into a buoyancy module. These hollow aluminium oxide ceramic spheres offer an excellent possibility of deep-sea exploration to depths greater than the currently used technology.

Keywords: buoyancy, ceramic spheres, deep-sea, oil exploration

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
340 Stress Analysis of the Ceramics Heads with Different Sizes under the Destruction Tests

Authors: V. Fuis, P. Janicek, T. Navrat


The global solved problem is the calculation of the parameters of ceramic material from a set of destruction tests of ceramic heads of total hip joint endoprosthesis. The standard way of calculation of the material parameters consists in carrying out a set of 3 or 4 point bending tests of specimens cut out from parts of the ceramic material to be analysed. In case of ceramic heads, it is not possible to cut out specimens of required dimensions because the heads are too small (if the cut out specimens were smaller than the normalized ones, the material parameters derived from them would exhibit higher strength values than those which the given ceramic material really has). A special destruction device for heads destruction was designed and the solved local problem is the modification of this destructive device based on the analysis of tensile stress in the head for two different values of the depth of the conical hole in the head. The goal of device modification is a shift of the location with extreme value of 1 max from the region of head’s hole bottom to its opening. This modification will increase the credibility of the obtained material properties of bio ceramics, which will be determined from a set of head destructions using the Weibull weakest link theory.

Keywords: ceramic heads, depth of the conical hole, destruction test, material parameters, principal stress, total hip joint endoprosthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
339 Influence of Milled Waste Glass to Clay Ceramic Foam Properties Made by Direct Foaming Route

Authors: A. Shishkin, V. Mironovs, D. Goljandin, A. Korjakins


The goal of this work is to develop sustainable and durable ceramic cellular structures using widely available natural resources- clay and milled waste glass. Present paper describes method of obtaining clay ceramic foam (CCF) with addition of milled waste glass in 5, 7 and 10 wt% by direct foaming with high speed mixer-disperser (HSMD). For more efficient clay and waste glass milling and mixing, the high velocity disintegrator was used. The CCF with 5, 7, and 10 wt% were obtained at 900, 950, 1000 and 1050 °C firing temperature and they have demonstrated mechanical compressive strength for all 12 samples ranging from 3.8 to 14.3 MPa and porosity 76-65%. Obtained CCF has compressive strength 14.3 MPa and porosity 65.3%.

Keywords: ceramic foam, waste glass, clay foam, glass foam, open cell, direct foaming

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
338 Durability Assessment of Nanocomposite-Based Bone Fixation Device Consisting of Bioabsorbable Polymer and Ceramic Nanoparticles

Authors: Jisoo Kim, Jin-Young Choi, MinSu Lee, Sunmook Lee


Effects of ceramic nanoparticles on the improvement of durability of bone fixation devices have been investigated by assessing the durability of nanocomposite materials consisting of bioabsorbable polymer and ceramic nanoparticles, which could be applied for bone fixation devices such as plates and screws. Various composite ratios were used for the synthesis of nanocomposite materials by blending polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) as bioabsorbable polymer, and hydroxyapatite (HA) and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) as ceramic nanoparticles. It was found that the addition of ceramic nanoparticles significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of the bone fixation devices compared to those fabricated with pure biopolymers. Particularly, the layer-by-layer approach for the fabrication of nanocomposites also had an effect on the improvement of bending strength. Durability tests were performed by measuring the changes in the bending strength of nanocomposite samples under varied temperature conditions for the accelerated degradation tests. It was found that Weibull distribution was the most proper one for describing the life distribution of devices in the present study. The mean lifetime was predicted by adopting Arrhenius Eq. Model for Stress-Life relationship.

Keywords: bioabsorbable, bone fixation device, ceramic nanoparticles, durability assessment, nanocomposite

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337 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath


The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.

Keywords: ceramic raw material, energy saving stove, stove design, performance of stove, stove for stew coconut sugar

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
336 Sintering of Composite Ceramic based on Corundum with Additive in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO System

Authors: Aung Kyaw Moe, Lukin Evgeny Stepanovich, Popova Nelya Alexandrovna


In this paper, the effect of the additive content in the Al2O3-TiO2-MnO system on the sintering of composite ceramics based on corundum was studied. The samples were pressed by uniaxial semi-dry pressing under 100 MPa and sintered at 1500 °С and 1550 °С. The properties of composite ceramics for porosity and flexural strength were studied. When the amount of additives increases, the properties of composite ceramic samples are better than samples without additives.

