Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4392

Search results for: structural steel

4392 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi

Abstract:

Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
4391 Experimental Investigation on Residual Stresses in Welded Medium-Walled I-shaped Sections Fabricated from Q460GJ Structural Steel Plates

Authors: Qian Zhu, Shidong Nie, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Guoxin Dai

Abstract:

GJ steel is a new type of high-performance structural steel which has been increasingly adopted in practical engineering. Q460GJ structural steel has a nominal yield strength of 460 MPa, which does not decrease significantly with the increase of steel plate thickness like normal structural steel. Thus, Q460GJ structural steel is normally used in medium-walled welded sections. However, research works on the residual stress in GJ steel members are few though it is one of the vital factors that can affect the member and structural behavior. This article aims to investigate the residual stresses in welded I-shaped sections fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates by experimental tests. A total of four full scale welded medium-walled I-shaped sections were tested by sectioning method. Both circular curve correction method and straightening measurement method were adopted in this study to obtain the final magnitude and distribution of the longitudinal residual stresses. In addition, this paper also explores the interaction between flanges and webs. And based on the statistical evaluation of the experimental data, a multilayer residual stress model is proposed.

Keywords: Q460GJ structural steel, residual stresses, sectioning method, welded medium-walled I-shaped sections

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
4390 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
4389 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai

Abstract:

The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
4388 Seismic Performance Evaluation of the Composite Structural System with Separated Gravity and Lateral Resistant Systems

Authors: Zi-Ang Li, Mu-Xuan Tao

Abstract:

During the process of the industrialization of steel structure housing, a composite structural system with separated gravity and lateral resistant systems has been applied in engineering practices, which consists of composite frame with hinged beam-column joints, steel brace and RC shear wall. As an attempt in steel structural system area, seismic performance evaluation of the separated composite structure is important for further application in steel housing. This paper focuses on the seismic performance comparison of the separated composite structural system and traditional steel frame-shear wall system under the same inter-story drift ratio (IDR) provision limit. The same architectural layout of a high-rise building is designed as two different structural systems at the same IDR level, and finite element analysis using pushover method is carried out. Static pushover analysis implies that the separated structural system exhibits different lateral deformation mode and failure mechanism with traditional steel frame-shear wall system. Different indexes are adopted and discussed in seismic performance evaluation, including IDR, safe factor (SF), shear wall damage, etc. The performance under maximum considered earthquake (MCE) demand spectrum shows that the shear wall damage of two structural systems are similar; the separated composite structural system exhibits less plastic hinges; and the SF index value of the separated composite structural system is higher than the steel frame shear wall structural system.

Keywords: finite element analysis, new composite structural system, seismic performance evaluation, static pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
4387 High Strength Steel Thin-Walled Cold-Formed Profiles Manufactured for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: A. Natali, F. V. Lippi, F. Morelli, W. Salvatore, J. H. M. De Paula Filho, P. Pol

Abstract:

Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose load-bearing structure is made of the same steel racks where goods are stocked. These racks are made of cold formed elements, and the main supporting structure is repeated several times along the length of the building, resulting in a huge quantity of steel. The possibility of using high strength steel to manufacture the traditional cold-formed profiles used for ARSWs is numerically investigated, with the aim of reducing the necessary steel quantity but guaranteeing optimal structural performance levels.

Keywords: steel racks, automated rack supported warehouse, thin-walled cold-formed elements, high strength steel, structural optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
4386 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar

Abstract:

In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
4385 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
4384 Printing Imperfections: Development of Buckling Patterns to Improve Strength of 3D Printed Steel Plated Elements

Authors: Ben Chater, Jingbang Pan, Mark Evernden, Jie Wang

Abstract:

Traditional structural steel manufacturing routes normally produce prismatic members with flat plate elements. In these members, plate instability in the lowest buckling mode often dominates failure. It is proposed in the current study to use a new technology of metal 3D printing to print steel-plated elements with predefined imperfection patterns that can lead to higher modes of failure with increased buckling resistances. To this end, a numerical modeling program is carried out to explore various combinations of predefined buckling waves with different amplitudes in stainless steel square hollow section stub columns. Their stiffness, strength, and material consumption against the traditional structural steel members with the same nominal dimensions are assessed. It is found that depending on the slenderness of the plate elements; it is possible for an ‘imperfect’ steel member to achieve up to a 30% increase in strength with just a 3% increase in the material consumption. The obtained results shed some light on the significant potential of the new metal 3D printing technology in achieving unprecedented material efficiency and economical design in the future steel construction industry.

