Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: morphing

24 Structural Analysis of an Active Morphing Wing for Enhancing UAV Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto


A numerical study of a design concept for actively controlling wing twist is described in this paper. The concept consists of morphing elements which were designed to provide a rigid and seamless skin while maintaining structural rigidity. The wing structure is first modeled in CATIA V5 then imported into ANSYS for structural analysis. Athena Vortex Lattice method (AVL) is used to estimate aerodynamic response as well as aerodynamic loads of morphing wings, afterwards a structural optimization performed via ANSYS Static. Overall, the results presented in this paper show that the concept provides efficient wing twist while preserving an aerodynamically smooth and compliant surface. Sufficient structural rigidity in bending is also obtained. This concept is suggested as a possible alternative for morphing skin applications. 

Keywords: aircraft, morphing, skin, twist

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23 Computational Analysis of Adaptable Winglets for Improved Morphing Aircraft Performance

Authors: Erdogan Kaygan, Alvin Gatto


An investigation of adaptable winglets for enhancing morphing aircraft performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centered on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance the aerodynamic efficiency of a morphing aircraft. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist and cant angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on aircraft’s improvements in aircraft performance could be achieved.

Keywords: aircraft, drag, twist, winglet

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22 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak


In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance

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21 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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20 Structural Morphing on High Performance Composite Hydrofoil to Postpone Cavitation

Authors: Fatiha Mohammed Arab, Benoit Augier, Francois Deniset, Pascal Casari, Jacques Andre Astolfi


For the top high performance foiling yachts, cavitation is often a limiting factor for take-off and top speed. This work investigates solutions to delay the onset of cavitation thanks to structural morphing. The structural morphing is based on compliant leading and trailing edge, with effect similar to flaps. It is shown here that the commonly accepted effect of flaps regarding the control of lift and drag forces can also be used to postpone the inception of cavitation. A numerical and experimental study is conducted in order to assess the effect of the geometric parameters of hydrofoil on their hydrodynamic performances and in cavitation inception. The effect of a 70% trailing edge and a 30% leading edge of NACA 0012 is investigated using Xfoil software at a constant Reynolds number 106. The simulations carried out for a range flaps deflections and various angles of attack. So, the result showed that the lift coefficient increase with the increase of flap deflection, but also with the increase of angle of attack and enlarged the bucket cavitation. To evaluate the efficiency of the Xfoil software, a 2D analysis flow over a NACA 0012 with leading and trailing edge flap was studied using Fluent software. The results of the two methods are in a good agreement. To validate the numerical approach, a passive adaptive composite model is built and tested in the hydrodynamic tunnel at the Research Institute of French Naval Academy. The model shows the ability to simulate the effect of flap by a LE and TE structural morphing due to hydrodynamic loading.

Keywords: cavitation, flaps, hydrofoil, panel method, xfoil

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19 Strongly Coupled Finite Element Formulation of Electromechanical Systems with Integrated Mesh Morphing Using Radial Basis Functions

Authors: David Kriebel, Jan Edgar Mehner


The paper introduces a method to efficiently simulate nonlinear changing electrostatic fields occurring in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Large deflections of the capacitor electrodes usually introduce nonlinear electromechanical forces on the mechanical system. Traditional finite element methods require a time-consuming remeshing process to capture exact results for this physical domain interaction. In order to accelerate the simulation process and eliminate the remeshing process, a formulation of a strongly coupled electromechanical transducer element will be introduced, which uses a combination of finite-element with an advanced mesh morphing technique using radial basis functions (RBF). The RBF allows large geometrical changes of the electric field domain while retaining the high element quality of the deformed mesh. Coupling effects between mechanical and electrical domains are directly included within the element formulation. Fringing field effects are described accurately by using traditional arbitrary shape functions.

