Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4043

Search results for: structural integrity

4043 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee


In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
4042 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan


The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
4041 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero


The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inelastic models, dubious foundation, bridge pier

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4040 Comparison of Presented Definitions to Authenticity and Integrity

Authors: Golnaz Salehi Mourkani


Two conception of Integrity and authenticity, in texts have just applied respectively for adaptive reuse and conservation, which in comparison with word “Integrity” in texts related to adaptive reuse is much more seen than Authenticity, which is often applied with conservation. According to Stove, H., (2007) in some cases, this conception have used with this form “integrity/authenticity” in texts, that cause to infer one conception of both. In this article, with referring to definitions and comparison of aspects specialized to both concept of “Authenticity and Integrity” through literature review, it was attempted to examine common and distinctive aspects of each one, then with this method we can reach their differences in adaptive reuse.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, integrity, authenticity, conservation

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4039 Exfoliation of Functionalized High Structural Integrity Graphene Nanoplatelets at Extremely Low Temperature

Authors: Mohannad N. H. Al-Malichi


Because of its exceptional properties, graphene has become the most promising nanomaterial for the development of a new generation of advanced materials from battery electrodes to structural composites. However, current methods to meet requirements for the mass production of high-quality graphene are limited by harsh oxidation, high temperatures, and tedious processing steps. To extend the scope of the bulk production of graphene, herein, a facile, reproducible and cost-effective approach has been developed. This involved heating a specific mixture of chemical materials at an extremely low temperature (70 C) for a short period (7 minutes) to exfoliate functionalized graphene platelets with high structural integrity. The obtained graphene platelets have an average thickness of 3.86±0.71 nm and a lateral size less than ~2 µm with a low defect intensity ID/IG ~0.06. The thin film (~2 µm thick) exhibited a low surface resistance of ~0.63 Ω/sq⁻¹, confirming its high electrical conductivity. Additionally, these nanoplatelets were decorated with polar functional groups (epoxy and carboxyl groups), thus have the potential to toughen and provide multifunctional polymer nanocomposites. Moreover, such a simple method can be further exploited for the novel exfoliation of other layered two-dimensional materials such as MXenes.

Keywords: functionalized graphene nanoplatelets, high structural integrity graphene, low temperature exfoliation of graphene, functional graphene platelets

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4038 Comparison of Presented Definitions and Aspects of Authenticity and Integrity in Adaptive Reuse

Authors: Golnaz Salehi Mourkani


Two conception of Integrity and authenticity, in texts have just applied respectively for adaptive reuse and conservation, which in comparison with word “Integrity” in texts related to adaptive reuse is much more seen than Authenticity, which is often applied with conservation. According to Stove, H. (2007) in some cases, this conception have used with this form “integrity/authenticity” in texts, that cause to infer one conception of both. In this article, with referring to definitions and comparison of aspects specialized to both concept of “Authenticity and Integrity” through literature review, it was attempted to examine common and distinctive aspects of each one, then with this method we can reach their differences in adaptive reuse.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, integrity, authenticity, conservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
4037 Identifying Teachers’ Perception of Integrity in School-Based Assessment Practice: A Case Study

Authors: Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor, Eftah Binti Moh Hj Abdullah


This case study aims to identify teachers’ perception as regards integrity in School-Ba sed Assessment (PBS) practice. This descriptive study involved 9 teachers from 4 secondary schools in 3 districts in the state of Perak. The respondents had undergone an integrity in PBS Practice interview using a focused group discussion method. The overall findings showed that the teachers believed that integrity in PBS practice could be achieved by adjusting the teaching methods align with learning objectives and the students’ characteristics. Many teachers, parents and student did not understand the best practice of PBS. This would affect the integrity in PBS practice. Teachers did not emphasis the principles and ethics. Their integrity as an innovative public servant may also be affected with the frequently changing assessment system, lack of training and no prior action research. The analysis of findings showed that the teachers viewed that organizational integrity involving the integrity of PBS was difficult to be implemented based on the expectations determined by Malaysia Ministry of Education (KPM). A few elements which assisted in the achievement of PBS integrity were the training, students’ understanding, the parents’ understanding of PBS, environment (involving human resources such as support and appreciation and non-human resources such as technology infrastructure readiness and media). The implications of this study show that teachers, as the PBS implementers, have a strong influence on the integrity of PBS. However, the transformation of behavior involving PBS integrity among teachers requires the stabilisation of support and infrastructure in order to enable the teachers to implement PBS in an ethical manner.

