Search results for: material
6039 The Effect of Cassava Starch on Compressive Strength and Tear Strength of Alginate Impression Material
Authors: Mirna Febriani
Abstract:Statement of problem. Alginate impression material is an imported material and a dentist always used this material to make impression of teeth and oral cavity tissues. Purpose. The aim of this study was to compare about compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material and alginate impression material combined with cassava. Material and methods.Property measured included compressive strength and tear strength. Results.The compressive strength and tear strength of the impression materials tested of a comparable ANSI/ADA standard no.18.The compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material combined with cassava have lower than the compressive strength and tear strength alginate impression material. The alginate impression material combined with cassava has more water and silica content more decrease than alginate impression material. Conclusions.We concluded that compressive strength and tear strength of alginate impression material combined with cassava has lower than alginate impression material without cassava starch.
Keywords: compressive strength, tear strength, Cassava starch, alginateProcedia PDF Downloads 295
6038 Material Selection for Footwear Insole Using Analytical Hierarchal Process
Authors: Mohammed A. Almomani, Dina W. Al-Qudah
Abstract:Product performance depends on the type and quality of its building material. Successful product must be made using high quality material, and using the right methods. Many foot problems took place as a result of using poor insole material. Therefore, selecting a proper insole material is crucial to eliminate these problems. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) is used to provide a systematic procedure for choosing the best material adequate for this application among three material alternatives (polyurethane, poron, and plastzote). Several comparison criteria are used to build the AHP model including: density, stiffness, durability, energy absorption, and ease of fabrication. Poron was selected as the best choice. Inconsistency testing indicates that the model is reasonable, and the materials alternative ranking is effective.
Keywords: AHP, footwear insole, insole material, materials selectionProcedia PDF Downloads 257
6037 Synthesis and Performance Study of Co3O4 as a Bi-Functional Next Generation Material
Authors: Shrikaant Kulkarni, Akshata Naik Nimbalkar
Abstract:In this worki a method protocol has been developed for the synthesis of innovative Co3O4 material by using a method of chemical synthesis followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature on the morphology, structure and catalytic performance on material in question is investigated by using characterization tools like scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. The SEM images reveal that the morphology of the Co3O4 material undergoes a change from the rod to a beadlike shape on calcination at temperature of 700 °C. The XRD image shows that although the morphology of synthesized Co3O4 material exhibits a cubic phase but it differs in crystallinity depending upon morphology. Similarly spherical beadlike Co3O4 material has exhibited better activity than its rodlike counterpart which is reflected from electrochemical findings. Further, its performance in terms of bifunctional nature and hlods a lot much of promise as a excellent electrode material in the next generation batteries and fuel cells.
Keywords: bifunctional, next generation material, Co3O4, XRDProcedia PDF Downloads 304
6036 Binary Programming for Manufacturing Material and Manufacturing Process Selection Using Genetic Algorithms
Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan
Abstract:The material selection problem is concerned with the determination of the right material for a certain product to optimize certain performance indices in that product such as mass, energy density, and power-to-weight ratio. This paper is concerned about optimizing the selection of the manufacturing process along with the material used in the product under performance indices and availability constraints. In this paper, the material selection problem is formulated using binary programming and solved by genetic algorithm. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total manufacturing cost under performance indices and material and manufacturing process availability constraints.
Keywords: optimization, material selection, process selection, genetic algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 338
6035 “Ethical Porn” and the Right to Withdraw Consent
Authors: Nathan Elvidge
Abstract:This paper offers a philosophical argument against the possibility of so-called “ethical porn,” that is, pornographic material produced in a way attempting to remain consistent with feminist principles and female empowerment. One key feature of such material is the requirement for the material to be consensual on the part of the actors or those involved in the material. However, in the contemporary pornography industry, this typically amounts to a single historic act of consent given in exchange for a lump-sum payment which grants the producer lifetime property rights over the explicit material. This paper argues that, by the lights of feminist principles, this situation is inherently unjust and that, as a consequence, the pornography industry requires a radical systematic upheaval before any material produced within it can be considered genuinely ethical. These feminist principles require that for the consumption of pornography to be genuinely ethical, the actors must consent not only to the acts recorded in the material but also to the consumption of that material. This paper argues that this consent to consumption should be treated as on par with other matters of sexual consent and, therefore, that actors should have the right to withdraw consent to the consumption of their material. From this, it is argued to follow that the system of third-party ownership of property rights over someone else’s sexually explicit material legally nullifies this right and therefore is inherently unjust.
