Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: spouse

45 Decision Making Regarding Spouse Selection and Women's Autonomy in India: Exploring the Linkage

Authors: Nivedita Paul

Abstract:

The changing character of marriage be it arranged marriage, love marriage, polygamy, informal unions, all signify different gender relations in everyday lives. Marriages in India are part and parcel of the kinship and cultural practices. Arranged marriage is still the dominant form of marriage where spouse selection is the initiative and decision of the parents; but its form is changing, as women are now actively participating in spouse selection but with parental consent. Spouse selection related decision making is important because marriage as an institution brings social change and gender inequality; especially in a women’s life as marriages in India are mostly patrilocal. Moreover, the amount of say in spouse selection can affect a woman’s reproductive rights, domestic violence issues, household resource allocation, communication possibilities with the spouse/husband, marital life, etc. The present study uses data from Indian Human Development Survey II (2011-12) which is a nationally representative multitopic survey that covers 41,554 households. Currently, married women of age group 15-49 in their first marriage; whose year of marriage is from 1970s to 2000s have been taken for the study. Based on spouse selection experiences, the sample of women has been divided into three marriage categories-self, semi and family arranged. Women in self arranged or love marriage is the sole decision maker in choosing the partner, in semi arranged marriage or arranged marriage with consent both parents and women together take the decision, whereas in family arranged or arranged marriage without consent only parents take the decision. The main aim of the study is to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and women’s autonomy in India. Decision making in economic matters, child and health related decision making, mobility and access to resources are taken to be proxies of autonomy. Method of ordinal regression has been used to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and autonomy after marriage keeping other independent variables as control factors. Results show that women in semi arranged marriage have more decision making power regarding financial matters of the household, health related matters, mobility and accessibility to resources, when compared to women in family, arranged marriages. For freedom of movement and access to resources women in self arranged marriage have the highest say or exercise greatest power. Therefore, greater participation of women (even though not absolute control) in spouse selection may lead to greater autonomy after marriage.

Keywords: arranged marriage, autonomy, consent, spouse selection

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44 Relationships of Clergy Work-Family Enrichment with Job Attitudes

Authors: John Faucett, Hao Wu, Bruce Moore, Sean Nadji

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The demands of the ministry often conflict with responsibilities at home, and clergy often experience domain ambiguity between the domains of work and family. However, the unique level of family involvement in the pastor’s profession might enrich the pastor’s ministry as well as the functioning of the family unit. Life in the church family might offer clergy family members a sense of meaning and purpose, social support, and a feeling of belonging. Church activities can offer enhanced opportunities for family interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of work/family enrichment to clergy job satisfaction, burnout, engagement, and withdrawal. Method: Participants were clergy serving within a state conference of the United Methodist Church. A survey was administered electronically, with e-mails and the United Methodist Church (UMC) Facebook page used as access points to the survey. Usable responses for this portion of the survey were obtained from 132 clergy. Participants completed The Work-Family Enrichment Scales, The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, The Scale of Emotional Exhaustion in Ministry, The Satisfaction in Ministry Scale, and a scale of withdrawal developed for the present study. They also answered questions relating to how involved their spouses are in their ministry and the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry. Findings: Higher scores for work to family enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = - .69, p < .01) and engagement (r = .50, p < .01), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01) and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Higher scores for family to work enrichment correlated positively with job satisfaction (r = .29, p = .01) and engagement (.24, p < .05), and negatively with burnout (r = -.48, p < .01), and withdrawal (r = -.46, p < .01). Hierarchical regression analysis suggested that clergy perceptions concerning the degree to which spouse involvement in church ministry strengthens church ministry moderates the relationship between degree of spouse involvement in church activities and clergy withdrawal. To the degree that spouse involvement is believed to strengthen ministry, high spouse involvement is related to less clergy withdrawal (Multiple R-Squared = .068, Adj. R-Squared = .043, F = 2.69 on 3 & 110 DF, p = .05). Concluding Statement: Clergy job attitudes are related to work/family enrichment. Spouse involvement in parish ministry is associated with less clergy withdrawal, as long as clergy believe spouse involvement strengthens their ministry.

Keywords: clergy, emotional exhaustion, job engagement, job satisfaction, work/family enrichment

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43 An Assessment of Self-Perceived Health after the Death of a Spouse among the Elderly

Authors: Shu-Hsi Ho

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The problems of aging and number of widowed peers gradually rise in Taiwan. It is worth to concern the related issues for elderly after the death of a spouse. Hence, this study is to examine the impact of spousal death on the surviving spouse’s self-perceived health and mental health for the elderly in Taiwan. A cross section data design and ordered logistic regression models are applied to investigate whether marriage is associated significantly to self-perceived health and mental health for the widowed older Taiwanese. The results indicate that widowed marriage shows significant negative effects on self-perceived health and mental health regardless of widows or widowers. Among them, widows might be more likely to show worse mental health than widowers. The belief confirms that marriage provides effective sources to promote self-perceived health and mental health, particularly for females. In addition, since the social welfare system is not perfect in Taiwan, the findings also suggest that family and social support reveal strongly association with the self-perceived health and mental health for the widows and widowers elderly.