Keywords: assessment integrity, integrity, perception, school-based assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
4036 Risk Based Inspection and Proactive Maintenance for Civil and Structural Assets in Oil and Gas Plants

Authors: Mohammad Nazri Mustafa, Sh Norliza Sy Salim, Pedram Hatami Abdullah


Civil and structural assets normally have an average of more than 30 years of design life. Adding to this advantage, the assets are normally subjected to slow degradation process. Due to the fact that repair and strengthening work for these assets are normally not dependent on plant shut down, the maintenance and integrity restoration of these assets are mostly done based on “as required” and “run to failure” basis. However unlike other industries, the exposure in oil and gas environment is harsher as the result of corrosive soil and groundwater, chemical spill, frequent wetting and drying, icing and de-icing, steam and heat, etc. Due to this type of exposure and the increasing level of structural defects and rectification in line with the increasing age of plants, assets integrity assessment requires a more defined scope and procedures that needs to be based on risk and assets criticality. This leads to the establishment of risk based inspection and proactive maintenance procedure for civil and structural assets. To date there is hardly any procedure and guideline as far as integrity assessment and systematic inspection and maintenance of civil and structural assets (onshore) are concerned. Group Technical Solutions has developed a procedure and guideline that takes into consideration credible failure scenario, assets risk and criticality from process safety and structural engineering perspective, structural importance, modeling and analysis among others. Detailed inspection that includes destructive and non-destructive tests (DT & NDT) and structural monitoring is also being performed to quantify defects, assess severity and impact on integrity as well as identify the timeline for integrity restoration. Each defect and its credible failure scenario is assessed against the risk on people, environment, reputation and production loss. This technical paper is intended to share on the established procedure and guideline and their execution in oil & gas plants. In line with the overall roadmap, the procedure and guideline will form part of specialized solutions to increase production and to meet the “Operational Excellence” target while extending service life of civil and structural assets. As the result of implementation, the management of civil and structural assets is now more systematically done and the “fire-fighting” mode of maintenance is being gradually phased out and replaced by a proactive and preventive approach. This technical paper will also set the criteria and pose the challenge to the industry for innovative repair and strengthening methods for civil & structural assets in oil & gas environment, in line with safety, constructability and continuous modification and revamp of plant facilities to meet production demand.

Keywords: assets criticality, credible failure scenario, proactive and preventive maintenance, risk based inspection

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
4035 An Ontology-Based Framework to Support Asset Integrity Modeling: Case Study of Offshore Riser Integrity

Authors: Mohammad Sheikhalishahi, Vahid Ebrahimipour, Amir Hossein Radman-Kian


This paper proposes an Ontology framework for knowledge modeling and representation of the equipment integrity process in a typical oil and gas production plant. Our aim is to construct a knowledge modeling that facilitates translation, interpretation, and conversion of human-readable integrity interpretation into computer-readable representation. The framework provides a function structure related to fault propagation using ISO 14224 and ISO 15926 OWL-Lite/ Resource Description Framework (RDF) to obtain a generic system-level model of asset integrity that can be utilized in the integrity engineering process during the equipment life cycle. It employs standard terminology developed by ISO 15926 and ISO 14224 to map textual descriptions of equipment failure and then convert it to a causality-driven logic by semantic interpretation and computer-based representation using Lite/RDF. The framework applied for an offshore gas riser. The result shows that the approach can cross-link the failure-related integrity words and domain-specific logic to obtain a representation structure of equipment integrity with causality inference based on semantic extraction of inspection report context.