Keywords: 3D printing, additive manufacturing, buckling resistance, steel plate buckling, structural optimisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
4383 Stress Analysis of Spider Gear Using Structural Steel on ANSYS

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Shahab Khushnood

Abstract:

Differential is an integral part of four wheeled vehicle, and its main function is to transmit power from drive shaft to wheels. Differential assembly allows both rear wheels to turn at different speed along curved paths. It consists of four gears which are assembled together namely pinion, ring, spider and bevel gears. This research focused on the spider gear and its static structural analysis using ANSYS. The main aim was to evaluate the distribution of stresses on the teeth of the spider gear. This study also analyzed total deformation that may occur during its working along with bevel gear that is meshed with spider gear. Structural steel was chosen for spider gear in this research. Modeling and assembling were done on SolidWorks for both spider and bevel gear. They were assembled exactly same as in a differential assembly. This assembly was then imported to ANSYS. After observing results that maximum amount of stress and deformation was produced in the spider gear, it was concluded that structural steel material for spider gear possesses greater amount of strength to bear maximum stress.

Keywords: ANSYS, differential, spider gear, structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
4382 Analytical Evaluation on Structural Performance and Optimum Section of CHS Damper

Authors: Daniel Y. Abebe, Jeonghyun Jang, Jaehyouk Choi

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate the effective size, section and structural characteristics of circular hollow steel (CHS) damper. CHS damper is among steel dampers which are used widely for seismic energy dissipation because they are easy to install, maintain and are inexpensive. CHS damper dissipates seismic energy through metallic deformation due to the geometrical elasticity of circular shape and fatigue resistance around connection part. After calculating the effective size, which is found to be height to diameter ratio of √("3"), nonlinear FE analyses were carried out to evaluate the structural characteristics and effective section (diameter-to-ratio).

Keywords: circular hollow steel damper, structural characteristics, effective size, effective section, large deformation, FE analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
4381 Square Concrete Columns under Axial Compression

Authors: Suniti Suparp, Panuwat Joyklad, Qudeer Hussain

Abstract:

This is a well-known fact that the actual latera forces due to natural disasters, for example, earthquakes, floods and storms are difficult to predict accurately. Among these natural disasters, so far, the highest amount of deaths and injuries have been recorded for the case of earthquakes all around the world. Therefore, there is always an urgent need to establish suitable strengthening methods for existing concrete and steel structures. This paper is investigating the structural performance of square concrete columns strengthened using low cost and easily available steel clamps. The salient features of these steel clamps are comparatively low cost, easy availability and ease of installation. To achieve research objectives, a large-scale experimental program was established in which a total number of 12 square concrete columns were constructed and tested under pure axial compression. Three square concrete columns were tested without any steel lamps to serve as a reference specimen. Whereas, remaining concrete columns were externally strengthened using steel clamps. The steel clamps were installed at a different spacing to investigate the best configuration of the steel clamps. The experimental results indicate that steel clamps are very effective in altering the structural performance of the square concrete columns. The square concrete columns externally strengthened using steel clamps demonstrate higher load carrying capacity and ductility as compared with the control specimens.

Keywords: concrete, strength, ductility, pre-stressed, steel, clamps, axial compression, columns, stress and strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
4380 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
4379 Prediction of Maximum Inter-Story Drifts of Steel Frames Using Intensity Measures

Authors: Edén Bojórquez, Victor Baca, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar, Jorge González

Abstract:

In this paper, simplified equations to predict maximum inter-story drift demands of steel framed buildings are proposed in terms of two ground motion intensity measures based on the acceleration spectral shape. For this aim, the maximum inter-story drifts of steel frames with 4, 6, 8 and 10 stories subjected to narrow-band ground motion records are estimated and compared with the spectral acceleration at first mode of vibration Sa(T1) which is commonly used in earthquake engineering and seismology, and with a new parameter related with the structural response known as INp. It is observed that INp is the parameter best related with the structural response of steel frames under narrow-band motions. Finally, equations to compute maximum inter-story drift demands of steel frames as a function of spectral acceleration and INp are proposed.