Keywords: logistic regression models, self-perceived health, widow, widower

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42 Use of Social Support for Fathers with Developmental Disabilities in Japan

Authors: Shiori Ishida, Hiromi Okuno, Hisato Igarashi, Akemi Yamazaki, Hiroko Takahashi

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The purpose of this study was to clarify the differences and similarities regarding the social support of fathers and mothers towards considering increased assistance for the paternity of children with developmental disabilities. Written questionnaires were completed by fathers (n=85) and mothers (n=101) of children using rehabilitation facilities between infancy and 5 years of age. The survey contained multiple-choice questions on four categories: information support (6 items), emotional support (7 items), evaluation support (3 items), and daily living support (3 items). Regarding information support, fathers answered ‘spouse’ as the provider in over 50% of cases for all 6 items, which was significantly different compared with mothers (all p < 0.001). For emotional support, fathers were significantly more likely to get support from the workplace (p < 0.001) and from spouse (p < 0.001). The ‘evaluation support’ did not have significant differences for fathers in all the items, but the most frequent support providers were ‘spouses’. ‘Daily living support’ was significantly different from fathers in the workplace (p < 0.000) in terms of make allowances for work and duties. Thus, it appeared that fathers had fewer social support sources as compared with mothers and limited non-spouse support. The understanding of developmental disabilities, acquisition of methods of rehabilitation, and sources of support might have been inadequately addressed among fathers, which could be a hindrance to the involvement of fathers in the rearing of children with developmental disabilities. On the other hand, we also observed that some fathers were involved in the care of developmentally troubled children while providing mental support for their spouse, cooperating with housework, and adjusting their work life. However, the results on the external and social backgrounds of fathers indicated a necessity for greater empowerment and peer support to improve the paternal care of children with developmental disabilities in the family survey.

Keywords: children with developmental disabilities, family support, father, social support

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41 Marital Expectations, Marital Infidelity and Neuroticism as Predictors of Marital Conflict: Case Study of Igbo Spouses in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ann Ukachi Madukwe, Juliana Chinwendu Njoku

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Marital conflict, conceptualized in this study as the ongoing lack of peace and satisfaction in a marital union which threatens marital stability, has become quite prevalent in modern Igbo communities. The frequent incidences of spousal battery, spousal sexual abuse, domestic violence, long term separation and in some cases outright divorce are worrisome indicators of the endemic challenge marital conflict poses in most Igbo communities. This study examined marital expectations, marital infidelity (self and spouse), and neuroticism as predictors of marital conflict. Marital expectation was described as a married person’s appraisal of how well their pre-marital desires were being met by their spouses and within the marriage relationship. It assessed different aspects of personal and interpersonal positive outcomes in a marital union. Marital infidelity referred to the likelihood that married individuals or their spouses could have indulged in intimate activities like passionate kisses and romantic dates with someone other than their spouses. Participants reported on themselves as well as their spouses. The last predictor variable neuroticism was measured as a personality trait that addresses issues of emotional instability especially as it relates to a person’s interactions. Neurotic persons were considered to have high emotional reactivity; they would have strong emotional response to issues that emotionally stable persons might overlook. Participants comprised of Igbo male and female spouses selected from Imo state using randomized cluster sampling method. The study utilized the cross sectional survey design and Stepwise linear multiple regression for data analyses. Findings showed that though marital infidelity by spouse was generally below average and spouses marital expectations were being fulfilled; marital expectations followed by marital infidelity – spouse proved to be significant predictors of marital conflict. Marital conflict reduced as marital expectations got fulfilled and increased as the level of likelihood of marital infidelity by the spouse increased. Spouses in this study also reported an increased level of neuroticism, with males being more neurotic than females. Neuroticism was found to be the least significant predictor of marital conflict compared to marital expectations and marital infidelity – spouse. Finally, the article made recommendations to spouses and marital counsellors regarding especially the need to manage the neurotic tendencies of Igbo spouses.

Keywords: Igbo spouses, marital conflict, marital expectations, Nigeria

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40 Regional Variations in Spouse Selection Patterns of Women in India

Authors: Nivedita Paul

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Marriages in India are part and parcel of kinship and cultural practices. Marriage practices differ in India because of cross-regional diversities in social relations which itself has evolved as a result of causal relationship between space and culture. As the place is important for the formation of culture and other social structures, therefore there is regional differentiation in cultural practices and marital customs. Based on the cultural practices some scholars have divided India into North and South kinship regions where women in the North get married early and have lesser autonomy compared to women in the South where marriages are mostly consanguineous. But, the emergence of new modes and alternative strategies such as matrimonial advertisements becoming popular, as well as the increase in women’s literacy and work force participation, matchmaking process in India has changed to some extent. The present study uses data from Indian Human Development Survey II (2011-12) which is a nationally representative multitopic survey that covers 41,554 households. Currently married women of age group 15-49 in their first marriage; whose year of marriage is from the 1970s to 2000s have been taken for the study. Based on spouse selection experiences, the sample of women has been divided into three marriage categories-self, semi and family arranged. Women in self-arranged or love marriage is the sole decision maker in choosing the partner, in semi-arranged marriage or arranged marriage with consent both parents and women together take the decision, whereas in family arranged or arranged marriage without consent only parents take the decision. The main aim of the study is to show the spatial and regional variations in spouse selection decision making. The basis for regionalization has been taken from Irawati Karve’s pioneering work on kinship studies in India called Kinship Organization in India. India is divided into four kinship regions-North, Central, South and East. Since this work was formulated in 1953, some of the states have experienced changes due to modernization; hence these have been regrouped. After mapping spouse selection patterns using GIS software, it is found that the northern region has mostly family arranged marriages (around 64.6%), the central zone shows a mixed pattern since family arranged marriages are less than north but more than south and semi-arranged marriages are more than north but less than south. The southern zone has the dominance of semi-arranged marriages (around 55%) whereas the eastern zone has more of semi-arranged marriage (around 53%) but there is also a high percentage of self-arranged marriage (around 42%). Thus, arranged marriage is the dominant form of marriage in all four regions, but with a difference in the degree of the involvement of the female and her parents and relatives.