Keywords: consent, feminism, pornography, sex workProcedia PDF Downloads 32
6034 The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material
Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park
Abstract:Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development
Keywords: automotive interior material, sound absorbing, optimization design, nonwoven fabricProcedia PDF Downloads 428
6033 Elastic Stress Analysis of Annular Bi-Material Discs with Variable Thickness under Mechanical and Thermomechanical Loads
Authors: Erhan Çetin, Ali Kurşun, Şafak Aksoy, Merve Tunay Çetin
Abstract:The closed form study deal with elastic stress analysis of annular bi-material discs with variable thickness subjected to the mechanical and termomechanical loads. Those discs have many applications in the aerospace industry, such as gas turbines and gears. Those discs normally work under thermal and mechanical loads. Their life cycle can increase when stress components are minimized. Each material property is assumed to be isotropic. The results show that material combinations and thickness profiles play an important role in determining the responses of bi-material discs and an optimal design of those structures. Stress distribution is investigated and results are shown as graphs.
Keywords: bi-material discs, elastic stress analysis, mechanical loads, rotating discsProcedia PDF Downloads 258
6032 Development of Standard Evaluation Technique for Car Carpet Floor
Authors: In-Sung Lee, Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park
Abstract:Statistical Energy Analysis is to be the most effective CAE Method for air-born noise analysis in the Automotive area. This study deals with a method to predict the noise level inside of the car under the steady-state condition using the SEA model of car for air-born noise analysis. We can identify weakened part due to the acoustic material properties using it. Therefore, it is useful for the material structural design.
Keywords: air-born noise, material structural design, acoustic material properties, absorbingProcedia PDF Downloads 363
6031 Toughness of a Silt-Based Construction Material Reinforced with Fibers
Authors: Y. Shamas, S. Imanzadeh, A. Jarno, S. Taibi
Abstract:Silt-based construction material is acknowledged since forever and lately received the researchers’ attention more than before as being an ecological and economical alternative for typical cement-based concrete. Silt-based material is known for its worldwide availability, cheapness, and various applications. Some rules should be defined to obtain a standardized method for the use of raw earth as a modern construction material; but first, its mechanical properties should be precisely studied to better understand its behavior in order to find new aspects in making it a better competitor for the cement concrete that is high energy-demanding in terms of gray energy. Some researches were performed on the raw earth material to enhance its characteristics as strength and ductility for their importance and their wide use for various materials. Yet, many other mechanical properties can be used to study the mechanical behavior of raw earth materials such as Young’smodulus and toughness. Studies concerning the toughness of material were rarely conducted previously except for metals despite its significant role associated to the energy absorbed by the material under loading before fracturing. The purpose of this paper is to restate different toughness definitions used in the literature and propose a new definition.
Keywords: silt-based material, raw earth concrete, stress-strain curve, energy, toughnessProcedia PDF Downloads 121
6030 Study on the Changes in Material Strength According to Changes in Forming Methods in Hot-Stamping Process
Authors: Yong-Jun Jeon, Hyung-Pil Park, Min-Jae Song, Baeg-Soon Cha
Abstract:Following the recent trend of having increased demand in producing lighter-weight car bodies for improvement of automobile safety and gas mileage, there is a forming method that makes use of hot-stamping technique, which satisfies all conditions mentioned above. Hot-stamping is a forming technique with advantages of excellent formability, good dimensional precision and others since it is a process in which steel plates are heated up to temperatures of at least approximately 900°C after which forming is conducted in die at room temperature followed by rapid cooling. In addition, it has characteristics of allowing for improvement in material strength through achievement of quenching effect by having simultaneous forming and rapid cooling of material of high temperatures. However, there is insufficient information on the changes in material strength according to changes in material temperature with regards to material heating method and forming process in hot-stamping. Accordingly, this study aims to design and press die for T-type product of the scale models of the center pillar and to understand the changes in material strength in relation to changes in forming methods of hot-stamping process. Thus in order to understand the changes in material strength due to quenching effect among the hot-stamping process, material strength and material forming precision were to be studied while varying the forming and forming method when forming. For test methods, material strength was observed by using boron steel that has boron additives, which was heated up to 950°C, after which it was transferred to a die and was cooled down to material temperature of 400°C followed by air cooling process. During the forming and cooling process here, experiment was conducted with forming parameters of 2 holding rates and 3 flange heating rates wherein changing appearance in material strength according to changes forming method were observed by verifying forming strength and forming precision for each of the conditions.