Keywords: asset integrity modeling, interoperability, OWL, RDF/XML

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
4034 Secure Transfer of Medical Images Using Hybrid Encryption Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity

Authors: Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid, Lahdir Mourad


In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues medical images. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every new session of encryption, that will be used to encrypt each frame of the medical image basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: AES, RSA, integrity, confidentiality, authentication, medical images, encryption, decryption, key, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
4033 The Evaluation of Surface Integrity during Machining of Inconel 718 with Various Laser Assistance Strategies

Authors: Szymon Wojciechowski, Damian Przestacki, Tadeusz Chwalczuk


The paper is focused on the evaluation of surface integrity formed during turning of Inconel 718 with the application of various laser assistance strategies. The primary objective of the work was to determine the relations between the applied machining strategy and the obtained surface integrity, in order to select the effective cutting conditions allowing the obtainment of high surface quality. The carried out experiment included the machining of Inconel 718 in the conventional turning conditions, as well as during the continuous laser assisted machining and sequential laser assistance. The surface integrity was evaluated by the measurements of machined surface topographies, microstructures and the microhardness. Results revealed that surface integrity of Inconel 718 is strongly affected by the selected machining strategy. The significant improvement of the surface roughness formed during machining of Inconel 718, can be reached by the application of simultaneous laser heating and cutting (LAM).

Keywords: Inconel 718, laser assisted machining, surface integrity, turning

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
4032 Evaluation of Cast-in-Situ Pile Condition Using Pile Integrity Test

Authors: Mohammad I. Hossain, Omar F. Hamim


This paper presents a case study on a pile integrity test for assessing the integrity of piles as well as a physical dimension (e.g., cross-sectional area, length), continuity, and consistency of the pile materials. The recent boom in the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh has given rise to the building of high-rise commercial and residential infrastructures. The advantage of the pile integrity test lies in the fact that it is possible to get an approximate indication regarding the quality of the sub-structure before commencing the construction of the super-structure. This paper aims at providing a classification of cast-in-situ piles based on characteristic reflectograms obtained using the Sonic Integrity Testing program for the sub-soil condition of Narayanganj, Bangladesh. The piles have been classified as 'Pile Type-1', 'Pile Type-2', 'Pile Type-3', 'Pile type-4', 'Pile Type-5' or 'Pile Type-6' from the visual observations of reflections from the generated stress waves by striking the pile head with a handheld hammer. With respect to construction quality and integrity, piles have been further classified into three distinct categories, i.e., satisfactory, may be satisfactory, and unsatisfactory.

Keywords: cast-in-situ piles, characteristic reflectograms, pile integrity test, sonic integrity testing program

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
4031 Structural Health Monitoring using Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors in Slab and Beams

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Dinesh Muthoo, Kim twiname


Many existing and newly built structures are constructed on the design basis of the engineer and the workmanship of the construction company. However, when considering larger structures where more people are exposed to the building, its structural integrity is of great importance considering the safety of its occupants (Raghu, 2013). But how can the structural integrity of a building be monitored efficiently and effectively. This is where the fourth industrial revolution step in, and with minimal human interaction, data can be collected, analysed, and stored, which could also give an indication of any inconsistencies found in the data collected, this is where the Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) monitoring system is introduced. This paper illustrates how data can be collected and converted to develop stress – strain behaviour and to produce bending moment diagrams for the utilisation and prediction of the structure’s integrity. Embedded fibre optic sensors were used in this study– fibre Bragg grating sensors in particular. The procedure entailed making use of the shift in wavelength demodulation technique and an inscription process of the phase mask technique. The fibre optic sensors considered in this report were photosensitive and embedded in the slab and beams for data collection and analysis. Two sets of fibre cables have been inserted, one purposely to collect temperature recordings and the other to collect strain and temperature. The data was collected over a time period and analysed used to produce bending moment diagrams to make predictions of the structure’s integrity. The data indicated the fibre Bragg grating sensing system proved to be useful and can be used for structural health monitoring in any environment. From the experimental data for the slab and beams, the moments were found to be64.33 kN.m, 64.35 kN.m and 45.20 kN.m (from the experimental bending moment diagram), and as per the idealistic (Ultimate Limit State), the data of 133 kN.m and 226.2 kN.m were obtained. The difference in values gave room for an early warning system, in other words, a reserve capacity of approximately 50% to failure.