Keywords: intensity measures, spectral shape, steel frames, peak demands

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
4378 Examination of Corrosion Durability Related to Installed Environments of Steel Bridges

Authors: Jin-Hee Ahn, Seok-Hyeon Jeon, Young-Bin Lee, Min-Gyun Ha, Yu-Chan Hong

Abstract:

Corrosion durability of steel bridges can be generally affected by atmospheric environments of bridge installation, since corrosion problem is related to environmental factors such as humidity, temperature, airborne salt, chemical components as SO₂, chlorides, etc. Thus, atmospheric environment condition should be measured to estimate corrosion condition of steel bridges as well as measurement of actual corrosion damage of structural members of steel bridge. Even in the same atmospheric environment, the corrosion environment may be different depending on the installation direction of structural members. In this study, therefore, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was conducted using atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensor, hygrometer, thermometer and airborne salt collection device to examine the corrosion durability of steel bridges. As a target steel bridge for corrosion durability monitoring, a cable-stayed bridge with truss steel members was selected. This cable-stayed bridge was located on the coast to connect the islands with the islands. Especially, atmospheric corrosion monitoring was carried out depending on structural direction of a cable-stayed bridge with truss type girders since it consists of structural members with various directions. For atmospheric corrosion monitoring, daily average electricity (corrosion current) was measured at each monitoring members to evaluate corrosion environments and corrosion level depending on structural members with various direction which have different corrosion environment in the same installed area. To compare corrosion durability connected with monitoring data depending on corrosion monitoring members, monitoring steel plate was additionally installed in same monitoring members. Monitoring steel plates of carbon steel was fabricated with dimension of 60mm width and 3mm thickness. And its surface was cleaned for removing rust on the surface by blasting, and its weight was measured before its installation on each structural members. After a 3 month exposure period on real atmospheric corrosion environment at bridge, surface condition of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors and monitoring steel plates were observed for corrosion damage. When severe deterioration of atmospheric corrosion monitoring sensors or corrosion damage of monitoring steel plates were found, they were replaced or collected. From 3month exposure tests in the actual steel bridge with various structural member with various direction, the rust on the surface of monitoring steel plate was found, and the difference in the corrosion rate was found depending on the direction of structural member from their visual inspection. And daily average electricity (corrosion current) was changed depending on the direction of structural member. However, it is difficult to identify the relative differences in corrosion durability of steel structural members using short-term monitoring results. After long exposure tests in this corrosion environments, it can be clearly evaluated the difference in corrosion durability depending on installed conditions of steel bridges. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03028755).

Keywords: corrosion, atmospheric environments, steel bridge, monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4377 Comparative Study of Concrete Filled Steel I-Girder Bridge with Conventional Type of Bridge

Authors: Waheed Ahmad Safi, Shunichi Nakamura, Abdul Habib Ghaforzai

Abstract:

Steel and concrete composite bridge with concrete filled steel I-girder (CFIG) was proposed and FEM and laboratory tests were conducted to analysis bending and shear behavior. The proposed form of structural steel I-section is mainly used at the intermediate support zone by placing infilled concrete into the top and bottom flanges of steel I-section to resist negative bending moment. The bending and shear tests were carried out to find out the significance of CFIG section. The result for test showing that the bending and shear capacity of proposed CFIG is at least 3 times and 2 times greater than conventional steel I-section (IG) respectively. Finite element study was also carried out to ensure the result for laboratory tests due to bending and shear behavior and load transfer behavior of proposed structural form. Finite element result result agreed the test result. A design example was carried out for a four-span continuous highway bridge and design method was established.

Keywords: bending strength, concrete filled steel I-girder, steel I-girder, FEM, limit states design and shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
4376 Embedment Design Concept of Signature Tower in Chennai

Authors: M. Gobinath, S. Balaji

Abstract:

Assumptions in model inputs: Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for slab), Grade of concrete=40 N/mm2 (for shear wall), Grade of Structural steel (plate girder)=350 N/mm2 (yield strength), Ultimate strength of structural steel=490 N/mm2, Grade of rebar=500 N/mm2 (yield strength), Applied Load=1716 kN (un-factored). Following assumptions are made for the mathematical modelling of RCC with steel embedment: (1) The bond between the structural steel and concrete is neglected. (2) The stiffener is provided with shear studs to transfer the shear force. Hence nodal connectivity is established between solid nodes (concrete) and shell elements (stiffener) at those locations. (3) As the end reinforcements transfer either tension/compression, it is modeled as line element and connected to solid nodes. (4) In order to capture the bearing of bottom flange on to the concrete, the line element of plan size of solid equal to the cross section of line elements is connected between solid and shell elements below for bottom flange and above for top flange. (5) As the concrete cannot resist tension at the interface (i.e., between structural steel and RCC), the tensile stiffness is assigned as zero and only compressive stiffness is enabled to take. Hence, non-linear static analysis option is invoked.

