Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7224

Search results for: social ties

7224 Capitalizing on Differential Network Ties: Unpacking Individual Creativity from Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Yuanyuan Wang, Chun Hui

Abstract:

Drawing on social capital theory, this article discusses how individuals may utilize network ties to come up with creativity. Social capital theory elaborates how network ties enhances individual creativity from three dimensions: structural access, and relational and cognitive mechanisms. We categorize network ties into strong and weak in terms of tie strength. With less structural constraints, weak ties allow diverse and heterogeneous knowledge to prosper, further facilitating individuals to build up connections among diverse even distant ideas. On the other hand, strong ties with the relational mechanism of cooperation and trust may benefit the accumulation of psychological capital, ultimately to motivate and sustain creativity. We suggest that differential ties play different roles for individual creativity: Weak ties deliver informational benefit directly rifling individual creativity from informational resource aspect; strong ties offer solidarity benefits to reinforce psychological capital, which further inspires individual creativity engagement from a psychological viewpoint. Social capital embedded in network ties influence individuals’ informational acquisition, motivation, as well as cognitive ability to be creative. Besides, we also consider the moderating effects constraining the relatedness between network ties and creativity, such as knowledge articulability. We hypothesize that when the extent of knowledge articulability is low, that is, with low knowledge codifiability, and high dependency and ambiguity, weak ties previous serving as knowledge reservoir will not become ineffective on individual creativity. Two-wave survey will be employed in Mainland China to empirically test mentioned propositions.

Keywords: network ties, social capital, psychological capital, knowledge articulability, individual creativity

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7223 Temporal Migration and Community Development in Rural Indonesia

Authors: Gunawan Prayitno, Kakuya Matshusima, Kiyoshi Kobayashi

Abstract:

Indonesia’s rural regions are characterized by wide-spread poverty, under-employment, and surplus of low-skilled labor. The aim of this paper is to empirically prove the effect of social ties (strong and weak tie) as social capital construct on households’ migration decision in the case of developing country (Indonesia). The methodology incorporated indicators of observe variables (four demographic attributes data: income, occupation, education, and family members) and indicators of latent variables (ties to neighbors, ties to community and sense of place) provided by responses to survey questions to aid in estimating the model. Using structural equation model that we employed in Mplus program, the result of our study shows that ties to community positively have a significant impact to the decision of respondents (migrate or not). Besides, education as observed variable directly influences the migration decisions. It seems that higher level of education have impact on migration decision. Our current model so far could explain the relation between social capital and migration decision choice.

Keywords: migration, ties to community, ties to neighbors, education

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7222 Factors Affecting Sense of Community in Residential Communities Case Study: Residential Communities in Tehran, Iran

Authors: Parvin Foroughifar

Abstract:

The concept of sense of community refers to residents’ sense of attachment and commitment to the other residents in a residential community. It is implicitly indicative of the mental image of a physical environment in which the residents enjoy strong social ties. Sense of community, a crucial factor in improving quality of life and social welfare, leads to life satisfaction in a residential community. Despite the important functions of such a notion, few empirical studies, to the best of the authors' knowledge, have been so far carried out in Iran to investigate the effective factors in sharpening the sense of community in residential communities. This survey research examined sense of community in 360 above 20-year old residents of three residential communities in Tehran, Iran using cluster sampling and questionnaire. The study yielded the result that variables of local social ties, social control and trust, sense of security, length of residence, use of public spaces, and mixed land use have a significant relationship with sense of community.

Keywords: sense of community, local social ties, sense of security, public space, residential community, Tehran

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7221 Effect of Social Network Ties on Virtual Organization Success: Mediate Role of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: An Empirical Study in Tourism Sector Firms in Jordan

Authors: Raed Hanandeh

Abstract:

This empirical study examines how knowledge sharing behaviors mediate the effect Technology-driven strategy on virtual organization success in Jordanian tourism sector firms. The results reveal that Social network ties are positively related to web knowledge seeking, web knowledge contributing and interactive system, but negatively related to accidental knowledge leakage. Furthermore, all types of knowledge sharing behavior are positively related to virtual organization success. Data collected from 23 firms. The total number of questionnaires mailed, 250 questionnaires were delivered. 214 were considered valid out of 241 Responses were received. The findings provide evidence that knowledge sharing behavior play a mediating role between Social network ties and virtual organization success and show that, web knowledge seeking, web knowledge contributing and interactive system playing an important impact on virtual organization success through knowledge sharing behaviors.