Keywords: fibre bragg grating, structural health monitoring, fibre optic sensors, beams

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4030 Structural Integrity Analysis of Baffle Former Assembly in Pressurized Water Reactors Considering Irradiation Aging

Authors: Jong-Sung Kim, Myung-Jo Jhung


BFA is one of the reactor internals components in PWR. The BFA has the intended functions to support fuel assembly, to keep structural integrity of upper/lower core support structures, and to secure reactor coolant flow path. Failure of the BFA may give rise to significant effect on reactor safety operation and stop. The BFA is subject to relatively high neutron irradiation dose due to location close to the core. Therefore, IASCC can occur on the BFA due to damage accumulation as operating year increases. In this study, IASCC susceptibility on the BFA was assessed via the FEA considering variations of mechanical material behaviors with neutron irradiation. As a result of the assessment, some points have susceptibility more than 0.2 to IASCC during design lifetime.

Keywords: baffle former assembly, finite element analysis, irradiation aging, nuclear power plant, pressurized water reactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4029 Acrosomal Integrity, DNA Integrity and Post-Thawing Motility of Goat Semen after Methionine Supplementation

Authors: K. A. El-Battawy, W. S. El-Nattat


The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the impact of methionine on the preservation, acrosomal integrity, DNA integrity and post thawing motility of extended goat semen. Semen samples were diluted with a Tris-based extender containing the additive methionine 1.5, 2.5 and 5mM then the diluted samples were kept in glass tubes and cooled from 37°C to 5°C in a cold cabinet, and maintained at 5°C. Sperm motility (SM%), alive sperm (AS%), sperm abnormalities (SA%) acrosomal integrity and DNA integrity were determined at 5°C for periods of 0,24, 48and 72 h of liquid storage. Furthermore, the influence of methionine on post-thawing motility was assessed. The results elaborated that the addition of methionine and L-tyrosine particularly 2.5mM of methionine significantly improved SM% and reduced dead sperm %. Furthermore, the addition of 2.5mM methionine improved post-thawing motility (43.75 ± 1.25% vs. 32.50 ± 3.23 in the control group). Moreover, the frequency of acrosomal defects was lower in treated groups than in control. In conclusion, the addition of methionine induced remarkable physiological effects on goat semen quality during conservation for 7-days-long period at 5°C and improved its freezability.

Keywords: methionine, acrosome, semen, cryopreservation

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4028 Power Integrity Analysis of Power Delivery System in High Speed Digital FPGA Board

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey


Power plane noise is the most significant source of signal integrity (SI) issues in a high-speed digital design. In this paper, power integrity (PI) analysis of multiple power planes in a power delivery system of a 12-layer high-speed FPGA board is presented. All 10 power planes of HSD board are analyzed separately by using 3D Electromagnetic based PI solver, then the transient simulation is performed on combined PI data of all planes along with voltage regulator modules (VRMs) and 70 current drawing chips to get the board level power noise coupling on different high-speed signals. De-coupling capacitors are placed between power planes and ground to reduce power noise coupling with signals.

Keywords: power integrity, power-aware signal integrity analysis, electromagnetic simulation, channel simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
4027 Comparing Different Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar Antennas for Tunnel Health Assessment

Authors: Can Mungan, Gokhan Kilic


Structural engineers and tunnel owners have good reason to attach importance to the assessment and inspection of tunnels. Regular inspection is necessary to maintain and monitor the health of the structure not only at the present time but throughout its life cycle. Detection of flaws within the structure, such as corrosion and the formation of cracks within the internal elements of the structure, can go a long way to ensuring that the structure maintains its integrity over the course of its life. Other issues that may be detected earlier through regular assessment include tunnel surface delamination and the corrosion of the rebar. One advantage of new technology such as the ground penetrating radar (GPR) is the early detection of imperfections. This study will aim to discuss and present the effectiveness of GPR as a tool for assessing the structural integrity of the heavily used tunnel. GPR is used with various antennae in frequency and application method (2 GHz and 500 MHz GPR antennae). The paper will attempt to produce a greater understanding of structural defects and identify the correct tool for such purposes. Conquest View with 3D scanning capabilities was involved throughout the analysis, reporting, and interpretation of the results. This study will illustrate GPR mapping and its effectiveness in providing information of value when it comes to rebar position (lower and upper reinforcement). It will also show how such techniques can detect structural features that would otherwise remain unseen, as well as moisture ingress.