Keywords: ceramic, composite material, sintering, corundum

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
335 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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334 Tool Condition Monitoring of Ceramic Inserted Tools in High Speed Machining through Image Processing

Authors: Javier A. Dominguez Caballero, Graeme A. Manson, Matthew B. Marshall


Cutting tools with ceramic inserts are often used in the process of machining many types of superalloy, mainly due to their high strength and thermal resistance. Nevertheless, during the cutting process, the plastic flow wear generated in these inserts enhances and propagates cracks due to high temperature and high mechanical stress. This leads to a very variable failure of the cutting tool. This article explores the relationship between the continuous wear that ceramic SiAlON (solid solutions based on the Si3N4 structure) inserts experience during a high-speed machining process and the evolution of sparks created during the same process. These sparks were analysed through pictures of the cutting process recorded using an SLR camera. Features relating to the intensity and area of the cutting sparks were extracted from the individual pictures using image processing techniques. These features were then related to the ceramic insert’s crater wear area.

Keywords: ceramic cutting tools, high speed machining, image processing, tool condition monitoring, tool wear

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333 A New Investigation Technique for Improvement of the Cullet for Pottery Glaze

Authors: Benchalak Muangmeesri


This research is experiment glaze from use cullet that is broken decayed from the used such as, glass bottle, windshield , etc. For seek raw material compensation that is raw material of the glaze in ceramic. The objective of the research for study the ratio of the glaze that is appropriate for glaze ceramic products and evaluate the experiment glaze on the vitreous china. The experiment has limits in using ceramic process such as, using calculation formula with triaxial, the empirical formula’s of Seger, and formula calculation is the percentage of the compound. for choose formula has will the possibility for glaze on vitreous china. The experiments in 108 triaxial can choose best formula and calculate is be left just 6 a formula for the calculation. The calculation is the percentage of the raw materials. Find that, three formulas in six formula there is percentage amount of the raw material that is cullet has the amount the little more 10 percentages then repeated experiment just three formulas. Overall, this research have three formulas for used its and we get all processes achieved and well done.

Keywords: cullet, glaze, pottery, ceramic

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
332 Some Investigations of Primary Slurry Used for Production of Ceramic Shells

Authors: Balwinder Singh


In the current competitive environment, casting industry has several challenges such as production of intricate castings, near net shape castings, decrease lead-time from product design to production, improved casting quality and to control costs. The raw materials used to make ceramic shell play an important role in determining the overall final ceramic shell characteristics. In this work, primary slurries were formulated using various combinations of zircon flour, fused silica and aluminosilicate powders as filler, colloidal silica as binder along with wetting and antifoaming agents (Catalyst). Taguchi’s parameter design strategy has been applied to investigate the effect of primary slurry parameters on the viscosity of the slurry and primary coating of shell. The result reveals that primary coating with low viscosity slurry has produced a rough surface of the shell due to stucco penetration.

Keywords: ceramic shell, primary slurry, filler, slurry viscosity, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
331 Superhydrophobic, Heteroporous Flexible Ceramic for Micro-Emulsion Separation, Oil Sorption, and Recovery of FOG from Restaurant Wastewater

Authors: Jhoanne Pedres Boñgol, Zhang Liu, Yuyin Qiu, King Lun Yeung


Flexible ceramic sorbent material can be a viable technology to capture and recover emulsified fats, oils, and grease (FOG) that often cause sanitary sewer overflows. This study investigates the sorption capacity and recovery rate of ceramic material in surfactant-stabilized oil-water emulsion by synthesizing silica aerogel: SiO₂–X via acid-base sol-gel method followed by ambient pressure drying. The SiO₂–X is amorphous, microstructured, lightweight, flexible, and highly oleophilic. It displays spring-back behavior apparent at 80 % compression with compressive strength of 0.20 MPa and can stand a weight of 1000 times of its own. The contact angles measured at 0 ° and 177° in oil and water, respectively, confirm its oleophilicity and hydrophobicity while its thermal stability even at 450 °C is confirmed via TGA. In pure oil phase, theqe,AV. of 1x1 mm SiO₂–X is 7.5 g g₋₁ at tqe= 10 min, and a qe, AV. of 6.05 to 6.76 g g-1 at tqe= 24 hrs in O/W emulsion. The filter ceramic can be reused 50 x with 75-80 % FOG recovery by manual compression.

Keywords: adsorption, aerogel, emulsion, FOG

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
330 Domain Switching Characteristics of Lead Zirconate Titanate Piezoelectric Ceramic

Authors: Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To better understand the lattice characteristics of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics, the lattice orientations and domain-switching characteristics have been directly examined during loading and unloading using various experimental techniques. Upon loading, the PZT ceramics are fractured linear and nonlinearly during the compressive loading process. The strain characteristics of the PZT ceramic were directly affected by both the lattice and domain switching strain. Due to the piezoelectric ceramic, electrical activity of lightning-like behavior occurs in the PZT ceramics, which attributed to the severe domain-switching leading to weak piezoelectric property. The characteristics of domain-switching and reverse switching are detected during the loading and unloading processes. The amount of domain-switching depends on the grain, due to different stress levels. In addition, two patterns of 90˚ domain-switching systems are characterized, namely (i) 90˚ turn about the tetragonal c-axis and (ii) 90˚ rotation of the tetragonal a-axis. In this case, PZT ceramic was loaded by the thermal stress at 80°C. Extent of domain switching is related to the direction of c-axis of the tetragonal structure, e.g., that axis, orientated close to the loading direction, makes severe domain switching. It is considered that there is 90˚ domain switching, but in actual, the angle of domain switching is less than 90˚, e.g., 85.4° ~ 90.0°. In situ TEM observation of the domain switching characteristics of PZT ceramic has been conducted with increasing the sample temperature from 25°C to 300°C, and the domain switching like behavior is directly observed from the lattice image, where the severe domain switching occurs less than 100°C.