Keywords: social network ties, virtual organization success, knowledge sharing behaviors, web knowledge

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7220 The Relation Between Social Capital and Trust with Social Network Analysis (SNA)

Authors: Safak Baykal

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is analyzing the relationship between self leadership and social capital of people with using Social Network Analysis. In this study, two aspects of social capital will be focused: bonding, homophilous social capital (BoSC) which implies better, strong, dense or closed network ties, and bridging, heterophilous social capital (BrSC) which implies weak ties, bridging the structural holes. The other concept of the study is Trust (Tr), namely interpersonal trust, willingness to ascribe good intentions to and have confidence in the words and actions of other people. In this study, the sample group, 61 people, was selected from a private firm from the defense industry. The relation between BoSC/BrSC and Tr is shown by using Social Network Analysis (SNA) and statistical analysis with Likert type-questionnaire. The results of the analysis show the Cronbach’s alpha value is 0.73 and social capital values (BoSC/BrSC) is highly correlated with Tr values of the people.

Keywords: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, trust, social network analysis (SNA)

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7219 Systematic Literature Review and Bibliometric Analysis of Interorganizational Employee Mobility Determinants

Authors: Iva Zdrilić, Petra Došenović Bonča, Darija Aleksić

Abstract:

Since the boundaryless career, with its emphasis on cross-employer movements, was introduced as a new paradigm of career development, inter-organizational employee mobility has been increasing. Although this phenomenon may have positive implications for individual careers and destination organizations, the consequences for the source organizations losing workers are less clear. The aim of this paper is thus to develop a comprehensive typology of possible inter-organizational employee mobility determinants. Since the most common classification differentiates between mobility determinants at different levels (i.e., economic, organizational, and individual), this paper focuses on building a comprehensive multi-level typology of inter-organizational mobility determinants across diverse sectors and industries. By using a structured literature review approach and bibliometric analysis, the paper reveals both intricate relationships between different mobility determinants and the complexity of inter-organizational networks and social ties. The latter appears as both a mobility determinant (at the organizational and individual level) and a mobility effect. Indeed, inter-organizational employee mobility leads to the formation of networks between source and destination organizations. These networks are practically based on the social ties between mobile employees and their colleagues and, in this way, they close the "inter-organizational employee mobility - inter-organizational network/ties" circle. The paper contributes to the career development literature by uncovering hitherto underexplored diverse determinants of intra- and inter-sectoral mobility as well as the conflicting results of the existing studies on some factors (e.g., inter-organizational networks and/or social ties) that appear both as a mobility determinant and a mobility effect.

Keywords: inter-organizational mobility, social ties, inter-organizational network, knowledge transfer

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7218 Social Processes and Organizational Structures for the Management of Exploration and Exploration within and across Organization Boundaries

Authors: Linda O. N. Nwabunike

Abstract:

The role of internal and external efforts in the management of exploration and exploitation has been highlighted in literature. External ties support ambidexterity at different levels with, for instance: business unit ambidexterity, individual ambidexterity, organizational ambidexterity, and alliance ambidexterity. Recently studies have highlighted the combination of organization, alliance, and acquisition strategies for ambidexterity by conceptualizing ambidexterity across modes of operation. Literature still lacks detailed understanding of how these different processes are combined in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. This study plans to propose a conceptual model that illustrates the social processes involved in the management of ambidexterity across modes of operation. Main arguments are integrated from social structures, organizational design, and ambidexterity literature. The framework illustrates that how social capital is promoted by hierarchical relations within the organization and business relations across the boundaries of the organization. Whereby such social relations within and outside the organization are supported by the dual structures of the organization in the coordination of multiple efforts. This paper has potential to contribute to the understanding about how ambidexterity is attained.

Keywords: ambidexterity, coordination, external-ties, social-capital

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7217 The Friendship Network Stability of Preschool Children during One Pedagogical Season

Authors: Yili Wang, Jarmo Kinos, Tuire Palonen, Tarja-Riitta Hurme

Abstract:

This longitudinal study aims to examine how five- and six-year-old children’s peer relationships are formed and fostered during one preschool year in a southwestern Finnish preschool. All 16 kindergarteners participated in the study (at dyad level N=240; i.e., 16 x 15 relationships among the children). The children were divided into four daily groups, based on the table order during the daily routines, and four intervention groups, based on the teachers’ pedagogical plan. During the intervention, one iPad was given to each group in order to stimulate interaction among peers and, thus, enable the children to form new peer relationships. In the data gathering, sociometric nomination techniques were used to investigate the nature (i.e., stability and mutuality) of the peer relationships. The data was collected five times during the year to see what kind of peer relationship changes occurred at the dyad level and the group level, i.e., in establishing and losing friendship ties among the children. Social network analyses were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the children’s preference for gender segregation was strong compared to age preference and intervention. In all, the number of reciprocal friendship ties and the mutual absence of friendship ties increased towards the end of the year, whereas the number of unilateral friendship ties decreased. This indicates that children’s nominations narrow down; thus, the group structure becomes more crystalized. Instead of extending their friendship networks, children seek stable and mutual relationships with their peers in their middle childhood years. The intervention only had a slightly negative influence on children’s peer relationships.

Keywords: intervention study, peer relationship, preschool education, social network analysis, sociometric ratings

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7216 Developing Academic English through Interaction

Authors: John Bankier

Abstract:

Development of academic English occurs not only in communities of practice but also within wider social networks, referred to by Zappa-Hollman and Duff as individual networks of practice. Such networks may exist whether students are developing academic English in English-dominant contexts or in contexts in which English is not a majority language. As yet, little research has examined how newcomers to universities interact with a variety of social ties in such networks to receive academic and emotional support as they develop the academic English necessary to succeed in local and global academia. The one-year ethnographic study described in this presentation followed five Japanese university students enrolled on an academic English program in their home country. We graphically represent participants’ individual networks of practice related to academic English and display the role of interaction in these networks to socialization. Specific examples of academic practices will be linked to specific instances of social interaction. Interaction supportive of the development of academic practices often occurred during unplanned interactions outside the classroom and among small groups of close friends who were connected to each other in more than one way, such as those taking multiple classes together. These interactions occurred in study spaces, in hallways between class periods, at lunchtimes, and online. However, constraints such as differing accommodation arrangements, class scheduling and the hierarchical levelling of English classes by test scores discouraged some participants both from forming strong ties related to English and from interacting with existing ties. The presentation will briefly describe ways in which teachers in all contexts can maximise interaction outside the classroom.

Keywords: academic, english, practice, network

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7215 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal

Abstract:

Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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7214 Fostering Ties and Trusts through Social Interaction within Community Gardening

Authors: Shahida Mohd Sharif, Norsidah Ujang

Abstract:

Recent research has shown that many of the urban population in Kuala Lumpur, especially from the lower-income group, suffer from socio-psychological problems. They are reported as experiencing anxiety, depression, and stress, which is made worst by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Much of the population was forced to observe the Movement Control Order (MCO), which is part of pandemic mitigation measures, pushing them to live in isolation as the new normal. The study finds the need to strategize for a better approach to help these people coping with the socio-psychological condition, especially the population from the lower-income group. In Kuala Lumpur, as part of the Local Agenda 21 programme, the Kuala Lumpur City Hall has introduced Green Initiative: Urban Farming, which among the approaches is the community garden. The local authority promotes the engagement to be capable of improving the social environment of the participants. Research has demonstrated that social interaction within community gardens can help the members improve their socio-psychological conditions. Therefore, the study explores the residents’ experience from low-cost flats participating in the community gardening initiative from a social attachment perspective. The study will utilise semi-structured interviews to collect the participants’ experience with community gardening and how the social interaction exchange between the members' forms and develop their ties and trust. For a context, the low-cost flats are part of the government social housing program (Program Perumahan Rakyat dan Perumahan Awam). Meanwhile, the community gardening initiative (Projek Kebun Kejiranan Bandar LA21 KL) is part of the local authority initiative to address the participants’ social, environmental, and economic issues. The study will conduct thematic analysis on the collected data and use the ATLAS.ti software for data organization and management purposes. The findings could help other researchers and stakeholders understand the social interaction experience within community gardens and its relation to ties and trusts. The findings could shed some light on how the participants could improve their social environment, and its report could provide the local authority with evidence-based documentation.

