Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 654

Search results for: delay

654 A Low-Power Comparator Structure with Arbitrary Pre-Amplification Delay

Authors: Ata Khorami, Mohammad Sharifkhani


In the dynamic comparators, the pre-amplifier amplifies the input differential voltage and when the output Vcm of the pre-amplifier becomes larger than Vth of the latch input transistors, the latch is activated and finalizes the comparison. As a result, the pre-amplification delay is fixed to a value and cannot be set at the minimum required delay, thus, significant power and delay are imposed. In this paper, a novel structure is proposed through which the pre-amplification delay can be set at any low value saving power and time. Simulations show that using the proposed structure, by setting the pre-amplification delay at the minimum required value the power and comparison delay can be reduced by 55% and 100ps respectively.

Keywords: dynamic comparator, low power comparator, analog to digital converter, pre-amplification delay

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653 Major Causes of Delay in Construction Projects

Authors: Y. Gholipour, E. Rezazadeh


Delay is one of the most serious and common problems of construction project that can affect project delivery unfavorably. This research presents the most important causes of delay in large dam projects based on a survey on some executed dam construction in Iran. In this survey a randomly selected samples of owners, consultants and contractors have been involved. The outcome of this survey revealed that scheduled payments, site management, shop drawing review process, unforeseen ground conditions and contractor experience as the most important factors affecting on delay in dam construction projects.

Keywords: delay, dam construction, project management, Iran

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
652 Contention Window Adjustment in IEEE 802.11-based Industrial Wireless Networks

Authors: Mohsen Maadani, Seyed Ahmad Motamedi


The use of wireless technology in industrial networks has gained vast attraction in recent years. In this paper, we have thoroughly analyzed the effect of contention window (CW) size on the performance of IEEE 802.11-based industrial wireless networks (IWN), from delay and reliability perspective. Results show that the default values of CWmin, CWmax, and retry limit (RL) are far from the optimum performance due to the industrial application characteristics, including short packet and noisy environment. An adaptive CW algorithm (payload-dependent) has been proposed to minimize the average delay. Finally a simple, but effective CW and RL setting has been proposed for industrial applications which outperforms the minimum-average-delay solution from maximum delay and jitter perspective, at the cost of a little higher average delay. Simulation results show an improvement of up to 20%, 25%, and 30% in average delay, maximum delay and jitter respectively.

Keywords: average delay, contention window, distributed coordination function (DCF), jitter, industrial wireless network (IWN), maximum delay, reliability, retry limit

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651 Estimation and Comparison of Delay at Signalized Intersections Based on Existing Methods

Authors: Arpita Saha, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Delay implicates the time loss of a traveler while crossing an intersection. Efficiency of traffic operation at signalized intersections is assessed in terms of delay caused to an individual vehicle. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) method and Webster’s method are the most widely used in India for delay estimation purpose. However, in India, traffic is highly heterogeneous in nature with extremely poor lane discipline. Therefore, to explore best delay estimation technique for Indian condition, a comparison was made. In this study, seven signalized intersections from three different cities where chosen. Data was collected for both during morning and evening peak hours. Only under saturated cycles were considered for this study. Delay was estimated based on the field data. With the help of Simpson’s 1/3 rd rule, delay of under saturated cycles was estimated by measuring the area under the curve of queue length and cycle time. Moreover, the field observed delay was compared with the delay estimated using HCM, Webster, Probabilistic, Taylor’s expansion and Regression methods. The drawbacks of the existing delay estimation methods to be use in Indian heterogeneous traffic conditions were figured out, and best method was proposed. It was observed that direct estimation of delay using field measured data is more accurate than existing conventional and modified methods.

Keywords: delay estimation technique, field delay, heterogeneous traffic, signalised intersection

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650 Autoignition Delay Characterstic of Hydrocarbon (n-Pentane) from Lean to Rich Mixtures

Authors: Sunil Verma


This report is concerned with study of autoignition delay characterstics of n-pentane. Experiments are done for different equivalents ratio on Rapid compression machine. Dependence of autoignition delay period is clearly explained from lean to rich mixtures. Equivalence ratio is varied from 0.33 to 0.6.