Keywords: electromechanical, electric field, transducer, simulation, modeling, finite-element, mesh morphing, radial basis function

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18 Multidisciplinary and Multilevel Design Methodology of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Enhanced Collaborative Optimization

Authors: Pedro F. Albuquerque, Pedro V. Gamboa, Miguel A. Silvestre


The present work describes the implementation of the Enhanced Collaborative Optimization (ECO) multilevel architecture with a gradient-based optimization algorithm with the aim of performing a multidisciplinary design optimization of a generic unmanned aerial vehicle with morphing technologies. The concepts of weighting coefficient and a dynamic compatibility parameter are presented for the ECO architecture. A routine that calculates the aircraft performance for the user defined mission profile and vehicle’s performance requirements has been implemented using low fidelity models for the aerodynamics, stability, propulsion, weight, balance and flight performance. A benchmarking case study for evaluating the advantage of using a variable span wing within the optimization methodology developed is presented.

Keywords: multidisciplinary, multilevel, morphing, enhanced collaborative optimization

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17 Numerical Analysis of a Mechanism for the Morphology in the Extrados of an Airfoil

Authors: E. R. Jimenez Barron, M. Castillo Morales, D. F. Ramírez Morales


The study of the morphology (shape change) in wings leads to the optimization of aerodynamic characteristics in an aircraft, so for the development and implementation of a change in the structure and shape of an airfoil, in this case the extrados, helps to increase the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft at different operating velocities, according to the required mission profile. A previous work on morphology is continued where the 'initial' profile is the NACA 4415 and as a new profile 'objective' the FUSION. The objective of this work is the dimensioning of the elements of the mechanism used to achieve the required changes. We consulted the different materials used in the aeronautics industry, as well as new materials in this area that could contribute to the good performance of the mechanism without negatively affecting the aerodynamics. These results allow evaluating the performance of a wing with variable extrados with respect to the defined morphology.

Keywords: numerical analysis, mechanisms, morphing airfoil, morphing wings

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16 Applying Kinect on the Development of a Customized 3D Mannequin

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Rong-Qi Chen


In the field of fashion design, 3D Mannequin is a kind of assisting tool which could rapidly realize the design concepts. While the concept of 3D Mannequin is applied to the computer added fashion design, it will connect with the development and the application of design platform and system. Thus, the situation mentioned above revealed a truth that it is very critical to develop a module of 3D Mannequin which would correspond with the necessity of fashion design. This research proposes a concrete plan that developing and constructing a system of 3D Mannequin with Kinect. In the content, ergonomic measurements of objective human features could be attained real-time through the implement with depth camera of Kinect, and then the mesh morphing can be implemented through transformed the locations of the control-points on the model by inputting those ergonomic data to get an exclusive 3D mannequin model. In the proposed methodology, after the scanned points from the Kinect are revised for accuracy and smoothening, a complete human feature would be reconstructed by the ICP algorithm with the method of image processing. Also, the objective human feature could be recognized to analyze and get real measurements. Furthermore, the data of ergonomic measurements could be applied to shape morphing for the division of 3D Mannequin reconstructed by feature curves. Due to a standardized and customer-oriented 3D Mannequin would be generated by the implement of subdivision, the research could be applied to the fashion design or the presentation and display of 3D virtual clothes. In order to examine the practicality of research structure, a system of 3D Mannequin would be constructed with JAVA program in this study. Through the revision of experiments the practicability-contained research result would come out.

Keywords: 3D mannequin, kinect scanner, interactive closest point, shape morphing, subdivision

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15 Computational Fluid Dynamics-Coupled Optimisation Strategy for Aerodynamic Design

Authors: Anvar Atayev, Karl Steinborn, Aleksander Lovric, Saif Al-Ibadi, Jorg Fliege