Keywords: tunnel, GPR, health monitoring, moisture ingress, rebar position

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4026 Optimal Design of Propellant Grain Shape Based on Structural Strength Analysis

Authors: Chen Xiong, Tong Xin, Li Hao, Xu Jin-Sheng


Experiment and simulation researches on the structural integrity of propellant grain in solid rocket motor (SRM) with high volumetric fraction were conducted. First, by using SRM parametric modeling functions with secondary development tool Python of ABAQUS, the three dimensional parameterized modeling programs of star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain were accomplished. Then, the mechanical properties under different loads for star shaped grain were obtained with the application of automatically established finite element model in ABAQUS. Next, several optimization algorithms are introduced to optimize the star shaped grain, wheel shaped grain and wing cylindrical grain. After meeting the demands of burning surface changes and volumetric fraction, the optimum three dimensional shapes of grain were obtained. Finally, by means of parametric modeling functions, pressure data of SRM’s cold pressurization test was directly applied to simulation of grain in terms of mechanical performance. The results verify the reliability and practical of parameterized modeling program of SRM.

Keywords: cold pressurization test, ğarametric modeling, structural integrity, propellant grain, SRM

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
4025 Secure Transfer of Medical Images Using Hybrid Encryption

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Belkaid, Lahdi Mourad


In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues medical images. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every new session of encryption, that will be used to encrypt each frame of the medical image basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: AES, RSA, integrity, confidentiality, authentication, medical images, encryption, decryption, key, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
4024 Development of a Bacterial Resistant Concrete for Use in Low Cost Kitchen Floors

Authors: S. S. Mahlangu, R. K. K. Mbaya, D. D. Delport, H. Van. Zyl


The degrading effect due to bacterial growth on the structural integrity of concrete floor surfaces is predictable; this consequently cause development of surface micro cracks in which organisms penetrate through resulting in surface spalling. Hence, the need to develop mix design meeting the requirement of floor surfaces exposed to aggressive agent to improve certain material properties with good workability, extended lifespan and low cost is essential. In this work, tests were performed to examine the microbial activity on kitchen floor surfaces and the effect of adding admixtures. The biochemical test shows the existence of microorganisms (E.coli, Streptococcus) on newly casted structure. Of up to 6% porosity was reduced and improvement on structural integrity was observed upon adding mineral admixtures from the concrete mortar. The SEM result after 84 days of curing specimens, shows that chemical admixtures have significant role to enable retard bacterial penetration and good quality structure is achieved.

Keywords: admixture, organisms, porosity, strength

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4023 The Development of an Integrity Cultivating Module in School-Based Assessment among Malaysian Teachers: A Research Methodology

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor, Norazilawati Binti Abdullah, Rahimah Adam, Othman Bin Lebar


The competency and integrity required for better understanding and practice of School-based Assessment (PBS) comes not only from the process, but also in providing the support or ‘scaffolding’ for teachers to recognize the student as a learner, improve their self-assessment skills, understanding of the daily teaching plan and its constructive alignment of the curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. The cultivation of integrity in PBS among the teachers is geared towards encouraging them to become committed and dedicated in implementing assessments in a serious, efficient manner, thus moving away from the usual teacher-focused approach to the student-focused approach. The teachers show their integrity via their professional commitment, responsibility and actions. The module based on the cultivation of integrity in PBS among Malaysian teachers aims to broaden the guidance support for teachers (embedded in the training), which consists of various domains to enable better evaluation of complex assessment tasks and the construction of suitable instrument for measuring the relevant cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to describe the students’ achievement. The instrument for integrity cultivation in PBS has been developed and validated for measuring the effectiveness of the module constructed. This module is targeted towards assisting the staff in the Education Ministry, especially the principal trainers, teachers, headmasters and education officers to acquire effective intervention for improving the PBS assessors’ integrity and competency.