Keywords: combustion, autoignition, ignition delay, rapid compression machine

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649 Modification of Fick’s First Law by Introducing the Time Delay

Authors: H. Namazi, H. T. N. Kuan


Fick's first law relates the diffusive flux to the concentration field, by postulating that the flux goes from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration, with a magnitude that is proportional to the concentration gradient (spatial derivative). It is clear that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous and should be some time delay in this propagation. But Fick’s first law doesn’t consider this delay which results in some errors especially when there is a considerable time delay in the process. In this paper, we introduce a time delay to Fick’s first law. By this modification, we consider that the diffusion of flux cannot be instantaneous. In order to verify this claim an application sample in fluid diffusion is discussed and the results of modified Fick’s first law, Fick’s first law and the experimental results are compared. The results of this comparison stand for the accuracy of the modified model. The modified model can be used in any application where the time delay has considerable value and neglecting its effect reflects in undesirable results.

Keywords: Fick's first law, flux, diffusion, time delay, modified Fick’s first law

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648 An Active Rectifier with Time-Domain Delay Compensation to Enhance the Power Conversion Efficiency

Authors: Shao-Ku Kao


This paper presents an active rectifier with time-domain delay compensation to enhance the efficiency. A delay calibration circuit is designed to convert delay time to voltage and adaptive control on/off delay in variable input voltage. This circuit is designed in 0.18 mm CMOS process. The input voltage range is from 2 V to 3.6 V with the output voltage from 1.8 V to 3.4 V. The efficiency can maintain more than 85% when the load from 50 Ω ~ 1500 Ω for 3.6 V input voltage. The maximum efficiency is 92.4 % at output power to be 38.6 mW for 3.6 V input voltage.

Keywords: wireless power transfer, active diode, delay compensation, time to voltage converter, PCE

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647 Delay Studies in Construction: Synthesis, Critical Evaluation, and the Way Forward

Authors: Abdullah Alsehaimi


Over decades, there have been many studies of delay in construction, and this type of study continues to be popular in construction management research. A synthesis and critical evaluation of delay studies in developing countries reveals that poor project management is cited as one of the main causes of delay. However, despite such consensus, most of the previous studies fall short in providing clear recommendations demonstrating how project management practice could be improved. Moreover, the majority of recommendations are general and not devoted to solving the difficulties associated with particular delay causes. This paper aims to demonstrate that the root cause of this state of affairs is that typical research into delay tends to be descriptive and explanatory, making it inadequate for solving persistent managerial problems in construction. It is contended that many problems in construction could be mitigated via alternative research approaches, i.e. action and constructive research. Such prescriptive research methods can assist in the development and implementation of innovative tools tackling managerial problems of construction, including that of delay. In so doing, those methods will better connect research and practice, and thus strengthen the relevance of academic construction management.

Keywords: construction delay, action research, constructive research, industrial engineering

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646 Quality-Of-Service-Aware Green Bandwidth Allocation in Ethernet Passive Optical Network

Authors: Tzu-Yang Lin, Chuan-Ching Sue


Sleep mechanisms are commonly used to ensure the energy efficiency of each optical network unit (ONU) that concerns a single class delay constraint in the Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON). How long the ONUs can sleep without violating the delay constraint has become a research problem. Particularly, we can derive an analytical model to determine the optimal sleep time of ONUs in every cycle without violating the maximum class delay constraint. The bandwidth allocation considering such optimal sleep time is called Green Bandwidth Allocation (GBA). Although the GBA mechanism guarantees that the different class delay constraints do not violate the maximum class delay constraint, packets with a more relaxed delay constraint will be treated as those with the most stringent delay constraint and may be sent early. This means that the ONU will waste energy in active mode to send packets in advance which did not need to be sent at the current time. Accordingly, we proposed a QoS-aware GBA using a novel intra-ONU scheduling to control the packets to be sent according to their respective delay constraints, thereby enhancing energy efficiency without deteriorating delay performance. If packets are not explicitly classified but with different packet delay constraints, we can modify the intra-ONU scheduling to classify packets according to their packet delay constraints rather than their classes. Moreover, we propose the switchable ONU architecture in which the ONU can switch the architecture according to the sleep time length, thus improving energy efficiency in the QoS-aware GBA. The simulation results show that the QoS-aware GBA ensures that packets in different classes or with different delay constraints do not violate their respective delay constraints and consume less power than the original GBA.