In this paper, we present results obtained from optimising the aerodynamic performance of aerostructures in external ow. The optimisation method used was developed to efficiently handle multi-variable problems with numerous black-box objective functions and constraints. To demonstrate these capabilities, a series of CFD problems were considered; (1) a two-dimensional NACA aerofoil with three variables, (2) a two-dimensional morphing aerofoil with 17 variables, and (3) a three-dimensional morphing aeroplane tail with 33 variables. The objective functions considered were related to combinations of the mean aerodynamic coefficients, as well as their relative variations/oscillations. It was observed that for each CFD problem, an improved objective value was found. Notably, the scale-up in variables for the latter problems did not greatly hinder optimisation performance. This makes the method promising for scaled-up CFD problems, which require considerable computational resources.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, optimisation algorithms, aerodynamic design, engineering design

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14 Atmospheric Full Scale Testing of a Morphing Trailing Edge Flap System for Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: Thanasis K. Barlas, Helge A. Madsen


A novel Active Flap System (AFS) has been developed at DTU Wind Energy, as a result of a 3-year R\&D project following almost 10 years of innovative research in this field. The full-scale AFS comprises an active deformable trailing edge has been tested at the unique rotating test facility at the Risoe Campus of DTU Wind Energy in Denmark. The design and instrumentation of the wing section and the active flap system (AFS) are described. The general description and objectives of the rotating test rig at the Risoe campus of DTU are presented, as used for the aeroelastic testing of the AFS in the recently finalized INDUFLAP project. The general description and objectives are presented, along with an overview of sensors on the setup and the test cases. The post-processing of data is discussed and results of steady flap step and azimuth control flap cases are presented.

Keywords: morphing, adaptive, flap, smart blade, wind turbine

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13 The Customization of 3D Last Form Design Based on Weighted Blending

Authors: Shih-Wen Hsiao, Chu-Hsuan Lee, Rong-Qi Chen


When it comes to last, it is regarded as the critical foundation of shoe design and development. Not only the last relates to the comfort of shoes wearing but also it aids the production of shoe styling and manufacturing. In order to enhance the efficiency and application of last development, a computer aided methodology for customized last form designs is proposed in this study. The reverse engineering is mainly applied to the process of scanning for the last form. Then the minimum energy is used for the revision of surface continuity, the surface of the last is reconstructed with the feature curves of the scanned last. When the surface of a last is reconstructed, based on the foundation of the proposed last form reconstruction module, the weighted arithmetic mean method is applied to the calculation on the shape morphing which differs from the grading for the control mesh of last, and the algorithm of subdivision is used to create the surface of last mesh, thus the feet-fitting 3D last form of different sizes is generated from its original form feature with functions remained. Finally, the practicability of the proposed methodology is verified through later case studies.

Keywords: 3D last design, customization, reverse engineering, weighted morphing, shape blending

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12 Sensor Network Structural Integration for Shape Reconstruction of Morphing Trailing Edge

Authors: M. Ciminello, I. Dimino, S. Ameduri, A. Concilio


Improving aircraft's efficiency is one of the key elements of Aeronautics. Modern aircraft possess many advanced functions, such as good transportation capability, high Mach number, high flight altitude, and increasing rate of climb. However, no aircraft has a possibility to reach all of this optimized performance in a single airframe configuration. The aircraft aerodynamic efficiency varies considerably depending on the specific mission and on environmental conditions within which the aircraft must operate. Structures that morph their shape in response to their surroundings may at first seem like the stuff of science fiction, but take a look at nature and lots of examples of plants and animals that adapt to their environment would arise. In order to ensure both the controllable and the static robustness of such complex structural systems, a monitoring network is aimed at verifying the effectiveness of the given control commands together with the elastic response. In order to achieve this kind of information, the use of FBG sensors network is, in this project, proposed. The sensor network is able to measure morphing structures shape which may show large, global displacements due to non-standard architectures and materials adopted. Chord -wise variations may allow setting and chasing the best layout as a function of the particular and transforming reference state, always targeting best aerodynamic performance. The reason why an optical sensor solution has been selected is that while keeping a few of the contraindication of the classical systems (like cabling, continuous deployment, and so on), fibre optic sensors may lead to a dramatic reduction of the wires mass and weight thanks to an extreme multiplexing capability. Furthermore, the use of the ‘light’ as ‘information carrier’, permits dealing with nimbler, non-shielded wires, and avoids any kind of interference with the on-board instrumentation. The FBG-based transducers, herein presented, aim at monitoring the actual shape of adaptive trailing edge. Compared to conventional systems, these transducers allow more fail-safe measurements, by taking advantage of a supporting structure, hosting FBG, whose properties may be tailored depending on the architectural requirements and structural constraints, acting as strain modulator. The direct strain may, in fact, be difficult because of the large deformations occurring in morphing elements. A modulation transducer is then necessary to keep the measured strain inside the allowed range. In this application, chord-wise transducer device is a cantilevered beam sliding trough the spars and copying the camber line of the ATE ribs. FBG sensors array position are dimensioned and integrated along the path. A theoretical model describing the system behavior is implemented. To validate the design, experiments are then carried out with the purpose of estimating the functions between rib rotation and measured strain.