Keywords: hot-stamping, formability, quenching, forming, press die, forming methodsProcedia PDF Downloads 317
6029 Material Saving Strategies, Technologies and Effects on Return on Sales
Authors: Jasna Prester, Najla Podrug, Davor Filipović
Abstract:Manufacturing companies invest a significant amount of sales into material resources for production. In our sample, 58% of sales is used for manufacturing inputs, while only 24% of sales is used for salaries. This means that if a company is looking to reduce costs, the greater potential is in reduction of material costs than downsizing. This research shows that manufacturing companies in Croatia did realize material savings in last three years. It is also shown by which technologies they achieved materials cost savings. Through literature research, we found research gap as to which technologies reduce material consumption. As methodology of research four regression analyses are used to prove our findings.
Keywords: Croatia, materials savings strategies, technologies, return on salesProcedia PDF Downloads 232
6028 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings
Abstract:Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.
Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structureProcedia PDF Downloads 294
6027 Geopolymer Stabilization of Earth Building Material for Construction 3D Printing
Authors: Timur Mukhametkaliyev
Abstract:The earthen material possesses low compression strength, and it is highly sensitive to the water content. Different binders can be added (Portland cement or lime) to improve the durability and the mechanical characteristics of earthen material, but the production of these binders has high embodied energy and results in an increase in world CO₂ emission. Geopolymers are binders which can be synthesized at low temperature in alkaline solutions from raw materials consisting of amorphous aluminosilicates. Geopolymers are an attractive substitution of Portland cement and can be used as an excellent stabilization for earthen material. In this study, earthen material stabilized with geopolymer binder for use in construction 3D printing was developed. Construction 3D printing offers freedom of design, waste minimisation, customisation, reduced labour, and automation. For successful 3D printing, the properties of used material are the most important aspects because they require adaptability for extrusion and controlled time of hardening for the binder.
Keywords: 3D printing, building construction, geopolymer, architectureProcedia PDF Downloads 78
6026 Study of Physico-Chimical Properties of a Silty Soil
Authors: Moulay Smaïne Ghembaza, Mokhtar Dadouch, Nour-Said Ikhlef
Abstract:Soil treatment is to make use soil that does not have the characteristics required in a given context. We limit ourselves in this work to the field of road earthworks where we have chosen to develop a local material in the region of Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria). This material has poor characteristics not meeting the standards used in road geo technics. To remedy this, firstly, we were trying to improve the Proctor Standard characteristics of this material by mechanical treatment increasing the compaction energy. Then, by a chemical treatment, adding some cement dosages, our results show that this material classified A1h a increase maximum dry density and a reduction in the water content of compaction. A comparative study is made on the optimal properties of the material between the two modes of treatment. On the other hand, after treatment, one finds a decrease in the plasticity index and the methylene blue value. This material exhibits a change of class. Therefore, soil class CL turned into a soil class composed CL-ML (Silt of low plasticity). This observation allows this material to be used as backfill or sub grade.