Keywords: Passive Optical Networks, PONs, Optical Network Unit, ONU, energy efficiency, delay constraint

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645 Delay-Independent Closed-Loop Stabilization of Neutral System with Infinite Delays

Authors: Iyai Davies, Olivier L. C. Haas


In this paper, the problem of stability and stabilization for neutral delay-differential systems with infinite delay is investigated. Using Lyapunov method, new delay-independent sufficient condition for the stability of neutral systems with infinite delay is obtained in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI). Memory-less state feedback controllers are then designed for the stabilization of the system using the feasible solution of the resulting LMI, which are easily solved using any optimization algorithms. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the results of the proposed methods.

Keywords: infinite delays, Lyapunov method, linear matrix inequality, neutral systems, stability

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644 Response Delay Model: Bridging the Gap in Urban Fire Disaster Response System

Authors: Sulaiman Yunus


The need for modeling response to urban fire disaster cannot be over emphasized, as recurrent fire outbreaks have gutted most cities of the world. This necessitated the need for a prompt and efficient response system in order to mitigate the impact of the disaster. Promptness, as a function of time, is seen to be the fundamental determinant for efficiency of a response system and magnitude of a fire disaster. Delay, as a result of several factors, is one of the major determinants of promptgness of a response system and also the magnitude of a fire disaster. Response Delay Model (RDM) intends to bridge the gap in urban fire disaster response system through incorporating and synchronizing the delay moments in measuring the overall efficiency of a response system and determining the magnitude of a fire disaster. The model identified two delay moments (pre-notification and Intra-reflex sequence delay) that can be elastic and collectively plays a significant role in influencing the efficiency of a response system. Due to variation in the elasticity of the delay moments, the model provides for measuring the length of delays in order to arrive at a standard average delay moment for different parts of the world, putting into consideration geographic location, level of preparedness and awareness, technological advancement, socio-economic and environmental factors. It is recommended that participatory researches should be embarked on locally and globally to determine standard average delay moments within each phase of the system so as to enable determining the efficiency of response systems and predicting fire disaster magnitudes.

Keywords: delay moment, fire disaster, reflex sequence, response, response delay moment

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643 Transient Performance Analysis of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar


In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GIJLT)has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP)transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor(TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and Gate-all-around junctionless transistor(GAA-JLT) have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product

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642 Design of Wide-Range Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Digital Filters

Authors: Jong-Jy Shyu, Soo-Chang Pei, Yun-Da Huang


In this paper, design of wide-range variable fractional-delay (WR-VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is proposed. With respect to the conventional VFD filter which is designed such that its delay is adjustable within one unit, the proposed VFD FIR filter is designed such that its delay can be tunable within a wider range. By the traces of coefficients of the fractional-delay FIR filter, it is found that the conventional method of polynomial substitution for filter coefficients no longer satisfies the design demand, and the circuits perform the sinc function (sinc converter) are added to overcome this problem. In this paper, least-squares method is adopted to design WR-VFD FIR filter. Throughout this paper, several examples will be proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methods.

Keywords: digital filter, FIR filter, variable fractional-delay (VFD) filter, least-squares approximation

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641 Analysis of Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni


This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. 35 delay causes were identified through a literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period of design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity, and rework.

Keywords: delays, construction, consultants, contributors, risk map

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640 Causes and Effects of Delays in Construction Projects in Akure, Ondo State, South-West Nigeria

Authors: K.T Alade, A.F Lawal, A.A Omonori


Construction is an everlasting activity across the globe. Likewise, the problem of delay in the construction industry is a global phenomenon. Although there are several reasons that may be responsible for delay during construction, this may vary from place to place and can be reduced to the minimum when identified. This study considered the major causes and effects of delay in the execution of construction projects in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Using literatures, a total number of 30 causes of construction delays were identified. The convenient sampling technique was used to select sixty respondents for a survey. The respondents comprise twenty-two (22) clients, eighteen consultants (18) and twenty (20) contractors. The analyses of the primary data revealed that the three most important causes of delay in construction projects in Akure, Ondo State Nigeria are poor site management and supervision, inadequate contractors experience and client’s financial difficulties. Based on the findings of this study, recommendations were given on how the causes and effects of delay in construction can be mitigated.