Keywords: spouse selection, consent, kinship, regional pattern

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39 Relationship-Centred Care in Cross-Linguistic Medical Encounters

Authors: Nami Matsumoto

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This study explores the experiences of cross-linguistic medical encounters by patients, and their views of receiving language support therein, with a particular focus on Japanese-English cases. The aim of this study is to investigate the reason for the frequent use of a spouse as a communication mediator from a Japanese perspective, through a comparison with that of English speakers. This study conducts an empirical qualitative analysis of the accounts of informants. A total of 31 informants who have experienced Japanese-English cross-linguistic medical encounters were recruited in Australia and Japan for semi-structured in-depth interviews. A breakdown of informants is 15 English speakers and 16 Japanese speakers. In order to obtain a further insight into collected data, additional interviews were held with 4 Australian doctors who are familiar with using interpreters. This study was approved by the Australian National University Human Research Ethics Committee, and written consent to participate in this study was obtained from all participants. The interviews lasted up to over one hour. They were audio-recorded and subsequently transcribed by the author. Japanese transcriptions were translated into English by the author. An analysis of interview data found that patients value relationship in communication. Particularly, Japanese informants, who have an English-speaking spouse, value trust-based communication interventions by their spouse, regardless of the language proficiency of the spouse. In Australia, health care interpreters are required to abide by the national code of ethics for interpreters. The Code defines the role of an interpreter exclusively to be language rendition and enshrines the tenets of accuracy, confidentiality and professional role boundaries. However, the analysis found that an interpreter who strictly complies with the Code sometimes fails to render the real intentions of the patient and their doctor. Findings from the study suggest that an interpreter should not be detached from the context and should be more engaged in the needs of patients. Their needs are not always communicated by an interpreter when they simply follow a professional code of ethics. The concept of relationship-centred care should be incorporated in the professional practice of health care interpreters.

Keywords: health care, Japanese-English medical encounters, language barriers, trust

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38 Work-Family Conflict and Family and Job Resources among Women: The Role of Negotiation

Authors: Noa Nelson, Meitar Moshe, Dana Cohen

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Work-family conflict (WFC) is a significant source of stress for contemporary employees, with research indicating its heightened severity for women. The conservation of resources theory argues that individuals experience stress when their resources fall short of demands, and attempt to reach balance by obtaining resources. Presumably then, to achieve work-family balance women would need to negotiate for resources such as spouse support, employer support and work flexibility. The current research tested the hypotheses that competent negotiation at home and at work associated with increased family and job resources and with decreased WFC, as well as with higher work, marital and life satisfaction. In the first study, 113 employed mothers, married or cohabiting, reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with spouse over division of housework, and their actual housework load compared to spouse. They answered a WFC questionnaire, measuring how much work interferes with family (WIF) and how much family interferes with work (FIW), and finally, measurements of satisfaction. In the second study, 94 employed mothers, married or cohabiting reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with their boss over balancing work demands with family needs. They reported the levels of three job resources: flexibility, control and family-friendly organizational culture. Finally, they answered the same WFC and satisfaction measurements from study 1. Statistical analyses –t-tests, correlations, and hierarchical linear regressions- showed that in both studies, women reported higher WIF than FIW. Negotiations associated with increased resources: support from spouse, work flexibility and control and a family-friendly culture; negotiation with spouse associated also with satisfaction measurements. However, negotiations or resources (except family-friendly culture) did not associate with reduced conflict. The studies demonstrate the role of negotiation in obtaining family and job resources. Causation cannot be determined, but the fact is that employed mothers who enjoyed more support (at both home and work), flexibility and control, were more likely to keep active interactions to increase them. This finding has theoretical and practical implications, especially in view of research on female avoidance of negotiation. It is intriguing that negotiations and resources generally did not associate with reduced WFC. This finding might reflect the severity of the conflict, especially of work interfering with family, which characterizes many contemporary jobs. It might also suggest that employed mothers have high expectations from themselves, and even under supportive circumstances, experience the challenge of balancing two significant and demanding roles. The research contributes to the fields of negotiation, gender, and work-life balance. It calls for further studies, to test its model in additional populations and validate the role employees have in actively negotiating for the balance that they need. It also calls for further research to understand the contributions of job and family resources to reducing work-family conflict, and the circumstances under which they contribute.

Keywords: sork-family conflict, work-life balance, negotiation, gender, job resources, family resources

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37 The Image of Future Spouse in Indonesian Folktale: Man's Acceptance of Woman and vice Versa

Authors: Titik Wahyuningsih

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The folktale to discuss is Ande-Ande Lumut, a story that is believed to be a history of two kingdoms in East Java, Indonesia. The title refers to the main male character in the story. This research is a library research which aims to know the patriarchal values in Indonesia. The data for the research is the song in the story that is actually the conversation between Ande-Ande Lumut and a mom who adopts him. It is told in the lines that many beautiful girls come to propose Ande-Ande Lumut but he does not want to accept them and keeps on staying in his upstairs room. Finally, he says yes for Klething Kuning to whom his mom describes as a girl with ugly face. Ande-Ande Lumut's decision is taken as Klething Kuning is the only girl who doesn't let Yuyu Kangkang help her. Yuyu Kangkang is described as a very big crab that helps the girls to cross the river but ask them to kiss him. Through the lense of feminist approach, Ande-Ande Lumut shows the men’s preference and dominance to make final decision over women. Even though the girls are actively propose their future husband, but they do it without giving any requirements. Meanwhile, the future husband chooses a girl with a criterion that no male has ever touched her, although the male is a crab.

Keywords: future spouse, Indonesian folktale, acceptance, patriarchal

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36 Islam, Forced Marriages and Pakistani Culture: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Naseem Akhter, Rozina Khattak, Arshad Munir

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The Islamic social and family system is very clear concerning will, choice, consent and negation of compulsion and force in human life. Marriage is not only a civil contract but also a religious and spiritual contract between spouse (man and woman), which allows them for each other to live gladly, joyfully and legally in the society. It is an immortal and perpetual association between man and woman, which is filled with sympathetic affection, kindness, compassion and security. Islam gives specific rights to parents and guardians to set up the marriage ceremony and get done it as a respectful family occasion, confer their blessing and advice for a life partner of their children. The rights of parents and guardians are summed up in the term of "Willayah”. Islam does not permit parents, guardians and other relatives to compel their children regarding the marriage of their choice, because the groom and the bride are the real parties of the contract. Therefore, their willingness is of prime importance in order to spend whole life with each other. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) prohibits forcing a virgin to marriage without her permission, whether this is her father or someone else. The right of free consent to choose a life partner is the basic right for the human which is God (Allah) gifted. Unfortunately, forced marriage is a common practice in Pakistani society that has no link with Islam. This article is being written in the same context.