Keywords: school-based assessment, assessment competency integrity cultivation, professional commitment, module

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4022 J-Integral Method for Assessment of Structural Integrity of a Pressure Vessel

Authors: Karthik K. R, Viswanath V, Asraff A. K


The first stage of a new-generation launch vehicle of ISRO makes use of large pressure vessels made of Aluminium alloy AA2219 to store fuel and oxidizer. These vessels have many weld joints that may contain cracks or crack-like defects during their fabrication. These defects may propagate across the vessel during pressure testing or while in service under the influence of tensile stresses leading to catastrophe. Though ductile materials exhibit significant stable crack growth prior to failure, it is not generally acceptable for an aerospace component. There is a need to predict the initiation of stable crack growth. The structural integrity of the vessel from fracture considerations can be studied by constructing the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) that accounts for both brittle fracture and plastic collapse. Critical crack sizes of the pressure vessel may be highly conservative if it is predicted from FAD alone. If the J-R curve for material under consideration is available apriori, the critical crack sizes can be predicted to a certain degree of accuracy. In this paper, a novel approach is proposed to predict the integrity of a weld in a pressure vessel made of AA2219 material. Fracture parameter ‘J-integral’ at the crack front, evaluated through finite element analyses, is used in the new procedure. Based on the simulation of tension tests carried out on SCT specimens by NASA, a cut-off value of J-integral value (J?ᵤₜ_ₒ??) is finalised. For the pressure vessel, J-integral at the crack front is evaluated through FE simulations incorporating different surface cracks at long seam weld in a cylinder and in dome petal welds. The obtained J-integral, at vessel level, is compared with a value of J?ᵤₜ_ₒ??, and the integrity of vessel weld in the presence of the surface crack is firmed up. The advantage of this methodology is that if SCT test data of any metal is available, the critical crack size in hardware fabricated using that material can be predicted to a better level of accuracy.

Keywords: FAD, j-integral, fracture, surface crack

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4021 MSG Image Encryption Based on AES and RSA Algorithms "MSG Image Security"

Authors: Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid, Lahdir Mourad


In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues meteorological images from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), which generates 12 images every 15 minutes. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every 15 minutes that will be used to encrypt each frame of the MSG meteorological basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: AES, RSA, integrity, confidentiality, authentication, satellite MSG, encryption, decryption, key, correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
4020 Data Integrity: Challenges in Health Information Systems in South Africa

Authors: T. Thulare, M. Herselman, A. Botha


Poor system use, including inappropriate design of health information systems, causes difficulties in communication with patients and increased time spent by healthcare professionals in recording the necessary health information for medical records. System features like pop-up reminders, complex menus, and poor user interfaces can make medical records far more time consuming than paper cards as well as affect decision-making processes. Although errors associated with health information and their real and likely effect on the quality of care and patient safety have been documented for many years, more research is needed to measure the occurrence of these errors and determine the causes to implement solutions. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify data integrity challenges in hospital information systems through a scoping review and based on the results provide recommendations on how to manage these. Only 34 papers were found to be most suitable out of 297 publications initially identified in the field. The results indicated that human and computerized systems are the most common challenges associated with data integrity and factors such as policy, environment, health workforce, and lack of awareness attribute to these challenges but if measures are taken the data integrity challenges can be managed.