Keywords: Akure, causes, construction projects, delay, effects

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639 Investigation of Ignition Delay for Low Molecular Hydrocarbon Fuel and Oxygen Mixture behind the Reflected Shock

Authors: K. R. Guna, Aldin Justin Sundararaj, B. C. Pillai, A. N. Subash


A systematic study has been made for ignition delay times measurement behind a reflected shock wave for the low molecular weight hydrocarbon fuel in argon simulated gas mixtures. The low molecular hydrocarbon fuel–oxygen was diluted with argon for desired concentration is taken for the study. The suitability of the shock tube for measuring the ignition delay time is demonstrated by measuring the ignition delay for the liquefied petroleum gas for equivalence ratios (ф=0.5 & 1) in the temperature range 1150-1650 K. The pressure range was fixed from 5-15 bar. The ignition delay was measured by recording the ignition-induced pressure jump and emission from CH radical simultaneously. From conducting experiments, it was found that the ignition delay time for liquefied petroleum gas reduces with increase in temperature. The shock tube was calibrated for ethane-oxygen gas mixture and the results obtained from this study is compared with the earlier reported values and found to be comparably well suited for the measurement of ignition delay times. The above work was carried out using the shock tube facility at propulsion and high enthalpy laboratory, Karunya University.

Keywords: ignition delay, LPG, reflected shock, shock wave

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638 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov


In this work, a method of time delay estimation for dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are also provided.

Keywords: cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processing

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637 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections

Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.

Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle composition

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636 Application on Metastable Measurement with Wide Range High Resolution VDL Circuit

Authors: Po-Hui Yang, Jing-Min Chen, Po-Yu Kuo, Chia-Chun Wu


This paper proposed a high resolution Vernier Delay Line (VDL) measurement circuit with coarse and fine detection mechanism, which improved the trade-off problem between high resolution and less delay cells in traditional VDL circuits. And the measuring time of proposed measurement circuit is also under the high resolution requests. At first, the testing range of input signal which proposed high resolution delay line is detected by coarse detection VDL. Moreover, the delayed input signal is transmitted to fine detection VDL for measuring value with better accuracy. This paper is implemented at 0.18μm process, operating frequency is 100 MHz, and the resolution achieved 2.0 ps with only 16-stage delay cells. The test range is 170ps wide, and 17% stages saved compare with traditional single delay line circuit.

Keywords: vernier delay line, D-type flip-flop, DFF, metastable phenomenon

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635 Design and Realization of Double-Delay Line Canceller (DDLC) Using Fpga

Authors: A. E. El-Henawey, A. A. El-Kouny, M. M. Abd –El-Halim


Moving target indication (MTI) which is an anti-clutter technique that limits the display of clutter echoes. It uses the radar received information primarily to display moving targets only. The purpose of MTI is to discriminate moving targets from a background of clutter or slowly-moving chaff particles as shown in this paper. Processing system in these radars is so massive and complex; since it is supposed to perform a great amount of processing in very short time, in most radar applications the response of a single canceler is not acceptable since it does not have a wide notch in the stop-band. A double-delay canceler is an MTI delay-line canceler employing the two-delay-line configuration to improve the performance by widening the clutter-rejection notches, as compared with single-delay cancelers. This canceler is also called a double canceler, dual-delay canceler, or three-pulse canceler. In this paper, a double delay line canceler is chosen for study due to its simplicity in both concept and implementation. Discussing the implementation of a simple digital moving target indicator (DMTI) using FPGA which has distinct advantages compared to other application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for the purposes of this work. The FPGA provides flexibility and stability which are important factors in the radar application.