Keywords: treatment of soil, cement, subgrade, Atteberg limits, classification, optimum proctor propertiesProcedia PDF Downloads 403
6025 Grain Size Effect of Durability of Bio-Clogging Treatment
Authors: Tahani Farah, Hanène Souli, Jean-Marie Fleureau, Guillaume Kermouche, Jean-Jacques Fry, Benjamin Girard, Denis Aelbrecht
Abstract:In this work, the bio-clogging of two soils with different granulometries is presented. The durability of the clogging is also studied under cycles of hydraulic head and under cycles of desaturation- restauration. The studied materials present continuous grain size distributions. The first one corresponding to the "material 1", presents grain sizes between 0.4 and 4 mm. The second material called "material 2" is composed of grains with size varying between 1 and 10 mm. The results show that clogging occurs very quickly after the injection of nutrition and an outlet flow near to 0 is observed. The critical hydraulic head is equal to 0.76 for "material 1", and 0.076 for "material 2". The durability tests show a good resistance to unclogging under cycles of hydraulic head and desaturation-restauration for the "material 1". Indeed, the flow after the cycles is very low. In contrast, "material 2", shows a very bad resistance, especially under the hydraulic head cycles. The resistance under the cycles of desaturation-resaturation is better but an important increase of the flow is observed. The difference of behavior is due to the granulometry of the materials. Indeed, the large grain size contributes to the reduction of the efficiency of the bio-clogging treatment in this material.
Keywords: bio-clogging, granulometry, permeability, nutritionProcedia PDF Downloads 341
6024 Causality, Special Relativity and Non-existence of Material Particles of Zero Rest Mass
Authors: Mohammad Saleem, Mujahid Kamran
Abstract:It is shown that causality, the principle that cause must precede effect, leads inter alia, to highly significant result that the velocity of a material particle cannot be even equal to that of light. Consequently, combined with special relativity, it leads to the conclusion that material particles of zero rest mass cannot exist in nature. Thus, causality, a principle without which nature would be incomprehensible, combined with special relativity, forbids the existence of material particles of zero rest mass. For instance, the neutrinos, as is now known, are material particles of non-zero rest mass. The situation changes when we consider the gauge particles. In fact, when the principle of causality was proposed, the concept of gauge particles had not yet been introduced. Now we know that photon, a gauge particle with zero rest mass does exist in nature. Therefore, principle of causality, as generally stated, is valid only for material particles. For gauge particles, in order to make the statement of causality consistent with experiment, it has to be modified: The cause should either precede or be simultaneous with the effect. Combined with special relativity, it allows gauge particles of zero rest mass.
Keywords: causality, gauge particles, material particles, special relativityProcedia PDF Downloads 416
6023 Comparison of Johnson-Cook and Barlat Material Model for 316L Stainless Steel
Authors: Yiğit Gürler, İbrahim Şimşek, Müge Savaştaer, Ayberk Karakuş, Alper Taşdemirci
Abstract:316L steel is frequently used in the industry due to its easy formability and accessibility in sheet metal forming processes. Numerical and experimental studies are frequently encountered in the literature to examine the mechanical behavior of 316L stainless steel during the forming process. 316L stainless steel is the most common material used in the production of plate heat exchangers and plate heat exchangers are produced by plastic deformation of the stainless steel. The motivation in this study is to determine the appropriate material model during the simulation of the sheet metal forming process. For this reason, two different material models were examined and Ls-Dyna material cards were created using material test data. These are MAT133_BARLAT_YLD2000 and MAT093_SIMPLIFIED_JOHNSON_COOK. In order to compare results of the tensile test & hydraulic bulge test performed both numerically and experimentally. The obtained results were evaluated comparatively and the most suitable material model was selected for the forming simulation. In future studies, this material model will be used in the numerical modeling of the sheet metal forming process.
Keywords: 316L, mechanical characterization, metal forming, Ls-DynaProcedia PDF Downloads 187
6022 Detection of Nanotoxic Material Using DNA Based QCM
Authors: Juneseok You, Chanho Park, Kuehwan Jang, Sungsoo Na
Abstract:Sensing of nanotoxic materials is strongly important, as their engineering applications are growing recently and results in that nanotoxic material can harmfully influence human health and environment. In current study we report the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based, in situ and real-time sensing of nanotoxic-material by frequency shift. We propose the in situ detection of nanotoxic material of zinc oxice by using QCM functionalized with a taget-specific DNA. Since the mass of a target material is comparable to that of an atom, the mass change caused by target binding to DNA on the quartz electrode is so small that it is practically difficult to detect the ions at low concentrations. In our study, we have demonstrated the in-situ and fast detection of zinc oxide using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The detection was derived from the DNA hybridization between the DNA on the quartz electrode. The results suggest that QCM-based detection opens a new avenue for the development of a practical water-testing sensor.