Keywords: choice, consent, forced marriage, Islam, parents, spouse

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35 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors

Authors: Nuran Nur Aypar, Merlinda Alus Tokat

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The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.

Keywords: affecting factors, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), knowledge level, nursing, pregnancy

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34 Examining Resilience, Social Supports, and Self-Esteem as Predictors of the Quality of Life of ODAPUS (Orang Dengan Lupus)

Authors: Yulmaida Amir, Fahrul Rozi, Insany C. Kamil, Fanny Aryani

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ODAPUS (Orang dengan Lupus) is an Indonesian term for people with Lupus, a chronic autoimmune disease in which immune system of the body becomes hyperactive and attacks normal tissue. The number of ODAPUS indicate an increase in Indonesia, thereby helping to improve their quality of life to be important to help their recovery. This study aims to examine the effect of resilience, self-esteem, and social support on the quality of life of women who had been diagnosed as having Lupus. Data were collected from 64 ODAPUS in Indonesia, using the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL), Resilience Scale from Wagnil and Young (1993), self-esteem scale (developed from Coopersmith’s theory), and Social Support Questioner from Northouse (1988). Regression data analysis showed that resilience, social support, and self-esteem predict the quality of life of the ODAPUS simultaneously. If the variable was analysed individually, self-esteem did not significantly contribute to the quality of life. Resilience contributed most significantly to the quality of life, followed by social support. Of five sources of social supports included in the research, support from family members (parents and brother/sisters) has the most significant contribution to the quality of life, followed by support from spouse, and from friends. Interestingly, social support from medical personnel (medical doctors and nurses) had not a significant contribution to the quality of life of ODAPUS. As a conclusion, this research showed that the ability of ODAPUS to cope with difficulty in life, and support from family members, spouse, and friends were the significant predictors for their quality of life.

Keywords: quality of life, resilience, self-esteem, social supports

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33 Sexual Behaviors and Its Predictors among Iranian Women in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zahra Karimian, Effat Merghati Khoei, Raziyeh Maasoumi

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Background: Women's sexual well-being is center of focus in the field of sexology. Study of sexual behavior and investigating its predictors is important in women's health promotion. Objectives: This study aimed to explore the components of sexual behaviors and their possible associations with the women's demographic. Methods: A National Sexual Behavior Assessment Questionnaire was administered to 500 women ages 15 to 45 who referred to the public health centers seeking for health care services. The associations with demographic were examined. Results: From all participant, 31.8% of women obtain high score in the sexual capacity 21.2% in sexual motivation and 0.2% in sexual function. In sexual script component, 86.2% of women were holding traditional beliefs toward sexual behaviors; the majority (91.5%) of women believed in mutual and relational sexuality, 83.4% believed in androcentricity (male-dominated sexuality). Pearson correlation test showed significant positive correlations between sexual capacity, motivation, function and sexual script (p < 0.05). Regression model showed that sexual capacity is associated with women's education, age of her spouse. Sexual function and sexual motivation were significantly associated with the age of subjects' spouses. Conclusion: In this study, lower score was found in sexual performance while women were scored higher in the sexual capacity and motivation. We argue that these lower score in sexual performance more likely is due to the level of participants' religiosity and formation of their sexuality through an androcentric culture. Women's level of education and the spouse age appear to be predicting factors in the scores the subjects gained. We suggest that gender-specific and culturally sensitive sexuality education should be focus of women's health programs in Iran.

Keywords: sexual behaviors, women, health, Iran

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32 Health Status, Perception of Self-Efficacy and Social Support of Thailand Aging

Authors: Wipakon Sonsnam, Kanya Napapongsa

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The quantitative aim of the study; 1) health conditions, to examine the state of health of the aging, 2) perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging ,3) perceived of social support of the aging, 4) to examine factors associated with self-efficacy in enhancing the health and self-care when illness. 100 samples selected from communities in Dusit, Bangkok, 2014 by random sampling. The questionnaires were used to collect data have 5-point rating scale, consisting of strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree; approved content valid by 3 experts, reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. ST-5, 2Q used for collect mental health. The ability to engage in a daily routine was collected by Barthel ADL index. Founding, the sample group were female (68%). (33%) of them were in the age of 60-65. Most of them were married and still live with their spouse (55%) and do not work (38%). The average annual income was less than 10,000 baht supported by child. Most people think that income was adequate (49.0%) and Satisfaction (61.0%). Most of aging caring them-self, followed by them spouse (26%). Welfare of the public had supported, living for the aging (100%), followed by Join and health volunteers in communities (23%). In terms of health, (53%) of the sample group feels health was fair, hypertension was the most common health condition among sample group (68%), following by diabetes (55%). About eyesight, (42%) have visual acuity. (59.0%) do not need hearing aids. 84% have more than 20 teeth remaining, and have no problem with chewing (61%). In terms of Ability to engage in a daily routine, most of people (84%) in sample group are in type 1. (91%) of the participants don’t have bladder incontinence. For mental condition, (82%) do not have insomnia. (87%) do not have anxiety. (96%) do not have depression. However, (77%) of the sample group is facing stress. In terms of environment in home, bathroom in the home (90.0%) and floor of bathroom was slippery (91.0%). (48%) of the sample group has the skills of how to look after themselves while being sick, and how to keep up healthy lifestyle. Besides, some other factors, such as gender, age and educational background are related to the health perception. The statistical significance was <0.05. Suggestion: The instruments available to national standards such as ST-5, 2Q and Barthel ADL index. Reliability coefficients alpha was .784 for perceived of self-efficacy, self-care of aging and .827 for perceived of social support of the aging. The instrument used to collect perceived of social support must be further developed to study level of influence of social support that affect the health of elderly.