Keywords: FPGA, MTI, double delay line canceler, Doppler Shift

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634 A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Delay Constrained Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Hanefi Cinar, Musa Cibuk, Ismail Erturk, Fikri Aggun, Munip Geylani


Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs) carry heterogeneous data traffic with different urgency and quality of service (QoS) requirements. There are a lot of studies made on energy efficiency, bandwidth, and communication methods in literature. But delay, high throughput, utility parameters are not well considered. Increasing demand for real-time data transfer makes these parameters more important. In this paper we design new MAC protocol which is delay constrained and targets for improving delay, utility, and throughput performance of the network and finding solutions on collision and interference problems. Protocol improving QoS requirements by using TDMA, FDM, and OFDMA hybrid communication methods with multi-channel communication.

Keywords: MWSN, delay, hybrid MAC, TDMA, FDM, OFDMA

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633 Identifying Project Delay Factors in the Australian Construction Industry

Authors: Syed Sohaib Bin Hasib, Hiyam Al-Kilidar


Meeting project deadlines is a major challenge for most construction projects. In this study, perceptions of contractors, clients, and consultants are compared relative to a list of factors derived from the review of the extant literature on project delay. 59 causes (categorized into 8 groups) of project delays were identified from the literature. A survey was devised to get insights and ranking of these factors from clients, consultants & contractors in the Australian construction industry. Findings showed that project delays in the Australian construction industry are mainly the result of skill shortages, interference in execution, and poor coordination and communication between the project stakeholders.

Keywords: construction, delay factors, time delay, australian construction industry

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632 An Agent-Based Modelling Simulation Approach to Calculate Processing Delay of GEO Satellite Payload

Authors: V. Vicente E. Mujica, Gustavo Gonzalez


The global coverage of broadband multimedia and internet-based services in terrestrial-satellite networks demand particular interests for satellite providers in order to enhance services with low latencies and high signal quality to diverse users. In particular, the delay of on-board processing is an inherent source of latency in a satellite communication that sometimes is discarded for the end-to-end delay of the satellite link. The frame work for this paper includes modelling of an on-orbit satellite payload using an agent model that can reproduce the properties of processing delays. In essence, a comparison of different spatial interpolation methods is carried out to evaluate physical data obtained by an GEO satellite in order to define a discretization function for determining that delay. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed agent and the development of a delay discretization function are together validated by simulating an hybrid satellite and terrestrial network. Simulation results show high accuracy according to the characteristics of initial data points of processing delay for Ku bands.

Keywords: terrestrial-satellite networks, latency, on-orbit satellite payload, simulation

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631 Contractors Perspective on Causes of Delays in Power Transmission Projects

Authors: Goutom K. Pall


At the very heart of the power system, power transmission (PT) acts as an essential link between power generation and distribution. Timely completion of PT infrastructures is therefore crucial to support the development of power system as a whole. Yet despite the importance, studies on PT infrastructure development projects are embryonic and, hence, PT projects undergoing widespread delays worldwide. These delay factors are idiosyncratic and identifying the critical delay factors is essential if the PT industry professionals are to complete their projects efficiently and within the expected timeframes. This study identifies and categorizes 46 causes of PT project delay under ten major groups using six sector expert’s recommendations studied by a preliminary questionnaire survey. Based on the experts’ strong recommendations, two new groups are introduced in the final questionnaire survey: sector specific factors (SSF) and general factors (GF). SSF pertain to delay factors applicable only to the PT projects, while GF represents less biased samples with shared responsibilities of all project parties involved in a project. The study then uses 112 data samples from the contractors to rank the delay factors using relative importance index (RII). The results reveal that SSF, GF and external factors are the most critical groups, while the highest ranked delay factors include the right of way (RoW) problems of transmission lines (TL), delay in payments, frequent changes in TL routes, poor communication and coordination among the project parties and accessibility to TL tower locations. Finally, recommendations are made to minimize the identified delay. The findings are expected to be of substantial benefit to professionals in minimizing time overrun in PT projects implementation, as well as power generation, power distribution, and non-power linear construction projects worldwide.