Keywords: fiber optic sensor, morphing structures, strain sensor, shape reconstruction

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11 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez


This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

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10 Investigation of Adaptable Winglets for Improved UAV Control and Performance

Authors: E. Kaygan, A. Gatto


An investigation of adaptable winglets for morphing aircraft control and performance is described in this paper. The concepts investigated consist of various winglet configurations fundamentally centred on a baseline swept wing. The impetus for the work was to identify and optimize winglets to enhance controllability and the aerodynamic efficiency of a small unmanned aerial vehicle. All computations were performed with Athena Vortex Lattice modelling with varying degrees of twist, swept, and dihedral angle considered. The results from this work indicate that if adaptable winglets were employed on small scale UAV’s improvements in both aircraft control and performance could be achieved.

Keywords: aircraft, rolling, wing, winglet

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9 View Synthesis of Kinetic Depth Imagery for 3D Security X-Ray Imaging

Authors: O. Abusaeeda, J. P. O. Evans, D. Downes


We demonstrate the synthesis of intermediary views within a sequence of X-ray images that exhibit depth from motion or kinetic depth effect in a visual display. Each synthetic image replaces the requirement for a linear X-ray detector array during the image acquisition process. Scale invariant feature transform, SIFT, in combination with epipolar morphing is employed to produce synthetic imagery. Comparison between synthetic and ground truth images is reported to quantify the performance of the approach. Our work is a key aspect in the development of a 3D imaging modality for the screening of luggage at airport checkpoints. This programme of research is in collaboration with the UK Home Office and the US Dept. of Homeland Security.

Keywords: X-ray, kinetic depth, KDE, view synthesis

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8 A Study of Parameters That Have an Influence on Fabric Prints in Judging the Attractiveness of a Female Body Shape

Authors: Man N. M. Cheung


In judging the attractiveness of female body shape, visual sense is one of the important means. The ratio and proportion of body shape influence the perception of female physical attractiveness. This study aims to examine visual perception of digital textile prints on a virtual 3D model in judging the attractiveness of the body shape. Also, investigate the influences when using different shape parameters and their relationships. Participants were asked to conduct a set of questionnaires with images to rank the attractiveness of the female body shape. Results showed that morphing the fabric prints with a certain ratio and combination of shape parameters - waist and hip, can enhance the attractiveness of the female body shape.

Keywords: digital printing, 3D body modeling, fashion print design, body shape attractiveness

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7 The Morphing Avatar of Startup Sales - Destination Virtual Reality

Authors: Sruthi Kannan


The ongoing covid pandemic has accelerated digital transformation like never before. The physical barriers brought in as a result of the pandemic are being bridged by digital alternatives. While basic collaborative activities like voice, video calling, screen sharing have been replicated in these alternatives, there are several others that require a more intimate setup. Pitching, showcasing, and providing demonstrations are an integral part of selling strategies for startups. Traditionally these have been in-person engagements, enabling a depth of understanding of the startups’ offerings. In the new normal scenario of virtual-only connects, startups are feeling the brunt of the lack of in-person connections with potential customers and investors. This poster demonstrates how a virtual reality platform has been conceptualized and custom-built for startups to engage with their stakeholders and redefine their selling strategies. This virtual reality platform is intended to provide an immersive experience for startup showcases and offers the nearest possible alternative to physical meetings for the startup ecosystem, thereby opening newer frontiers for entrepreneurial collaborations.