Keywords: PZT, lead zirconate titanate, piezoelectric ceramic, domain switching, material property

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
329 Effect on Surface Temperature Reduction of Asphalt Pavements with Cement–Based Materials Containing Ceramic Waste Powder

Authors: H. Higashiyama, M. Sano, F. Nakanishi, M. Sugiyama, O. Takahashi, S. Tsukuma


The heat island phenomenon becomes one of the environmental problems. As countermeasures in the field of road engineering, cool pavements such as water retaining pavements and solar radiation reflective pavements have been developed to reduce the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the hot summer climate in Japan. The authors have studied on the water retaining pavements with cement–based grouting materials. The cement–based grouting materials consist of cement, ceramic waste powder, and natural zeolite. The ceramic waste powder is collected through the recycling process of electric porcelain insulators. In this study, mixing ratio between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite and a type of cement for the cement–based grouting materials is investigated to measure the surface temperature of asphalt pavements in the outdoor. All of the developed cement–based grouting materials were confirmed to effectively reduce the surface temperature of the asphalt pavements. Especially, the cement–based grouting material using the ultra–rapid hardening cement with the mixing ratio of 0.7:0.3 between the ceramic waste powder and the natural zeolite reduced mostly the surface temperature by 20 °C and more.

Keywords: ceramic waste powder, natural zeolite, road surface temperature, water retaining pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
328 Environmental Impact Assessment of Ceramic Tile Materials Used in Jordan on Indoor Radon Level

Authors: Mefleh Hamideen


In this investigation, the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K, of some ceramic tile materials used in the local market of Jordan for interior decoration were determined by making use of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. Twenty samples of the different countries of origin and sizes used in Jordan were analyzed. The concentration values of the last-mentioned radionuclides ranged from 30⁻¹ (Sample from Jordan) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²²⁶Ra, 31⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) to 98⁻¹ (Sample from China) for ²³²Th, and 129⁻¹ (Sample from Spain) to 679⁻¹ (Sample from Italy) for ⁴⁰K. Based on the calculated activity concentrations, some radiological parameters have been calculated to test the radiation hazards in the ceramic tiles. In this work, the following parameters: Total absorbed dose rate (DR), Annual effective dose rate (HR), Radium equivalent activity (Raeq), Radon emanation coefficient F (%) and Radon mass exhalation rate (Em) were calculated for all ceramic tiles and listed in the body of the work. Fortunately, the average calculated values of all parameters are less than the recommended values for each parameter. Consequently, almost all the examined ceramic materials appear to have low radon emanation coefficients. As a result of that investigation, no problems on people can appear by using those ceramic tiles in Jordan.

Keywords: radon emanation coefficient, radon mass exhalation rate, total annual effective dose, radon level

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
327 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan


The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
326 High Performance Ceramic-Based Phthalonitrile Micro and Nanocomposites

Authors: M. Derradji, W. B. Liu


The current work discusses the effects of adding various types of ceramic fillers on the curing behavior, thermal, mechanical, anticorrosion, and UV shielding properties of the bisphenol-A based phthalonitrile resins. The effects of different ceramic filler contents and sizes as well as their surface treatments are also discussed in terms of their impact on the morphology and mechanisms of enhancement. The synergistic effect obtained by these combinations extends the use of the phthalonitrile resins to more exigent applications such as aerospace and military. The presented results reveal the significant advantages that can be obtained from the preparation of hybrid materials based on phthalonitrile resins and open the way for further research in the field.

Keywords: mechanical properties, particle reinforced composites, polymer matrix composites (PMCs), thermal properties

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325 Preparation and Characterizations of Natural Material Based Ceramic Membranes

Authors: In-Hyuck Song, Jang-Hoon Ha


Recently, porous ceramic membranes have attracted great interest due to their outstanding thermal and chemical stability. In this paper, we report the results of our efforts to determine whether we could prepare a diatomite-kaolin composite coating to be deposited over a sintered diatomite support layer that could reduce the largest pore size of the sintered diatomite membrane while retaining an acceptable level of permeability. We determined under what conditions such a composite coating over a support layer could be prepared without the generation of micro-cracks during drying and sintering. The pore characteristics of the sintered diatomite membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy and capillary flow porosimetry.

Keywords: ceramic membrane, diatomite, water treatment, sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 423