Keywords: structure, construction, signature tower, embedment design concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
4375 Strengthening of Concrete Slabs with Steel Beams

Authors: Mizam Doğan

Abstract:

In service life; structures can be damaged if they are subjected to dead and live loads which are greater than design values. For preventing this case; possible loads must be correctly calculated, structure must be designed according to determined loads, and structure must not be used out of its function. If loading case of the structure changes when its function changes; it must be reinforced for continuing it is new function. Reinforcement is a process that is made by increasing the existing strengths of structural system elements of the structure as reinforced concrete walls, beams, and slabs. Reinforcement can be done by casting reinforced concrete, placing steel and fiber structural elements. In this paper, reinforcing of columns and slabs of a structure of which function is changed is studied step by step. This reinforcement is made for increasing vertical and lateral load carrying capacity of the building. Not for repairing damaged structural system.

Keywords: strengthening, RC slabs, seismic load, steel beam, structural irregularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
4374 Structural Damage Detection in a Steel Column-Beam Joint Using Piezoelectric Sensors

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra, Nobuhiro Shimoi

Abstract:

Application of piezoelectric sensors to detect structural damage due to seismic action on building structures is investigated. Plate-type piezoelectric sensor was developed and proposed for this task. A film-type piezoelectric sheet was attached on a steel plate and covered by a layer of glass. A special glue is used to fix the glass. This glue is a silicone that requires the application of ultraviolet rays for its hardening. Then, the steel plate was set up at a steel column-beam joint of a test specimen that was subjected to bending moment when test specimen is subjected to monotonic load and cyclic load. The structural behavior of test specimen during cyclic loading was verified using a finite element model, and it was found good agreement between both results on load-displacement characteristics. The cross section of steel elements (beam and column) is a box section of 100 mm×100 mm with a thin of 6 mm. This steel section is specified by the Japanese Industrial Standards as carbon steel square tube for general structure (STKR400). The column and beam elements are jointed perpendicularly using a fillet welding. The resulting test specimen has a T shape. When large deformation occurs the glass plate of the sensor device cracks and at that instant, the piezoelectric material emits a voltage signal which would be the indicator of a certain level of deformation or damage. Applicability of this piezoelectric sensor to detect structural damages was verified; however, additional analysis and experimental tests are required to establish standard parameters of the sensor system.

Keywords: piezoelectric sensor, static cyclic test, steel structure, seismic damages

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
4373 Optimum Design of Steel Space Frames by Hybrid Teaching-Learning Based Optimization and Harmony Search Algorithms

Authors: Alper Akin, Ibrahim Aydogdu

Abstract:

This study presents a hybrid metaheuristic algorithm to obtain optimum designs for steel space buildings. The optimum design problem of three-dimensional steel frames is mathematically formulated according to provisions of LRFD-AISC (Load and Resistance factor design of American Institute of Steel Construction). Design constraints such as the strength requirements of structural members, the displacement limitations, the inter-story drift and the other structural constraints are derived from LRFD-AISC specification. In this study, a hybrid algorithm by using teaching-learning based optimization (TLBO) and harmony search (HS) algorithms is employed to solve the stated optimum design problem. These algorithms are two of the recent additions to metaheuristic techniques of numerical optimization and have been an efficient tool for solving discrete programming problems. Using these two algorithms in collaboration creates a more powerful tool and mitigates each other’s weaknesses. To demonstrate the powerful performance of presented hybrid algorithm, the optimum design of a large scale steel building is presented and the results are compared to the previously obtained results available in the literature.

Keywords: optimum structural design, hybrid techniques, teaching-learning based optimization, harmony search algorithm, minimum weight, steel space frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 434
4372 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase

Abstract:

Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
4371 Seismic Response of Viscoelastic Dampers for Steel Structures

Authors: Ali Khoshraftar, S. A. Hashemi

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers (VED) to be used as energy-absorbing devices in buildings. The properties of VED are briefly described. The analytical studies of the model structures exhibiting the structural response reduction due to these viscoelastic devices are presented. Computer simulation of the damped response of a multi-storey steel frame structure shows significant reduction in floor displacement levels.