Keywords: community gardening participation, lower-income population, social attachment, social interaction

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7213 Value Chain Network: A Social Network Analysis of the Value Chain Actors of Recycled Polymer Products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Olamide Shittu, Olayinka Akanle

Abstract:

Value Chain Analysis is a common method of examining the stages involved in the production of a product, mostly agricultural produce, from the input to the consumption stage including the actors involved in each stage. However, the Functional Institutional Analysis is the most common method in literature employed to analyze the value chain of products. Apart from studying the relatively neglected phenomenon of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, this paper adopted the use of social network analysis to attempt a grounded theory of the nature of social network that exists among the value chain actors of the subject matter. The study adopted a grounded theory approach by conducting in-depth interviews, administering questionnaires and conducting observations among the identified value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. The thematic analysis of the collected data gave the researchers the needed background to formulate a truly representative network of the social relationships among the value chain actors of recycled polymer products in Lagos Metropolis. The paper introduced concepts such as Transient and Perennial Social Ties to explain the observed social relations among the actors. Some actors have more social capital than others as a result of the structural holes that exist in their triad network. Households and resource recoverers are at disadvantaged position in the network as they have high constraints in their relationships with other actors. The study attempted to provide a new perspective in the study of the environmental value chain by analyzing the network of actors to bring about policy action points and improve recycling in Nigeria. Government and social entrepreneurs can exploit the structural holes that exist in the network for the socio-economic and sustainable development of the state.

Keywords: recycled polymer products, social network analysis, social ties, value chain analysis

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7212 Using Mixed Methods in Studying Classroom Social Network Dynamics

Authors: Nashrawan Naser Taha, Andrew M. Cox

Abstract:

In a multi-cultural learning context, where ties are weak and dynamic, combining qualitative with quantitative research methods may be more effective. Such a combination may also allow us to answer different types of question, such as about people’s perception of the network. In this study the use of observation, interviews and photos were explored as ways of enhancing data from social network questionnaires. Integrating all of these methods was found to enhance the quality of data collected and its accuracy, also providing a richer story of the network dynamics and the factors that shaped these changes over time.

Keywords: mixed methods, social network analysis, multi-cultural learning, social network dynamics

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7211 Assessing India’s Foreign Policy Towards Afghanistan

Authors: Saifurahman Fayiz

Abstract:

Afghanistan and India have close technical, political, economic, and diplomatic bilateral ties. The ties is not limited between the governments of the two countries, but their relationship are among the peoples. India is the best regional trustworthy partner and biggest donor for the development of Afghanistan. The objectives of this study to assess India’s foreign policy towards Afghanistan since 9\11. The research method conducted based on qualitative research method with descriptive. The research findings propose that; India should deal with and build up its strategy relations with neighbor countries.

Keywords: strategy, policy, India, Afghanistan

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7210 Fighting for Human Rights: DNA, Hansen's Disease and Separated Children in Brazil

Authors: Glaucia Maricato

Abstract:

Our research deals with specific use of DNA tests in Brazil – aimed at financial reparation for the institutionalized and otherwise scattered offspring of leprosy patients who, from the 1920s up through the 1980s, were subjected to compulsory internment in the 'hospital-colonies', specialized in the containment of Hansen’s disease. Through a social movement, the ex-patients themselves gained the right, in 2007, to financial compensations. At the moment, the movement is seeking reparation for the (now adult) children of these people as well. Many of these children grew up in orphanages, in adopted families, or do not have official documents to prove their family belonging. In 2011, a team of Brazilian geneticists had volunteered their services, applying DNA tests in order to ascertain the connection of certain individuals to an ex-internee of the leprosarium. We have accompanied the activities in four different ex-colonies in order to understand how the DNA test was being signified by those being tested, and how the test fit into already existent notions of family. Inspired in the writings of scholars such as Sheila Jasanoff and Helena Machado, we examine the possibility of a 'geneticization of family ties' when people are obliged to back their claim for human rights by producing legal proof based on blood tests. However, in like fashion to other ethnographic studies on this theme, we encountered among tested adults a number of creative strategies that allow for the co-existence of the idea of 'scientifically-based' blood ties alongside other more traditional ways of signifying kinship.

Keywords: human rights, social movements, DNA tests, Hansen's disease

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7209 Transformation and Integration: Iranian Women Migrants and the Use of Social Media in Australia

Authors: Azadeh Davachi

Abstract:

Although there is a growing interest in Iranian female migration and gender roles, little attention has been paid to how Iranian migrant women in Australia access and sustain social networks, both locally and spatially dispersed over time. Social network theories have much to offer an analysis of migrant’s social ties and interpersonal relationships. Thus, it is important to note that social media are not only new communication channels in a migration network but also that they actively transform the nature of these networks and thereby facilitate migration for migrants. Drawing on that, this article will focus on Iranian women migrants and the use of social media in migration in Australia. Based on the case of main social networks such as Facebook and Instagram; this paper will investigate that how women migrants use these networks to facilitate the process of migration and integration. In addition, with the use of social networks, they could promote their home business and as a result become more engaged economically in Australian society. This paper will focus on three main Iranian pages in Instagram and Facebook, they will contend that compared to men, women are more active in these social networks. Consequently, as this article will discuss with the use of these social media Iranian migrant women can become more engaged and overcome post migration hardships, thus, gender plays a key role in using social media in migrant communities. Based on these findings from these social media pages, this paper will conclude that social media are transforming migration networks and thereby lowering the threshold for migration. It also will be demonstrated that these networks boost Iranian women’s confidence and lead them to become more visible in Iranian migrant communities comparing to men.

Keywords: integration, gender, migration, women migrants

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7208 HBTOnto: An Ontology Model for Analyzing Human Behavior Trajectories

Authors: Heba M. Wagih, Hoda M. O. Mokhtar

Abstract:

Social Network has recently played a significant role in both scientific and social communities. The growing adoption of social network applications has been a relevant source of information nowadays. Due to its popularity, several research trends are emerged to service the huge volume of users including, Location-Based Social Networks (LBSN), Recommendation Systems, Sentiment Analysis Applications, and many others. LBSNs applications are among the highly demanded applications that do not focus only on analyzing the spatiotemporal positions in a given raw trajectory but also on understanding the semantics behind the dynamics of the moving object. LBSNs are possible means of predicting human mobility based on users social ties as well as their spatial preferences. LBSNs rely on the efficient representation of users’ trajectories. Hence, traditional raw trajectory information is no longer convenient. In our research, we focus on studying human behavior trajectory which is the major pillar in location recommendation systems. In this paper, we propose an ontology design patterns with their underlying description logics to efficiently annotate human behavior trajectories.

Keywords: human behavior trajectory, location-based social network, ontology, social network

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7207 The Impact of Brand-Related User-Generated Content on Brand Positioning: A Study on Private Higher Education Institutes in Vietnam

Authors: Charitha Harshani Perera, Rajkishore Nayak, Long Thang Van Nguyen

Abstract:

With the advent of social media, Vietnam has changed the way customers perceive the information about the brand. In the context of higher education, the adoption of social media has received attention with the increasing rate of social media usage among undergraduates. Brand-related user-generated content (UGC) on social media emphasizes the social ties between users and users’ participation, which promotes the communication to build and maintain the relationship with the brands. Although brand positioning offers a significant competitive advantage, the association with brand-related user-generated content in social media with brand positioning in the context of higher education is still an under-researched area. Accordingly, using social identity theory and social exchange theory, this research aims to deepen our understanding of the influence of brand-related user-generated content on brand positioning and purchase intention. Employing a quantitative survey design,384 Vietnamese undergraduates were selected based on purposive sampling. The findings suggest that brand-related user-generated content influence brand positioning and brand choice intention. However, there is a significant mediating effect of the reliability and understandability of the content.

Keywords: brand positioning, brand-related user-generated content, emerging countries, higher education

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7206 Analyzing Strategic Alliances of Museums: The Case of Girona (Spain)

Authors: Raquel Camprubí

Abstract:

Cultural tourism has been postulated as relevant motivation for tourist over the world during the last decades. In this context, museums are the main attraction for cultural tourists who are seeking to connect with the history and culture of the visited place. From the point of view of an urban destination, museums and other cultural resources are essential to have a strong tourist supply at the destination, in order to be capable of catching attention and interest of cultural tourists. In particular, museums’ challenge is to be prepared to offer the best experience to their visitors without to forget their mission-based mainly on protection of its collection and other social goals. Thus, museums individually want to be competitive and have good positioning to achieve their strategic goals. The life cycle of the destination and the level of maturity of its tourism product influence the need of tourism agents to cooperate and collaborate among them, in order to rejuvenate their product and become more competitive as a destination. Additionally, prior studies have considered an approach of different models of a public and private partnership, and collaborative and cooperative relations developed among the agents of a tourism destination. However, there are no studies that pay special attention to museums and the strategic alliances developed to obtain mutual benefits. Considering this background, the purpose of this study is to analyze in what extent museums of a given urban destination have established strategic links and relations among them, in order to improve their competitive position at both individual and destination level. In order to achieve the aim of this study, the city of Girona (Spain) and the museums located in this city are taken as a case study. Data collection was conducted using in-depth interviews, in order to collect all the qualitative data related to nature, strengthen and purpose of the relational ties established among the museums of the city or other relevant tourism agents of the city. To conduct data analysis, a Social Network Analysis (SNA) approach was taken using UCINET software. Position of the agents in the network and structure of the network was analyzed, and qualitative data from interviews were used to interpret SNA results. Finding reveals the existence of strong ties among some of the museums of the city, particularly to create and promote joint products. Nevertheless, there were detected outsiders who have an individual strategy, without collaboration and cooperation with other museums or agents of the city. Results also show that some relational ties have an institutional origin, while others are the result of a long process of cooperation with common projects. Conclusions put in evidence that collaboration and cooperation of museums had been positive to increase the attractiveness of the museum and the city as a cultural destination. Future research and managerial implications are also mentioned.