Keywords: ้health status, perception of aging, self-efficacy, social support

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31 The ‘Accompanying Spouse Dependent Visa Status’: Challenges and Constraints Faced by Zimbabwean Immigrant Women in Integration into South Africa’s Formal Labour Market

Authors: Rujeko Samanthia Chimukuche

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Introduction: Transboundary migration at both regional and continental levels has become the defining feature of the 21st century. The recent global migration crisis due to economic strife and war brings back to the fore an old age problem, but with fresh challenges. Migration and forced displacement are issues that require long-term solutions. In South Africa, for example, whilst much attention has been placed on xenophobic attacks and other issues at the nexus of immigrant and indigenous communities, the limited focus has been placed on the integration, specifically formal labour integration of immigrant communities and the gender inequalities that are prevalent. Despite noble efforts by South Africa, hosting several immigrants, several challenges arise in integrating the migrants into society as it is often difficult to harmonize the interests of indigenous communities and those of foreign nationals. This research study has aimed to fill in the gaps by analyzing how stringent immigration and visa regulations prevent skilled migrant women spouses from employment, which often results in several societal vices, including domestic abuse, minimum or no access to important services such as healthcare, education, social welfare among others. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, the study analyzed South Africa migration and labour policies in terms of mainstreaming the gender needs of skilled migrant women. Secondly, the study highlighted the migratory experiences and constraints of skilled Zimbabwean women migrant spouses in South Africa labour integration. The experiences of these women have shown the gender inequalities of the migratory policies. Thirdly, Zimbabwean women's opportunities and/or challenges in integration into the South African formal labour market were explored. Lastly, practical interventions to support the integration of skilled migrant women spouses into South Africa’s formal labour market were suggested. Findings: Key findings show that gender dynamics are pivotal in migration patterns and the mainstreaming of gender in migration policies. This study, therefore, contributed to the fields of gender and migration by examining ways in which gender rights of skilled migrant women spouses can be incorporated in labour integration policy making.

Keywords: accompanying spouse visa, gender-migration, labour-integration, Zimbabwean women

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30 Social Participation and Associated Life Satisfaction among Older Adults in India: Moderating Role of Marital Status and Living Arrangements

Authors: Varsha Pandurang Nagargoje, K. S. James

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Background: Social participation is considered as one of the central components of successful and healthy aging. This study aimed to examine the moderating role of marital status and living arrangement in the relationship between social participation and life satisfaction and other potential factors associated with life satisfaction of Indian older adults. Method: For analyses, the nationally representative study sample of 31,464 adults aged ≥60 years old was extracted from the Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) wave 1, 2017-18. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis have been performed to determine the proportion of life satisfaction. The first set of multivariable linear regression analyses examined Diener’s Satisfaction with Life Scale and its association with various predictor variables, including social participation, marital status, living arrangements, socio-demographic, economic, and health-related variables. Further, the second and third sets of regression investigated the moderating role of marital status and living arrangements respectively in the association of social participation and level of life satisfaction among Indian older adults. Results: Overall, the proportion of life satisfaction among older men was relatively higher than women counterparts in most background characteristics. Regression results stressed the importance of older adults’ involvement in social participation [β = 0.39, p < 0.05], being in marital union [β = 0.68, p < 0.001] and co-residential living arrangements either only with spouse [β = 1.73, p < 0.001] or with other family members [β = 2.18, p < 0.001] for the improvement of life satisfaction. Results also showed that some factors were significant for life satisfaction: in particular, increased age, having a higher level of educational status, MPCE quintile, and caste category. Higher risk of life dissatisfaction found among Indian older adults who were exposed to vulnerabilities like consuming tobacco, poor self-rated health, having difficulty in performing ADL and IADL were of major concern. The interaction effect of social participation with marital status or with living arrangements explained that currently married older individuals, and those older adults who were either co-residing with their spouse only or with other family members irrespective of their involvement in social participation remained an important modifiable factor for life satisfaction. Conclusion: It would be crucial for policymakers and practitioners to advocate social policy programs and service delivery oriented towards meaningful social connections, especially for those Indian older adults who were staying alone or currently not in the marital union to enhance their overall life satisfaction.

Keywords: Indian, older adults, social participation, life satisfaction, marital status, living arrangement

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29 Adjustment with Changed Lifestyle at Old Age Homes: A Perspective of Elderly in India