Keywords: collaboration, sales, startups, strategy, virtual reality

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6 Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight

Authors: Marine Segui, Simon Bezin, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez


As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, Citation X, optimization, winglet

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5 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi


Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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4 Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Large Deformation Characteristics of Magnetic Responsive Hydrogel Nanocomposites Membranes

Authors: Mallikarjunachari Gangapuram


Stimuli-responsive hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are gaining significant attention these days due to their potential applications in various engineering fields. For example, sensors, soft actuators, drug delivery, remote controlled therapy, water treatment, shape morphing, and magnetic refrigeration are few advanced applications of hydrogel nanocomposite membranes. In this work, hydrogel nanocomposite membranes are synthesized by embedding nanometer-sized (diameter - 300 nm) Fe₃O₄ magnetic particles into the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. To understand the large deformation characteristics of these membranes, a well-known experimental method ball indentation technique is used. Different designing parameters such as membrane thickness, the concentration of magnetic particles and ball diameter on the viscoelastic properties are studied. All the experiments are carried out without and with a static magnetic field. Finite element simulations are carried out to validate the experimental results. It is observed, the creep response decreases and Young’s modulus increases as the thickness and concentration of magnetic particles increases. Image analysis revealed the hydrogel membranes are undergone global deformation for ball diameter 18 mm and local deformation when the diameter decreases from 18 mm to 0.5 mm.

Keywords: ball indentation, hydrogel membranes, nanocomposites, Young's modulus

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3 Decoding the Natural Hazards: The Data Paradox, Juggling Data Flows, Transparency and Secrets, Analysis of Khuzestan and Lorestan Floods of Iran

Authors: Kiyanoush Ghalavand


We have a complex paradox in the agriculture and environment sectors in the age of technology. In the one side, the achievements of the science and information ages are shaping to come that is very dangerous than ever last decades. The progress of the past decades is historic, connecting people, empowering individuals, groups, and states, and lifting a thousand people out of land and poverty in the process. Floods are the most frequent natural hazards damaging and recurring of all disasters in Iran. Additionally, floods are morphing into new and even more devastating forms in recent years. Khuzestan and Lorestan Provinces experienced heavy rains that began on March 28, 2019, and led to unprecedented widespread flooding and landslides across the provinces. The study was based on both secondary and primary data. For the present study, a questionnaire-based primary survey was conducted. Data were collected by using a specially designed questionnaire and other instruments, such as focus groups, interview schedules, inception workshops, and roundtable discussions with stakeholders at different levels. Farmers in Khuzestan and Lorestan provinces were the statistical population for this study. Data were analyzed with several software such as ATLASti, NVivo SPSS Win, ،E-Views. According to a factorial analysis conducted for the present study, 10 groups of factors were categorized climatic, economic, cultural, supportive, instructive, planning, military, policymaking, geographical, and human factors. They estimated 71.6 percent of explanatory factors of flood management obstacles in the agricultural sector in Lorestan and Khuzestan provinces. Several recommendations were finally made based on the study findings.