Keywords: cultural tourism, competitiveness, museums, Social Network analysis

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7205 Tinder, Image Merchandise and Desire: The Configuration of Social Ties in Today's Neoliberalism

Authors: Daniel Alvarado Valencia

Abstract:

Nowadays, the market offers us solutions for everything, creating the idea of an immediate availability of anything we could desire, and the Internet is the mean through which to obtain all this. The proposal of this conference is that this logic puts the subjects in a situation of self-exploitation, and considers the psyche as a productive force by configuring affection and desire from a neoliberal value perspective. It uses Tinder, starting from ethnographical data from Mexico City users, as an example for this. Tinder is an application created to get dates, have sexual encounters and find a partner. It works from the creation and management of a digital profile. It is an example of how futuristic and lonely the current era can be since we got used to interact with other people through screens and images. However, at the same time, it provides solutions to loneliness, since technology transgresses, invades and alters social practices in different ways. Tinder fits into this contemporary context, it is a concrete example of the processes of technification in which social bonds develop through certain devices offered by neoliberalism, through consumption, and where the search of love and courtship are possible through images and their consumption.

Keywords: desire, image, merchandise, neoliberalism

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7204 Marketing Mixed Factors Affecting on Commercial Transactions Expectations through Social Networks

Authors: Ladaporn Pithuk

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the marketing mixed factors that affecting on expectations about commercial transactions through social networks. The research method will using quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires to person have experience access to trading over the internet for 400 sample by purposive sampling method. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and using quality function deployment for hypothesis testing. Finding the most significant interrelationship between marketing mixed factors and commercial transactions expectations through social networks are product and place the relationship of five ties product and place (location) is involved in almost all will make the site a model that meets the needs of the user visit. In terms of price, the promotion, privacy, personalization and providing a process technical. This will make operations more efficient, reduce confusion, duplication, delays in data transmission, including the creation of different elements in products and services.

Keywords: commercial transactions expectations, marketing mixed factors, social networks, consumer behavior

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7203 Collaboration versus Cooperation: Grassroots Activism in Divided Cities and Communication Networks

Authors: R. Barbour

Abstract:

Peace-building organisations act as a network of information for communities. Through fieldwork, it was highlighted that grassroots organisations and activists may cooperate with each other in their actions of peace-building; however, they would not collaborate. Within two divided societies; Nicosia in Cyprus and Jerusalem in Israel, there is a distinction made by organisations and activists with regards to activities being more ‘co-operative’ than ‘collaborative’. This theme became apparent when having informal conversations and semi-structured interviews with various members of the activist communities. This idea needs further exploration as these distinctions could impact upon the efficiency of peacebuilding activities within divided societies. Civil societies within divided landscapes, both physically and socially, play an important role in conflict resolution. How organisations and activists interact with each other has the possibility to be very influential with regards to peacebuilding activities. Working together sets a positive example for divided communities. Cooperation may be considered a primary level of interaction between CSOs. Therefore, at the beginning of a working relationship, organisations cooperate over basic agendas, parallel power structures and focus, which led to the same objective. Over time, in some instances, due to varying factors such as funding, more trust and understanding within the relationship, it could be seen that processes progressed to more collaborative ways. It is evident to see that NGOs and activist groups are highly independent and focus on their own agendas before coming together over shared issues. At this time, there appears to be more collaboration in Nicosia among CSOs and activists than Jerusalem. The aims and objectives of agendas also influence how organisations work together. In recent years, Nicosia, and Cyprus in general, have perhaps changed their focus from peace-building initiatives to more environmental issues which have become new-age reconciliation topics. Civil society does not automatically indicate like-minded organisations however solidarity within social groups can create ties that bring people and resources together. In unequal societies, such as those in Nicosia and Jerusalem, it is these ties that cut across groups and are essential for social cohesion. Societies are a collection of social groups; individuals who have come together over common beliefs. These groups in turn shape the identities and determine the values and structures within societies. At many different levels and stages, social groups work together through cooperation and collaboration. These structures in turn have the capabilities to open up networks to less powerful or excluded groups, with the aim to produce social cohesion which may contribute social stability and economic welfare over any extended period.