Keywords: nanotoxic material, qcm, frequency, in situ sensingProcedia PDF Downloads 362
6021 Residual Affects of Humic Matter from Sub-Bituminous in Binding Aluminium at Oxisol to Increase Production of Upland Rice
Authors: Herviyanti, Gusnidar, M. Harianti
Abstract:The objective of this research were: a) using low-rank coal (subbituminous) as main humate material sources because this material will not be anthracite, and cannot using to be an energy sources b) to examine residual effects of humic matter from subbituminous which was combined with P fertilizers to adsorp Al and Fe metal, improving soil fertility, and increasing P fertilizing efficiency and Oxisol productivity. Therefore, optimalization crop productivity of upland rice can be achieved. The experiment was designed using a 3 x 4 factorial with 3 replications in randomly groups design. The 1st factor was 3 ways incubating humate material with P-fertilizer, which are: I1 = Incubation of humate material 1 week, then incubation P-fertilizers 1 week; I2 = Incubation of humate materials and P fertilizers directly into the soil for 2 weeks; and I3 = humate material and P fertilizer mixed for 1 week, then incubation to the soil for 1 week. The 2nd factor was residual effects of humate material and P-fertilizer combination which are 4 doses H1 = 400 ppm (0.8 Mg/ha) + 100% R; H2 = 400 ppm + 75% R; H3 = 800 ppm (1.6 Mg/ha) + 100% R,; and H4 = 800 ppm + 75% R. The 2nd year research results showed that the best treatment was founded residue effect of 800 ppm humate material and 100% R P-fertilizer doses in I3 way incubation that is equal to 6.19 t ha-1 upland rice yield. However, this result is almost the same as residual effects of 800 ppm humate material + 75% R P-fertilizer doses and upland rice yield the 1st year. It was concluded that addition of humate material can given the efficiency of P-fertilizer using up to 25% until the 2nd season planted.
Keywords: humate materials, P-fertilizer, subbituminous, upland riceProcedia PDF Downloads 286
6020 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade
Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir
Abstract:In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.
Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIFProcedia PDF Downloads 476
6019 Characterization of Carbon/Polyamide 6,6 (C/PA66) Composite Material for Dry and Wet Conditions
Authors: Tariq Bashir, Muhammad Waseem Tahir, Ulf Stigh, Behnaz Baghaie, Mikael Skrifvars
Abstract:Absorption of moisture may cause many problems in a composite material, such as delamination, degradation of the strength and increase in the weight. For small coupons, the increase in weight may be negligible, however, for large structures increase in weight due to moisture absorption may be quite significant. Polyamides (PA6, PA66) absorb more moisture as compared to other thermoplastics. There are many parameters which affect the moisture absorption of the composite material for example temperature, pressure, type of matrix and fibers, thickness of the material and relative humidity (RH) etc. So, it is utmost important to investigate the impact of moisture on PA66 based composites which can be done by characterizing the mechanical properties of composite materials both for dry and wet conditions. In this study, laminates of C/PA66 composite are manufactured by first heating the commingled material in conventional oven at a temperature of 220 °C followed by pressing in a manual hot press for 20 minutes with preheated platen at 220 °C. To observe the moisture absorption of the composite, coupons of the material were placed in a climate chamber at five different conditions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% RH for 24 hours. Five specimens were used for each condition. These coupons were weighed before placing in the climate chamber and just after removing from the chamber to observe the moisture absorption of the material. The mechanical characterization such as tensile strength, flexural modulus, impact strength and DMTA of C/PA66 material are performed at 0, 50 and 100 % RH. The work is going on for the testing of the material and results will be presented in full paper.
Keywords: Carbon/Polyamide 66 composites, structural composites, mechanical characterizations, wet and dry conditionsProcedia PDF Downloads 166
6018 Review on PETG Material Parts Made Using Fused Deposition Modeling
Authors: Dhval Chauhan, Mahesh Chudasama
Abstract:This study has been undertaken to give a review of Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol (PETG) material used in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). This paper offers a review of the existing literature on polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) material, the objective of the paper is to providing guidance on different process parameters that can be used to improve the strength of the part by performing various testing like tensile, compressive, flexural, etc. This work is target to find new paths that can be used for further development of the use of fiber reinforcement in PETG material.