Keywords: chaos theory, natural hazards, risks, environmental risks, paradox

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2 Enhancement of Aircraft Longitudinal Stability Using Tubercles

Authors: Muhammad Umer, Aishwariya Giri, Umaiyma Rakha


Mimicked from the humpback whale flippers, the application of tubercle technology is seen to be particularly advantageous at high angles of attack. This particular advantage is of paramount importance when it comes to structures producing lift at high angles of attack. This characteristic of the technology makes it ideal for horizontal stabilizers and selecting the same as the subject of study to identify and exploit the advantage highlighted by researchers on airfoils, this project aims in establishing a foundation for the application of the bio-mimicked technology on an existing aircraft. Using a baseline and 2 tubercle configuration integrated models, the project targets to achieve the twin aim of highlighting the possibility and merits over the base model and also choosing the right configuration in providing the best characteristic suitable for high angles of attack. To facilitate this study, the required models are generated using Solidworks followed by trials in a virtual aerodynamic environment using Fluent in Ansys for resolving the project objectives. Following a structured plan, the aim is to initially identify the advantages mathematically and then selecting the optimal configuration, simulate the end configuration at angles mimicking the actual operation envelope for the particular structure. Upon simulating the baseline configuration at various angles of attack, the stall angle was determined to be 22 degrees. Thus, the tubercle configurations will be simulated and compared at 4 different angles of attacks: 0, 10, 20, and 24. Further, after providing the optimum configuration of horizontal stabilizers, this study aims at the integration of aircraft structure so that the results better imply the end deliverables of real life application. This draws the project scope closer at this point into longitudinal static stability considerations and improvements in the manoeuvrability characteristics. The objective of the study is to achieve a complete overview ready for real life application with marked benefits obtainable from bio morphing of the tubercle technology.

Keywords: flow simulation, horizontal stabilizer, stability enhancement, tubercle

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1 Mapping Iron Content in the Brain with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Machine Learning

Authors: Gabrielle Robertson, Matthew Downs, Joseph Dagher


Iron deposition in the brain has been linked with a host of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Multiple Sclerosis. While some treatment options exist, there are no objective measurement tools that allow for the monitoring of iron levels in the brain in vivo. An emerging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method has been recently proposed to deduce iron concentration through quantitative measurement of magnetic susceptibility. This is a multi-step process that involves repeated modeling of physical processes via approximate numerical solutions. For example, the last two steps of this Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) method involve I) mapping magnetic field into magnetic susceptibility and II) mapping magnetic susceptibility into iron concentration. Process I involves solving an ill-posed inverse problem by using regularization via injection of prior belief. The end result from Process II highly depends on the model used to describe the molecular content of each voxel (type of iron, water fraction, etc.) Due to these factors, the accuracy and repeatability of QSM have been an active area of research in the MRI and medical imaging community. This work aims to estimate iron concentration in the brain via a single step. A synthetic numerical model of the human head was created by automatically and manually segmenting the human head on a high-resolution grid (640x640x640, 0.4mm³) yielding detailed structures such as microvasculature and subcortical regions as well as bone, soft tissue, Cerebral Spinal Fluid, sinuses, arteries, and eyes. Each segmented region was then assigned tissue properties such as relaxation rates, proton density, electromagnetic tissue properties and iron concentration. These tissue property values were randomly selected from a Probability Distribution Function derived from a thorough literature review. In addition to having unique tissue property values, different synthetic head realizations also possess unique structural geometry created by morphing the boundary regions of different areas within normal physical constraints. This model of the human brain is then used to create synthetic MRI measurements. This is repeated thousands of times, for different head shapes, volume, tissue properties and noise realizations. Collectively, this constitutes a training-set that is similar to in vivo data, but larger than datasets available from clinical measurements. This 3D convolutional U-Net neural network architecture was used to train data-driven Deep Learning models to solve for iron concentrations from raw MRI measurements. The performance was then tested on both synthetic data not used in training as well as real in vivo data. Results showed that the model trained on synthetic MRI measurements is able to directly learn iron concentrations in areas of interest more effectively than other existing QSM reconstruction methods. For comparison, models trained on random geometric shapes (as proposed in the Deep QSM method) are less effective than models trained on realistic synthetic head models. Such an accurate method for the quantitative measurement of iron deposits in the brain would be of important value in clinical studies aiming to understand the role of iron in neurological disease.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, iron deposition, machine learning, quantitative susceptibility mapping

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