Keywords: collaboration, cooperation, grassroots activism, networks of communication

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7202 The Phatic Function and the Socializing Element of Personal Blogs

Authors: Emelia Noronha, Milind Malshe

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The phatic function of communication is a vital element of any conversation. This research paper looks into this function with respect to personal blogs maintained by Indian bloggers. This paper is a study into the phenomenon of phatic communication maintained by bloggers through their blogs. Based on a linguistic analysis of the posts of twenty eight Indian bloggers, writing in English, studied over a period of three years, the study indicates that though the blogging phenomenon is not conversational in the same manner as face-to-face communication, it does make ample provision for feedback that is conversational in nature. Ordinary day to day offline conversations use conventionalized phatic utterances; those on the social media are in a perpetual mode of innovation and experimentation in order to sustain contact with its readers. These innovative methods and means are the focus of this study. Though the personal blogger aims to chronicle his/her personal life through the blog, the socializing function is crucial to these bloggers. In comparison to the western personal blogs which focus on the presentation of the ‘bounded individual self’, we find Indian personal bloggers engage in the presentation of their ‘social selves’. These bloggers yearn to reach out to the readers on the internet and the phatic function serves to initiate, sustain and renew social ties on the blogosphere thereby consolidating the social network of readers and bloggers.

Keywords: personal blogs, phatic, social-selves, blog readers

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7201 Peers' Alterity in Inverted Inclusion: A Case Study

Authors: Johanna Sagner, María José Sandoval

Abstract:

At the early stages of adolescence, young people, regardless of a disability or not, start to establish closer friendship ties. Unlike previous developmental phases, these ties are rather reciprocal, more committed, and require more time. Friendship ties during adolescence allow the development of social and personal skills, specifically the skills to start constructing identity. In an inclusive context that incorporates young people with a disability, friendship among peers also takes place. Nonetheless, the relation is shaped, among others, by the alterity construction about the other with disability. Research about peers’ relation between young people with and without disability in an inclusive context has shown that the relation tends to become a helper-helpee relation, where those with a disability are seen as people in need. Prejudices about the others’ condition or distancing from the other because of his/hers disability are common. In this sense, the helper-helpee relation, as a non-reciprocal and protective relation, will not promote friendship between classmates, but a rather asymmetric alterity. Our research is an explorative case study that wants to know how the relation between peers is shaped within a different inclusive program, were also the integrated group has special educational needs. Therefore, we analyze from a qualitative and quantitative approach the data of an inverted inclusive program. This is a unique case of a special public school for visual disability in Germany that includes young people from a mainstream school who had learning difficulties. For the research, we analyze data from interviews, focal interviews and open-ended questions with an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. The questionnaires include a five point Likert scale, for which we calculate the acceptance rate. The findings show that the alterity relation between pupils is less asymmetrical and represents a rather horizontal alterity. The helper-helpee relation is marked by exchange, since both groups have special educational needs and therefore, those with visual disability and those with learning difficulties help each other indistinctly. Friendship is more present among classmates. The horizontal alterity peers’ relation is influenced by a sort of tie, where none of the groups need more or less help than other groups. Both groups identify that they themselves and the other have special needs. The axiological axe of alterity is not of superiority or inferiority, recognizing each other’s differences and otherness. Another influential factor relates with the amount of time they spend together, since the program does not have a resource room or a teacher who teaches parallel lessons. Two probable causes for that rather equal peer relation might be the constellation of fewer pupils per classroom and the differentiated lessons taught by teachers with a special educational formation.