Keywords: data integrity, data integrity challenges, hospital information systems, South Africa

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4019 Anti-Graft Instruments and Their Role in Curbing Corruption: Integrity Pact and Its Impact on Indian Procurement

Authors: Jot Prakash Kaur


The paper aims to showcase that with the introduction of anti-graft instruments and willingness of the governments towards their implementation, a significant change can be witnessed in the anti-corruption landscape of any country. Since the past decade anti-graft instruments have been introduced by several international non-governmental organizations with the vision of curbing corruption. Transparency International’s ‘Integrity Pact’ has been one such initiative. Integrity Pact has been described as a tool for preventing corruption in public contracting. Integrity Pact has found its relevance in a developing country like India where public procurement constitutes 25-30 percent of Gross Domestic Product. Corruption in public procurement has been a cause of concern even though India has in place a whole architecture of rules and regulations governing public procurement. Integrity Pact was first adopted by a leading Oil and Gas government company in 2006. Till May 2015, over ninety organizations had adopted Integrity Pact, of which majority of them are central government units. The methodology undertaken to understand impact of Integrity Pact on Public procurement is through analyzing information received from important stakeholders of the instrument. Government, information was sought through Right to Information Act 2005 about the details of adoption of this instrument by various government organizations and departments. Contractor, Company websites and annual reports were used to find out the steps taken towards implementation of Integrity Pact. Civil Society, Transparency International India’s resource materials which include publications and reports on Integrity Pact were also used to understand the impact of Integrity Pact. Some of the findings of the study include organizations adopting Integrity pacts in all kinds of contracts such that 90% of their procurements fall under Integrity Pact. Indian State governments have found merit in Integrity Pact and have adopted it in their procurement contracts. Integrity Pact has been instrumental in creating a brand image of companies. External Monitors, an essential feature of Integrity Pact have emerged as arbitrators for the bidders and are the first line of procurement auditors for the organizations. India has cancelled two defense contracts finding it conflicting with the provisions of Integrity Pact. Some of the clauses of Integrity Pact have been included in the proposed Public Procurement legislation. Integrity Pact has slowly but steadily grown to become an integral part of big ticket procurement in India. Government’s commitment to implement Integrity Pact has changed the way in which public procurement is conducted in India. Public Procurement was a segment infested with corruption but with the adoption of Integrity Pact a number of clean up acts have been performed to make procurement transparent. The paper is divided in five sections. First section elaborates on Integrity Pact. Second section talks about stakeholders of the instrument and the role it plays in its implementation. Third section talks about the efforts taken by the government to implement Integrity Pact in India. Fourth section talks about the role of External Monitor as Arbitrator. The final section puts forth suggestions to strengthen the existing form of Integrity Pact and increase its reach.

Keywords: corruption, integrity pact, procurement, vigilance

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4018 Technical Non-Destructive Evaluation of Burnt Bridge at CH. 57+450 Along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja Road, Nigeria

Authors: Abraham O. Olaniyi, Oluyemi Oke, Atilade Otunla


The structural performance of bridges decreases progressively throughout their service life due to many contributing factors (fatigue, carbonation, fire incidents etc.). Around the world, numerous bridges have attained their estimated service life and many have approached this limit. The structural integrity assessment of the burnt composite bridge located at CH57+450, Koita village along Abuja-Abaji-Lokoja road, Nigeria, is presented as a case study and shall be forthwith referred to as the 'Koita bridge' in this paper. From the technical evaluation, the residual compressive strength of the concrete piers was found to be below 16.0 N/mm2. This value is very low compared to the expected design value of 30.0 N/mm2. The pier capping beam at pier location 1 has a very low residual compressive strength. The cover to the reinforcement of certain capping beams has an outline of reinforcement which signifies poor concrete cover and the mean compressive strength is also less than 20.0 N/mm2. The steel girder indicated black colouration as a result of the fire incident without any significant structural defect like buckling or warping of the steel section. This paper reviews the structural integrity assessment and repair methodology of the Koita bridge; a composite bridge damaged by fire, highlighting the various challenges of limited obtainable guidance documents about the bridge. The objectives are to increase the understanding of processes and versatile equipment required to test and assess a fire-damaged bridge in order to improve the quality of structural appraisal and rehabilitation; thus, eliminating the prejudice associated with current visual inspection techniques.