Keywords: PETG, FDM, tensile strength, flexural strength, fiber reinforcementProcedia PDF Downloads 86
6017 Pre-Lithiation of SiO₂ Nanoparticles-Based Anode for Lithium Ion Battery Application
Authors: Soraya Hoornam, Zeinab Sanaee
Abstract:Lithium-ion batteries are widely used for providing energy for mobile electronic devices. Graphite is a traditional anode material that was used in almost all commercialized lithium-ion batteries. It gives a specific capacity of 372 mAh/g for lithium storage. But there are multiple better choices for storing lithium that propose significantly higher specific capacities. As an example, silicon-based materials can be mentioned. In this regard, SiO₂ material can offer a huge specific capacity of 1965 mAh/g. Due to this high lithium storage ability, large volume change occurs in this electrode material during insertion and extraction of lithium, which may lead to cracking and destruction of the electrode. The use of nanomaterials instead of bulk material can significantly solve this problem. In addition, if we insert lithium in the active material of the battery before its cycling, which is called pre-lithiation, a further enhancement in the performance is expected. Here, we have fabricated an anode electrode of the battery using SiO₂ nanomaterial mixed with Graphite and assembled a lithium-ion battery half-cell with this electrode. Next, a pre-lithiation was performed on the SiO₂ nanoparticle-containing electrode, and the resulting anode material was investigated. This electrode has great potential for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.
Keywords: SiO₂ nanoparticles, lithium-ion battery, pre-lithiation, anode materialProcedia PDF Downloads 35
6016 Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour of Functionally Graded Material Usage in Lead Acid Storage Batteries and the Benefits
Authors: Sandeep Das
Abstract:Terminal post is one of the most important features of a Battery. The design and manufacturing of post are very much critical especially when threaded inserts (Bolt-on type) are used since all the collected energy is delivered from the lead part to the threaded insert (Cu or Cu alloy). Any imperfection at the interface may cause Voltage drop, high resistance, high heat generation, etc. This may be because of sudden change of material properties from lead to Cu alloys. To avoid this problem, a scheme of material gradation is proposed for achieving continuous variation of material properties for the Post used in commercially available lead acid battery. The Functionally graded (FG) material for the post is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The volume fraction of the materials used corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the direction of current flow (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and the Post composed of this FG material is modeled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG Post. A thermal electric analysis is performed on the layered FG model. The model developed has been validated by comparing the results of the existing Post model& experimental analysis
Keywords: ANSYS, functionally graded material, lead-acid battery, terminal postProcedia PDF Downloads 72
6015 Simulation and Experimentation Investigation of Infrared Non-Destructive Testing on Thermal Insulation Material
Authors: Bi Yan-Qiang, Shang Yonghong, Lin Boying, Ji Xinyan, Li Xiyuan
Abstract:The heat-resistant material has important application in the aerospace field. The reliability of the connection between the heat-resisting material and the body determines the success or failure of the project. In this paper, lock-in infrared thermography non-destructive testing technology is used to detect the stability of the thermal-resistant structure. The phase relationship between the temperature and the heat flow is calculated by the numerical method, and the influence of the heating frequency and power is obtained. The correctness of the analysis is verified by the experimental method. Through the research, it can provide the basis for the parameter setting of heat flux including frequency and power, improve the efficiency of detection and the reliability of connection between the heat-resisting material and the body.