Keywords: dampers, seismic evaluation, steel frames, viscoelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
4370 Performance of Non-Deterministic Structural Optimization Algorithms Applied to a Steel Truss Structure

Authors: Ersilio Tushaj

Abstract:

The efficient solution that satisfies the optimal condition is an important issue in the structural engineering design problem. The new codes of structural design consist in design methodology that looks after the exploitation of the total resources of the construction material. In recent years some non-deterministic or meta-heuristic structural optimization algorithms have been developed widely in the research community. These methods search the optimum condition starting from the simulation of a natural phenomenon, such as survival of the fittest, the immune system, swarm intelligence or the cooling process of molten metal through annealing. Among these techniques the most known are: the genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, evolution strategies, particle swarm optimization, tabu search, ant colony optimization, harmony search and big bang crunch optimization. In this study, five of these algorithms are applied for the optimum weight design of a steel truss structure with variable geometry but fixed topology. The design process selects optimum distances and size sections from a set of commercial steel profiles. In the formulation of the design problem are considered deflection limitations, buckling and allowable stress constraints. The approach is repeated starting from different initial populations. The design problem topology is taken from an existing steel structure. The optimization process helps the engineer to achieve good final solutions, avoiding the repetitive evaluation of alternative designs in a time consuming process. The algorithms used for the application, the results of the optimal solutions, the number of iterations and the minimal weight designs, will be reported in the paper. Based on these results, it would be estimated, the amount of the steel that could be saved by applying structural analysis combined with non-deterministic optimization methods.

Keywords: structural optimization, non-deterministic methods, truss structures, steel truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
4369 Overall Stability of Welded Q460GJ Steel Box Columns: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Zhou Xiong, Kang Shao Bo, Yang Bo

Abstract:

To date, high-performance structural steel has been widely used for columns in construction practices due to its significant advantages over conventional steel. However, the same design approach with conventional steel columns is still adopted in the design of high-performance steel columns. As a result, its superior properties cannot be fully considered in design. This paper conducts a test and finite element analysis on the overall stability behaviour of welded Q460GJ steel box columns. In the test, four steel columns with different slenderness and width-to-thickness ratio were compressed under an axial compression testing machine. And finite element models were established in which material nonlinearity and residual stress distributions of test columns were included. Then, comparisons were made between test results and finite element result, it showed that finite element analysis results are agree well with the test result. It means that the test and finite element model are reliable. Then, we compared the test result with the design value calculated by current code, the result showed that Q460GJ steel box columns have the higher overall buckling capacity than the design value. It is necessary to update the design curves for Q460GJ steel columns so that the overall stability capacity of Q460GJ box columns can be designed appropriately.

Keywords: axial compression, box columns, global buckling, numerical simulations, Q460GJ steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
4368 Effect of Impact Load on the Bond between Steel and CFRP Laminate

Authors: Alaa Al-Mosawe, Riadh Al-Mahaidi

Abstract:

Carbon fiber reinforced polymers have been wildly used to strengthen steel structural elements. Those structural elements are normally subjected to static, dynamic, fatigue loadings during their life time. CFRP laminate is one of the common methods to strengthen these structures under the subjected loads. A number of researches have been focused on the bond characteristics of CFRP sheets to steel members under static, dynamic and fatigue loadings. There is a lack in understanding the behavior of the CFRP laminates under impact loading. This paper is showing the effect of high load rate on this bond. CFRP laminate CFK 150/2000 was used to strengthen steel joint by using Araldite 420 epoxy. The results showed that applying high load rate has a significant effect on the bond strength while a little influence on the effective bond length.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joints, bond strength, CFRP laminate, impact tensile loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
4367 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao

Abstract:

Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4366 Non-Chronological Approach in Crane Girder and Composite Steel Beam Installation: Case Study

Authors: Govindaraj Ramanathan

Abstract:

The time delay and the structural stability are major issues in big size projects due to several factors. Improper planning and poor coordination lead to delay in construction, which sometimes result in reworking or rebuilding. This definitely increases the cost and time of project. This situation stresses the structural engineers to plan out of the limits of contemporary technology utilizing non-chronological approach with creative ideas. One of the strategies to solve this issue is through structural integrity solutions in a cost-effective way. We have faced several problems in a project worth 470 million USD, and one such issue is crane girder installation with composite steel beams. We have applied structural integrity approach with the proper and revised planning schedule to solve the problem efficiently with minimal expenses.