Authors: Priyanka V. Janbandhu, Santosh B. Phad, Dhananjay W. Bansod

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The current changing scenario of the family is a compelling aged group not only to be alone in a nuclear family but also to join the old age institutions. The consequences of it are feeling of neglected or left alone by the children, adding a touch of helpless in the absence of lack of expected care and support. The accretion of all these feelings and unpleasant events ignite a question in their mind that – who is there for me? The efforts have taken to highlight the issues of the elderly after joining the old age home and their perception about the current life as an institutional inmate. This attempt to cover up the condition, adjustment, changed lifestyle and perspective in the association with several issues of the elderly, which have an essential effect on their well-being. The present research piece has collected the information about institutionalized elderly with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. This study interviewed 500 respondents from 22 old age homes of Pune city of Maharashtra State, India. This data collection methodology consists of Multi-stage random sampling. In which the stratified random sampling adopted for the selection of old age homes and sample size determination, sample selection probability proportional to the size and simple random sampling techniques implemented. The study provides that around five percent of the elderly shifted to old age home along with their spouse, whereas ten percent of the elderly are staying away from their spouse. More than 71 percent of the elderly have children, and they are an involuntary inmate of the old age institution, even less than one-third of the elderly consulted to the institution before the joining it. More than sixty percent of the elderly have children, but they joined institution due to the unpleasant response of their children only. Around half of the elderly responded that there are issues while adjusting to this environment, many of them are still persistent. At least one elderly out of ten is there who is suffering from the feeling of loneliness and left out by children and other family members. In contrast, around 97 percent of the elderly are very happy or satisfied with the institutional facilities. It illustrates that the issues are associated with their children and other family members, even though they left their home before a year or more. When enquired about this loneliness feeling few of them are suffering from it before leaving their homes, it was due to lack of interaction with children, as they are too busy to have time for the aged parents. Additionally, the conflicts or fights within the family due to the presence of old persons in the family contributed to establishing another feeling of insignificance among the elderly parents. According to these elderly, have more than 70 percent of the share, the children are ready to spend money indirectly for us through these institutions, but not prepared to provide some time and very few amounts of all this expenditure directly for us.

Keywords: elderly, old age homes, life style changes and adjustment, India

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28 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal

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Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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27 Abuse against Elderly Widows in India and Selected States: An Exploration

Authors: Rasmita Mishra, Chander Shekher

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Background: Population ageing is an inevitable outcome of demographic transition. Due to increased life expectancy, the old age population in India and worldwide has increased, and it will continue to grow more alarmingly in the near future. There are redundant austerity that has been bestowed upon the widows, thus, the life of widows is never been easy in India. The loss of spouse along with other disadvantaged socioeconomic intermediaries like illiteracy and poverty often make the life of widows more difficult to live. Methodology: Ethical statement: The study used secondary data available in the public domain for its wider use in social research. Thus, there was no requirement of ethical consent in the present study. Data source: Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India (BKPAI), 2011 dataset is used to fulfill the objectives of this study. It was carried out in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal – having a higher percentage of the population in the age group 60 years and above compared to the national average. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to understand the level of elderly widows and incidence of abuse against them in India and selected states. Bivariate and Trivariate analysis were carried out to check the pattern of abuse by selected covariates. Chi-Square test is used to verify the significance of the association. Further, Discriminant Analysis (DA) is carried out to understand which factor can separate out group of neglect and non-neglect elderly. Result: With the addition of 27 million from 2001 to 2011, the total elderly population in India is more than 100 million. Elderly females aged 60+ were more widows than their counterpart elderly males. This pattern was observed across selected states and at national level. At national level, more than one tenth (12 percent) of elderly experienced abuse in their lifetime. Incidence of abuse against elderly widows within family was considerably higher than the outside the family. This pattern was observed across the selected place and abuse in the study. In discriminant analysis, the significant difference between neglected and non-neglected elderly on each of the independent variables was examined using group mean and ANOVA. Discussion: The study is the first of its kind to assess the incidence of abuse against elderly widows using large-scale survey data. Another novelty of this study is that it has assessed for those states in India whereby the proportion of elderly is higher than the national average. Place and perpetrators involved in the abuse against elderly widows certainly envisaged the safeness in the present living arrangement of elderly widows. Conclusion: Due to the increasing life expectancy it is expected that the number of elderly will increase much faster than before. As biologically women live longer than men, there will be more women elderly than men. With respect to the living arrangement, after the demise of the spouse, elderly widows are more likely to live with their children who emerged as the main perpetrator of abuse.

Keywords: elderly abuse, emotional abuse physical abuse, material abuse, psychological abuse, quality of life

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26 Neurofeedback Applications for Dealing With Depression for Illegitimate Pregnant Teens: A Thesis Proposal

Authors: Mohamad Sharif bin Mustaffa, Maizatul Akmam binti Abu Bakar, Mohd Harriszamani bin Abu Bakar

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Most teens who gave birth to an illegitimate child will suffer from depression. This depression issues arising from the incident itself which contains the teen will feel ashamed because labeled as immoral, apart from that most teenagers go through this episode without support from their spouse or family. Teens also face the possibility of a large part with the will be born babies because the issue of too young and needs to go back to school. Teens also can not make a decision on the future of the baby later because they are too immature and no baby care skills other than financial issues, where young people themselves are still dependent on their family. This paper will look at how to apply neurofeedback can be used to see the level of depression experienced by teenagers who get pregnant out of wedlock. Play therapy that will help improve adolescent focus will be used for this purpose. Each level experienced by teenagers going through the phase of easy-to-high difficulty level. Apart from that a recovery module will also be developed as a whole to reduce the level of depression to enable the youth to perform routine healthy activities and can go back to school with cheerful feeling, motivated and active.

Keywords: neurofeedback, depression, pregnant, adolescent, illegitimate

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25 Promoting Couple HIV Testing among Migrants for HIV Prevention: Learnings from Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC) in Odisha, India

Authors: Sunil Mekale, Debasish Chowdhury, Sanchita Patnaik, Amitav Das, Ashok Agarwal

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Background: Odisha is a low HIV prevalence state in India (ANC-HIV positivity of 0.42% as per HIV sentinel surveillance 2010-2011); however, it is an important source migration state with 3.2% of male migrants reporting to be PLHIV. USAID Public Health Foundation of India -PIPPSE project is piloting a source-destination corridor programme between Odisha and Gujarat. In Odisha, the focus has been on developing a comprehensive strategy to reach out to the out migrants and their spouses in the place of their origin based on their availability. The project has made concerted attempts to identify vulnerable districts with high out migration and high positivity rate. Description: 48 out of 97 ICTCs were selected from nine top high out migration districts through multistage sampling. A retrospective descriptive analysis of HIV positive male migrants and their spouses for two years (April 2013-March 2015) was conducted. A total of 3,645 HIV positive records were analysed. Findings: Among 34.2% detected HIV positive in the ICTCs, 23.3% were male migrants and 11% were spouses of male migrants; almost 50% of total ICTC attendees. More than 70% of the PLHIV male migrants and their spouses were less than 45 years old. Conclusions: Couple HIV testing approach may be considered for male migrants and their spouses. ICTC data analysis could guide in identifying the locations with high HIV positivity among male migrants and their spouses.