Keywords: delay, project delay, power transmission projects, time-overruns

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630 Nitrogen Effects on Ignition Delay Time in Supersonic Premixed and Diffusion Flames

Authors: A. M. Tahsini


Computational study of two dimensional supersonic reacting hydrogen-air flows is performed to investigate the nitrogen effects on ignition delay time for premixed and diffusion flames. Chemical reaction is treated using detail kinetics and the advection upstream splitting method is used to calculate the numerical inviscid fluxes. The results show that only in the stoichiometric condition for both premixed and diffusion flames, there is monotone dependency of the ignition delay time to the nitrogen addition. In other situations, the optimal condition from ignition viewpoint should be found using numerical investigations.

Keywords: diffusion flame, ignition delay time, mixing layer, numerical simulation, premixed flame, supersonic flow

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629 Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System with Actuator Delay

Authors: Aziz Sezgin, Yuksel Hacioglu, Nurkan Yagiz


Sliding mode controller for a vehicle active suspension system is designed in this study. The widely used quarter car model is preferred and it is aimed to improve the ride comfort of the passengers. The effect of the actuator time delay, which may arise due to the information processing, sensors or actuator dynamics, is also taken into account during the design of the controller. A sliding mode controller was designed that has taken into account the actuator time delay by using Smith predictor. The successful performance of the designed controller is confirmed via numerical results.

Keywords: sliding mode control, active suspension system, actuator, time delay, vehicle

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628 Project Time and Quality Management during Construction

Authors: Nahed Al-Hajeri


Time and cost is an integral part of every construction plan and can affect each party’s contractual obligations. The performance of both time and cost are usually important to the client and contractor during the project. Almost all construction projects are experiencing time overrun. These time overruns always contributed as expensive to both client and contractor. Construction of any project inside the gathering centers involves complex management skills related to work force, materials, plant, machineries, new technologies etc. It also involves many agencies interdependent on each other like the vendors, structural and functional designers including various types of specialized engineers and it includes support of contractors and specialized contractors. This paper mainly highlights the types of construction delays due to which project suffer time and cost overrun. This paper also speaks about the delay causes and factors that contribute to the construction sequence delay for the oil and gas projects. Construction delay is supposed to be one of the repeated problems in the construction projects and it has an opposing effect on project success in terms of time, cost and quality. Some effective methods are identified to minimize delays in construction projects such as: 1. Site management and supervision, 2. Effective strategic planning, 3. Clear information and communication channel. Our research paper studies the types of delay with some real examples with statistic results and suggests solutions to overcome this problem.

Keywords: non-compensable delay, delays caused by force majeure, compensable delay, delays caused by the owner or the owner’s representative, non-excusable delay, delay caused by the contractor or the contractor’s representative, concurrent delay, delays resulting from two separate causes at the same time

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627 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman


Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA), handoff, mobile, user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

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626 Performance Analysis of Carbon Nanotube for VLSI Interconnects and Their Comparison with Copper Interconnects

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Prashant Gupta


This paper investigates the performance of the bundle of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) for low-power and high-speed interconnects for future VLSI applications. The power dissipation, delay and power delay product (PDP) of SWCNT bundle interconnects are examined and compared with that of the Cu interconnects at 22 nm technology node for both intermediate and global interconnects. The results show that SWCNT bundle consume less power and also faster than Cu for intermediate and global interconnects. It is concluded that the metallic SWCNT has been regarded as a viable candidate for intermediate and global interconnects in future technologies.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, SWCNT, low power, delay, power delay product, global and intermediate interconnects

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625 Hybrid Subspace Approach for Time Delay Estimation in MIMO Systems

Authors: Mojtaba Saeedinezhad, Sarah Yousefi


In this paper, we present a hybrid subspace approach for Time Delay Estimation (TDE) in multivariable systems. While several methods have been proposed for time delay estimation in SISO systems, delay estimation in MIMO systems were always a big challenge. In these systems the existing TDE methods have significant limitations because most of procedures are just based on system response estimation or correlation analysis. We introduce a new hybrid method for TDE in MIMO systems based on subspace identification and explicit output error method; and compare its performance with previously introduced procedures in presence of different noise levels and in a statistical manner. Then the best method is selected with multi objective decision making technique. It is shown that the performance of new approach is much better than the existing methods, even in low signal-to-noise conditions.

Keywords: system identification, time delay estimation, ARX, OE, merit ratio, multi variable decision making

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