Keywords: assessment, bridge, rehabilitation, sustainability

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4017 Progressive Structural Capacity Loss Assessment

Authors: M. Zain, Thaung H. Aung, Naveed Anwar


During the service life, a structure may experience extreme loading conditions. The current study proposes a new methodology that covers the effect of uncertainty involved in gravity loadings on key structural elements of new and complex structures by emphasizing on a very realistic assumption that allows the 'Performance-Based Assessment' to be executed on the structure against the gravity loadings. The methodology does not require the complete removal of an element, instead, it permits the incremental reduction in the capacity of key structural elements and preserves the same stiffness of the member in each case of capacity loss. To demonstrate the application of the proposed methodology, a 13 story complex structure is selected that comprises of a diverse structural configuration. The results ensure the structural integrity against the applied gravity loadings, as well as the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: force-deformation relationship, gravity loading, incremental capacity reduction, multi-linear plastic link element, SAP2000, stiffness

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4016 Trusted Neural Network: Reversibility in Neural Networks for Network Integrity Verification

Authors: Malgorzata Schwab, Ashis Kumer Biswas


In this concept paper, we explore the topic of Reversibility in Neural Networks leveraged for Network Integrity Verification and crafted the term ''Trusted Neural Network'' (TNN), paired with the API abstraction around it, to embrace the idea formally. This newly proposed high-level generalizable TNN model builds upon the Invertible Neural Network architecture, trained simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions. This allows for the original system inputs to be compared with the ones reconstructed from the outputs in the reversed flow to assess the integrity of the end-to-end inference flow. The outcome of that assessment is captured as an Integrity Score. Concrete implementation reflecting the needs of specific problem domains can be derived from this general approach and is demonstrated in the experiments. The model aspires to become a useful practice in drafting high-level systems architectures which incorporate AI capabilities.

Keywords: trusted, neural, invertible, API

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4015 Spatial Integrity of Seismic Data for Oil and Gas Exploration

Authors: Afiq Juazer Rizal, Siti Zaleha Misnan, M. Zairi M. Yusof


Seismic data is the fundamental tool utilized by exploration companies to determine potential hydrocarbon. However, the importance of seismic trace data will be undermined unless the geo-spatial component of the data is understood. Deriving a proposed well to be drilled from data that has positional ambiguity will jeopardize business decision and millions of dollars’ investment that every oil and gas company would like to avoid. Spatial integrity QC workflow has been introduced in PETRONAS to ensure positional errors within the seismic data are recognized throughout the exploration’s lifecycle from acquisition, processing, and seismic interpretation. This includes, amongst other tests, quantifying that the data is referenced to the appropriate coordinate reference system, survey configuration validation, and geometry loading verification. The direct outcome of the workflow implementation helps improve reliability and integrity of sub-surface geological model produced by geoscientist and provide important input to potential hazard assessment where positional accuracy is crucial. This workflow’s development initiative is part of a bigger geospatial integrity management effort, whereby nearly eighty percent of the oil and gas data are location-dependent.

Keywords: oil and gas exploration, PETRONAS, seismic data, spatial integrity QC workflow

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4014 Subsea Control Module (SCM) - A Vital Factor for Well Integrity and Production Performance in Deep Water Oil and Gas Fields

Authors: Okoro Ikechukwu Ralph, Fuat Kara


The discoveries of hydrocarbon reserves has clearly drifted offshore, and in deeper waters - areas where the industry still has limited knowledge; and that were hitherto, regarded as being out of reach. This shift presents significant and increased challenges in technology requirements needed to guarantee safety of personnel, environment and equipment; ensure high reliability of installed equipment; and provide high level of confidence in security of investment and company reputation. Nowhere are these challenges more apparent than on subsea well integrity and production performance. The past two decades has witnessed enormous rise in deep and ultra-deep water offshore field developments for the recovery of hydrocarbons. Subsea installed equipment at the seabed has been the technology of choice for these developments. This paper discusses the role of Subsea Control module (SCM) as a vital factor for deep-water well integrity and production performance. A case study for Deep-water well integrity and production performance is analysed.

Keywords: offshore reliability, production performance, subsea control module, well integrity

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