Keywords: HIV testing, migrants, spouse of migrants, Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre (ICTC)

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24 Quality of Life for Families with Children/Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: José Nogueira

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This research aims to analyze the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in families with children and youth (0-25 years) with ASD in Portugal. The impact will be evaluated on a multidimensional perspective, following the work on the concept of quality life from WHOQOL Group (UN). The study includes quantitative and qualitative methodology. It correlates statistical sources and other information with the data obtained through a survey of a sample of about 100 families with children/youth with ASD (October and November 2013). The results indicate a strong impact of autism on the quality of life for families in all study dimensions. The research shows a negative impact on quality of life for families in material and financial conditions, physical and emotional well-being, career progression, feelings of injustice, social participation and self-perception of happiness. The quality of life remained in the relationship with the family and the spouse, interpersonal relationships and beliefs about himself. The ASD improved the quality of life aspects such as interest, knowledge and exercise of rights on disability, autonomy to make decisions and be able to deal with stress. Other dimensions are contemplated: a detailed characterization of the child/young with ASD and all family members (household composition, relationship status, academic qualifications, occupation, income, and leisure) the impact of diagnosis in the family wellbeing, medical and therapeutic processes, school inclusion, public support, social participation, and the adequacy and implementation of legislation. The study evaluates also the strengths and weaknesses of the Portuguese public rehabilitation system and demonstrates how a good law-in-theory may not solve the problems of families in practice due to the allocation of insufficient public resources, both financial and human resources.

Keywords: autism, families, quality of life, autism spectrum disorder

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23 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari

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An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: gender, India, marriage, middle class

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22 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning among Rural Women in Ogun State, South West Nigeria

Authors: Tope Olubodun

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Background: Family planning practices help individuals and couples avoid unwanted pregnancies, regulate intervals between pregnancies, and determine the number of children in the family. Family planning is an effective intervention for promoting maternal health, but its acceptability and utilization are impeded by many factors in Southwest Nigeria. Aim: This study was conducted to assess women’s knowledge and practice of family planning in two rural communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria, and to determine factors associated with the utilization of family planning among these women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 561 women of reproductive age selected by multistage sampling. The data collection was done using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data obtained were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Frequencies were generated, and chi-square test was used to explore associations. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Result: The majority of the respondents were aware of family planning 410 (73.1%). The method most commonly known was male condom 348 (62.0%), then pills 276 (49.2%) and injectables 231(41.3%). The commonest sources of information on family planning were health workers 158 (26.8%), outreaches 162 (27.5%) and TV/radio 136 (23.1%). Respondents that had used family planning, however, only constituted forty–five percent. The methods commonly used were injectables 104 (39.2%) and pills 85 (32.1%). Reasons for choosing not to use family planning include the desire for more children 78 (26.3%), because spouse does not support family planning 56 (18.9%), fear of unbearable side effects 44 (14.9%), and poor knowledge of the methods of family planning as well as where the services can be obtained 39 (13.2%). There is a statistically significant association between age, ethnicity, education, occupation, average monthly income, and use of family planning. Conclusion: Campaigns that promote male involvement in family planning, use of family planning for child spacing, and dispelling of fears is recommended to improve the practice of family planning among such a group of women.

Keywords: family planning, rural, knowledge, practice

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21 The Relation between Coping Strategies with Stress and Mental Health Situation in Flying Addicted Family of Self Introducer and Private

Authors: Farnoush Haghanipour

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Recent research studies relation between coping strategies with stress and mental health situation in flying addicted family of self-introducer and private, Units of Guilan province. For this purpose 251 family (parent, spouse), that referred to private and self-introducer centers to break out of drug are selected in random sampling form. Research method was cross sectional-descriptive and purpose of research was fixing of between kinds of coping strategies with stress and mental health condition with attention to demographic variables. Therefore to collection of information, coping strategies questionnaire (CSQ) and mental health questionnaire (GHQ) was used and finally data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods (average, standard deviation) and inferential statistical correlation coefficient and regression. Study of correlation coefficient between mental healths with problem focused emotional focused and detachment strategies in level more than %99 is confirmed. Also mental health with avoidant focused hasn't correlation in other words relation is between mental health with problem focused strategies (r= 0/34) and emotional focused with mental health (r=0.52) and detachment with mental health (r= 0.18) in meaningful level 0.05. And also relation is between emotional focused strategies and mental health (r= 0.034) that is meaningless in Alpha 0.05. Also relation between problem processed coping strategies and mental health situation with attention to demographic variable is meaningful and relation level verified in confidence level more than 0.99. And result of anticipation equation regression statistical test has most a have in problem focused coping strategy, mental health, but relation of the avoidant emotional, detachment strategy with mental health was meaningless with attention to demographic variables.