Keywords: infrared non-destructive, thermal insulation material, reliability, connectionProcedia PDF Downloads 318
6014 A Conceptual Framework and a Mathematical Equation for Managing Construction-Material Waste and Cost Overruns
Authors: Saidu Ibrahim, Winston M. W. Shakantu
Abstract:The problem of construction material waste remains unresolved, as a significant percentage of the materials delivered to some project sites end up as waste which might result in additional project cost. Cost overrun is a problem which affects 90% of the completed projects in the world. The argument on how to eliminate it has been on-going for the past 70 years, but there is neither substantial improvement nor significant solution for mitigating its detrimental effects. Research evidence has proposed various construction cost overruns and material-waste management approaches; nonetheless, these studies failed to give a clear indication on the framework and the equation for managing construction material waste and cost overruns. Hence, this research aims to develop a conceptual framework and a mathematical equation for managing material waste and cost overrun in the construction industry. The paper adopts the desktop methodological approach. This involves comparing the causes of material waste and those of cost overruns from the literature to determine the possible relationship. The review revealed a relationship between material waste and cost overrun that; increase in material waste would result to a corresponding increase in the amount of cost overrun at both the pre-contract and the post contract stages of a project. It was found from the equation that achieving an effective construction material waste management must ensure a “Good Quality-of-Planning, Estimating, and Design Management” and a “Good Quality- of-Construction, Procurement and Site Management”; a decrease in “Design Complexity” which would reduce “Material Waste” and subsequently reduce the amount of cost overrun by 86.74%. The conceptual framework and the mathematical equation developed in this study are recommended to the professionals of the construction industry.
Keywords: conceptual framework, cost overrun, material waste, project stagsProcedia PDF Downloads 228
6013 Texture Observation of Bending by XRD and EBSD Method
Authors: Takashi Sakai, Yuri Shimomura
Abstract:The crystal orientation is a factor that affects the microscopic material properties. Crystal orientation determines the anisotropy of the polycrystalline material. And it is closely related to the mechanical properties of the material. In this paper, for pure copper polycrystalline material, two different methods; X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD); and the crystal orientation were analyzed. In the latter method, it is possible that the X-ray beam diameter is thicker as compared to the former, to measure the crystal orientation macroscopically relatively. By measurement of the above, we investigated the change in crystal orientation and internal tissues of pure copper.
Keywords: bending, electron backscatter diffraction, X-ray diffraction, microstructure, IPF map, orientation distribution functionProcedia PDF Downloads 255
6012 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure
Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park
Abstract:Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.
Keywords: sound absorption material, sound impedance tube, sound absorption coefficient, optimization designProcedia PDF Downloads 188
6011 Utilization of Fly Ash as Backfilling Material in Indian Coal Mines
Authors: P. Venkata Karthik, B. Kranthi Kumar
Abstract:Fly ash is a solid waste product of coal based electric power generating plants. Fly ash is the finest of coal ash particles and it is transported from the combustion chamber by exhaust gases. Fly ash is removed by particulate emission control devices such as electrostatic precipitators or filter fabric bag-houses. It is a fine material with spherical particles. Large quantities of fly ash discharged from coal-fired power stations are a major problem not only in terms of scarcity of land available for its disposal, but also in environmental aspects. Fly ash can be one of the alternatives and can be a viable option to use as a filling material. This paper contains the problems associated with fly ash generation, need for its management and the efficacy of fly ash composite as a backfilling material. By conducting suitable geotechnical investigations and numerical modelling techniques, the fly ash composite material was tested. It also contains case studies of typical Indian opencast and underground coal mines.
Keywords: backfilling, fly ash, high concentration slurry disposal, power plant, void infillingProcedia PDF Downloads 194
6010 Development of Cathode for Hybrid Zinc Ion Supercapacitor Using Secondary Marigold Floral Waste for Green Energy Application
Authors: Syali Pradhan, Neetu Jha
Abstract:The Marigold flower is used in religious places for offering and decoration purpose every day. The flowers are discarded near trees or in aquatic bodies. This floral waste can be used for extracting dyes or oils. Still the secondary waste remains after processing which need to be addressed. This research aims to provide green and clean power using secondary floral waste available after processing. The carbonization of floral waste produce carbon material with high surface area and enhance active site for more reaction. The Hybrid supercapacitors are more stable, offer improved operating temperature and use less toxic material compared to battery. They provide enhanced energy density compared to supercapacitors. Hence, hybrid supercapacitor designed using waste material would be more practicable for future energy application. Here, we present the utilization of carbonized floral waste as supercapacitor electrode material. This material after carbonization gets graphitized and shows high surface area, optimum porosity along with high conductivity. Hence, this material has been tested as cathode electrode material for high performance zinc storage hybrid supercapacitor. High energy storage along with high stability has been obtained using this cathodic waste material as electrode.
Keywords: marigold, flower waste, energy storage, cathode, supercapacitorProcedia PDF Downloads 11