Keywords: construction management, delay, non-chronological approach, composite beam, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
4365 The Structural Behavior of Fiber Reinforced Lightweight Concrete Beams: An Analytical Approach

Authors: Jubee Varghese, Pouria Hafiz

Abstract:

Increased use of lightweight concrete in the construction industry is mainly due to its reduction in the weight of the structural elements, which in turn reduces the cost of production, transportation, and the overall project cost. However, the structural application of these lightweight concrete structures is limited due to its reduced density. Hence, further investigations are in progress to study the effect of fiber inclusion in improving the mechanical properties of lightweight concrete. Incorporating structural steel fibers, in general, enhances the performance of concrete and increases its durability by minimizing its potential to cracking and providing crack arresting mechanism. In this research, Geometric and Materially Non-linear Analysis (GMNA) was conducted for Finite Element Modelling using a software known as ABAQUS, to investigate the structural behavior of lightweight concrete with and without the addition of steel fibers and shear reinforcement. 21 finite element models of beams were created to study the effect of steel fibers based on three main parameters; fiber volume fraction (Vf = 0, 0.5 and 0.75%), shear span to depth ratio (a/d of 2, 3 and 4) and ratio of area of shear stirrups to spacing (As/s of 0.7, 1 and 1.6). The models created were validated with the previous experiment conducted by H.K. Kang et al. in 2011. It was seen that the lightweight fiber reinforcement can replace the use of fiber reinforced normal weight concrete as structural elements. The effect of an increase in steel fiber volume fraction is dominant for beams with higher shear span to depth ratio than for lower ratios. The effect of stirrups in the presence of fibers was very negligible; however; it provided extra confinement to the cracks by reducing the crack propagation and extra shear resistance than when compared to beams with no stirrups.

Keywords: ABAQUS, beams, fiber-reinforced concrete, finite element, light weight, shear span-depth ratio, steel fibers, steel-fiber volume fraction

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4364 Earthquake Resistant Sustainable Steel Green Building

Authors: Arup Saha Chaudhuri

Abstract:

Structural steel is a very ductile material with high strength carrying capacity, thus it is very useful to make earthquake resistant buildings. It is a homogeneous material also. The member section and the structural system can be made very efficient for economical design. As the steel is recyclable and reused, it is a green material. The embodied energy for the efficiently designed steel structure is less than the RC structure. For sustainable green building steel is the best material nowadays. Moreover, pre-engineered and pre-fabricated faster construction methodologies help the development work to complete within the stipulated time. In this paper, the usefulness of Eccentric Bracing Frame (EBF) in steel structure over Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) and Concentric Bracing Frame (CBF) is shown. Stability of the steel structures against horizontal forces especially in seismic condition is efficiently possible by Eccentric bracing systems with economic connection details. The EBF is pin–ended, but the beam-column joints are designed for pin ended or for full connectivity. The EBF has several desirable features for seismic resistance. In comparison with CBF system, EBF system can be designed for appropriate stiffness and drift control. The link beam is supposed to yield in shear or flexure before initiation of yielding or buckling of the bracing member in tension or compression. The behavior of a 2-D steel frame is observed under seismic loading condition in the present paper. Ductility and brittleness of the frames are compared with respect to time period of vibration and dynamic base shear. It is observed that the EBF system is better than MRF system comparing the time period of vibration and base shear participation.

Keywords: steel building, green and sustainable, earthquake resistant, EBF system

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
4363 Experimental Investigation on Shear Behaviour of Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Steel Fibres

Authors: G. Beulah Gnana Ananthi, A. Jaffer Sathick, M. Abirami

Abstract:

Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been widely used in industrial pavements and non-structural elements such as pipes, culverts, tunnels, and precast elements. The strengthening effect of fibres in the concrete matrix is achieved primarily due to the bridging effect of fibres at the crack interfaces. The workability of the concrete was reduced on addition of high percentages of steel fibres. The optimum percentage of addition of steel fibres varies with its aspect ratio. For this study, 1% addition of steel has resulted to be the optimum percentage for both Hooked and Crimped Steel Fibres and was added to the beam specimens. The fibres restrain efficiently the cracks and take up residual stresses beyond the cracking. In this sense, diagonal cracks are effectively stitched up by fibres crossing it. The failure of beams within the shear failure range changed from shear to flexure in the presence of sufficient steel fibre quantity. The shear strength is increased with the addition of steel fibres and had exceeded the enhancement obtained with the transverse reinforcement. However, such increase is not directly in proportion with the quantity of fibres used. Considering all the clarification made in the present experimental investigation, it is concluded that 1% of crimped steel fibres with an aspect ratio of 50 is the best type of steel fibres for replacement of transverse stirrups in high strength concrete beams when compared to the steel fibres with hooked ends.

Keywords: fibre reinforced concrete, steel fibre, shear strength, crack pattern

Procedia PDF Downloads 78