Keywords: stress, coping strategy with stress, mental health, self introducer and private

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20 Motivation in Online Instruction

Authors: David Whitehouse

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Some of the strengths of online teaching include flexibility, creativity, and comprehensiveness. A challenge can be motivation. How can an instructor repeating the same lessons over and over, day in and day out, year after year, maintain motivation? Enthusiasm? Does motivating the student and creating enthusiasm in class build the same things inside the instructor? The answers lie in the adoption of what I label EUQ—The Empathy and Understanding Quotient. In the online environment, students who are adults have many demands on their time: civilian careers, families (spouse, children, older parents), and sometimes even military service. Empathetic responses on the part of the instructor will lead to open and honest communication on the part of the student, which will lead to understanding on the part of the instructor and a rise in motivation in both parties. Understanding the demands can inform an instructor’s relationship with the student throughout the temporal parameters of classwork. In practicing EUQ, instructors can build motivation in their students and find internal motivation in an enhanced classroom dynamic. The presentation will look at what motivates a student to accomplish more than the minimum required and how that can lead to excellent results for an instructor’s own motivation. Through direct experience of having students give high marks on post-class surveys and via direct messaging, the presentation will focus on how applying EUQ in granting extra time, searching for intent while grading, communicating with students via Quick Notes, responses in Forums, comments in Assignments, and comments in grading areas - - - how applying these things infuses enthusiasm and energy in the instructor which drive creativity in teaching. Three primary ways of communicating with students will be given as examples. The positive response and negative response each for a Forum, an Assignment, and a Message will be explored. If there is time, participants will be invited to craft their own EUQ responses in a role playing exercise involving two common classroom scenarios—late work and plagiarism.

Keywords: education, instruction, motivation, online, teaching

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19 Conjugal Relationship and Reproductive Decision-Making among Couples in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Peter Olasupo Ogunjuyigbe, Sarafa Shittu

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This paper emphasizes the relevance of conjugal relationship and spousal communication towards enhancing men’s involvement in contraceptive use among the Yorubas of South Western Nigeria. An understanding of males influence and the role they play in reproductive decision making can throw better light on mechanisms through which egalitarianness of husband/wife decision making influences contraceptive use. The objective of this study was to investigate how close conjugal relationships can be a good indicator of joint decision making among couples using data derived from a survey conducted in three states of South Western Nigeria. The study sample consisted of five hundred and twenty one (521) male respondents aged 15-59 years and five hundred and forty seven (547) female respondents aged 15-49 years. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approached to elicit information from the respondents. In order that the study would be truly representative of the towns, each of the study locations in the capital cities was divided into four strata: The traditional area, the migrant area, the mixed area (i.e. traditional and migrant), and the elite area. In the rural areas, selection of the respondents was by simple random sampling technique. However, the random selection was made in such a way that all the different parts of the locations were represented. Generally, the data collected were analysed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the interrelationships between male reproductive behaviour, conjugal relationship and contraceptive use. The study indicates that current use of contraceptive is high among this major ethnic group in Nigeria because of the improved level of communication among couples. The problem, however, is that men still have lower exposure rate when it comes to question of family planning information, education and counseling. This has serious implications on fertility regulation in Nigeria.

Keywords: behavior, conjugal, communication, counseling, spouse

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18 Nursing Experience for a Lung Cancer Patient Undergoing First Time Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Hui Ling Chen

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This article describes the experience of caring for a 68-year-old lung cancer patient undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the period of October 21 to November 16. In this study, the author collected data through observation, interviews, medical examination, and the use of Roy’s adaptation model as a guide for data collection and assessment. This study confirmed that chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and radiation therapy impaired skin integrity. At the same time, the patient experienced an anxious reaction to the initial cancer diagnosis and the insertion of subcutaneous infusion ports at the start of medical treatment. Similarly, the patient’s wife shares his anxiety, not to mention the feeling of inadequacy from the lack of training in cancer care. In response, the nursing intervention strategy has included keeping the patient and his family informed of his treatment progress, transfer of cancer care knowledge, and providing them with spiritual support. For example, the nursing staff has helped them draw up a mutually agreeable dietary plan that best suits the wife’s cooking skills, provided them with knowledge in pre- and post-radiation skin care, as well as means to cope with nausea and vomiting reactions. The nursing staff has also worked on building rapport with the patient and his spouse, providing them with encouragement, caring attention and companionship. After the patient was discharged from the hospital, the nursing staff followed up with caring phone calls to help the patient and his family make life-style adjustments to normalcy. The author hopes that his distinctive nursing experience can be useful as a reference for the clinical care of lung cancer patients undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, initiate diagnosis, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy, nursing care

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17 Return to Work Rates of Participants in Medical Rehabilitation: The Role of Fitness and Health

Authors: Julius Steinkopf, Eric Rost, Aike Hessel, Sonia Lippke

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Objective: This study examined possible determinants of return to work (RTW) in individuals who participated in a medical rehabilitation program longitudinally over a time period of six months. Design/methodology/approach: N=1,044 rehabilitants were included in the baseline measurement in terms of completing a questionnaire during their medical rehabilitation. About 30% (n=350) have remained in the study in terms of participating in computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) six months later. Frequency analyses and Regression analyses were run. Findings: About 70% of the rehabilitants returned to work six months after rehabilitation. Regression analyses revealed that the RTW rates were significantly predicted by gender (OR=0.12, men were more likely to return), perceived social support (OR=3.01) and current physical functioning (OR=1.25). Furthermore RTW motives, like expected monetary rewards (OR=25.2) and feelings of being needed (OR=0.18) same as motives for not returning to work (nRTW), like the wish to stop working in order to spend time with the spouse (OR=0.13) or a lack of enjoyment of work (OR=3.81), significantly predicted return to work rates. Life satisfaction, self-efficacy beliefs, mental health, current income, educational background or age did not significantly increase explained variance (all ps > .05). Practical implications: Taking theses predictors into account provides options to increase the effectiveness of interventions aiming at increasing RTW: Medical rehabilitations should not only aim at improving the physical functioning but also to enhance beneficial motives and social support as well as support women specifically in order to improve the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation and public health interventions. Originality/value: Illness-caused work absences are related to high financial costs and individual burden. Despite of the public health and societal implications, this is one of the very few studies investigating systematically fitness and health for the return to work.

Keywords: gender, fitness, health, physical functioning

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16 Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce

Authors: Paivi Hietanen

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At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.

Keywords: child's right, co-parenting, parenthood after the divorce, peer support

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