Keywords: alterity, disability, inverted inclusion, peers’ relation

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7200 Some Reasons for the Pervasiveness of the Blood Feud among Albanians: An Albanian Phenomenon or Lack of Malfunction of the Judicial Structure

Authors: Arburim Iseni, Afrim Aliti, Nagri Rexhepi

Abstract:

The blood feud or blood-taking is a social obligation to commit murder in order to salvage honor questioned by an earlier murder or moral humiliation. This social obligation is still preserved as a stub among Albanians when honor is violated. By the term honor are understood many things, such as honor to the family, house, guest, property, etc. Many Albanian family members are forced to stay locked up at home because of the blood killing, whereas other families abandon their houses and migrate to other places. Nonetheless, Albanians maintain close ties with their extended families, clans, and tribes and thus chances are high that the violence can beget more violence and without reconciliation of the blood these families will always be endangered. One of the reasons for the pervasiveness of the blood feud is the poor social conditions, political imbroglio and the power vacuum which comes from the corrupted and judiciary system of the state. Contrary to this, Albanian blood feud is not a phenomenon present only to the Albanians, but it also takes place in some other cultures and nations, such as: Chechens, Montenegrins, Serbians, and lately more radical one is between Amman and Israel who are at constant feud.

Keywords: honor, blood feud, reconciliation, power vacuum, poor social conditions, political imbroglio

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7199 Study and Acquisition of the Duality of the Arabic Language

Authors: Oleg Redkin, Olga Bernikova

Abstract:

It is commonly accepted that every language is both pure linguistic phenomenon as well as socially significant communicative system, which exists on the basis of certain society - its collective 'native speaker'. Therefore the language evolution and features besides its own linguistic rules and regulations are also defined by the influence of a number of extra-linguistic factors. The above mentioned statement may be illustrated by the example of the Arabic language which may be characterized by the following peculiarities: - the inner logic of the Arabic language - the 'algebraicity' of its morphological paradigms and grammar rules; - association of the Arabic language with the sacred texts of Islam, its close ties with the pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural heritage - the pre-Islamic poetry and Islamic literature and science; - territorial distribution, which in recent years went far beyond the boundaries of its traditional realm due to the development of new technologies and the spread of mass media, and what is more important, migration processes; - association of the Arabic language with the so called 'Renaissance of Islam'. These peculiarities should be remembered while considering the status of the Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) language or the Classical Arabic (CA) language as well as the Modern Arabic (MA) dialects in synchrony or from the diachronic point of view. Continuity of any system in diachrony on the one hand depends on the level of its ability to adapt itself to changing environment and by its internal ties on the other. Structural durability of language is characterized by its inner logic, hierarchy of paradigms and its grammar rules, as well as continuity of their implementation in acts of everyday communication. Since the Arabic language is both linguistic and social phenomenon the process of the Arabic language acquisition and study should not be focused only on the knowledge about linguistic features or development of communicative skills alone, but must be supplied with the information related to culture, history and religion of peoples of certain region that will expand and enrich competences of the target audience.

Keywords: Arabic, culture, Islam, language

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7198 India’s Demonetization and Its Impact on Modi’s “Neighborhood First” Policy

Authors: Umang Prajapati

Abstract:

Elected prime minister of India Narendra Modi has very largely focused on improving ties with the neighbors since day one of his regime. This was the most significant initiative to focus on major Asian powers also emphasizing on the two decades old look east policy. The “neighborhood first policy” as termed by the media has been a corner stone in improving ties with the immediate neighbors of the country through several bilateral talks with the nations individually. However, the announcement of demonetisation policy in India, ceasing the usage of 500 and 1000 rupee notes has rattled countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar who encourage Indian currency parallel to theirs. According to the ministry of commerce and industry (MCI), India’s total trade with neighboring countries stood at US$21.6 in the fiscal year 2015-16, India has good surplus trade surplus with its neighbors and has a strong interest in ensuring smooth trade flows. India might have this benefit, but yet this policy can create issues between India and neighboring countries. The demonetisation policy might benefit in the long run, but in the short run, this might create border issues. While there would be more countries affected by this policy, this paper will emphasize on the problems faced by the countries and the impact of demonetisation on all other neighboring countries.

Keywords: bilateral trades, demonetization, neighborhood policy, value of rupee

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7197 Social Entrepreneurship: When Social Innovation Is Driven by Value Creation

Authors: Zeinab Hmama, Majda Alaoui

Abstract:

Social entrepreneurship is seen as a response to social problem. The literature on social entrepreneurship highlights two elements: social value creation and economic value creation. The creation of social value is a process that results from the creation of a value with 'value' for society that leads to a social change. However, theoretical thoughts consider that social value is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define. Many definitions of social value and social change have been proposed. Most of these definitions use financial and economic value to justify the social value created. As a result, social value is often identified in monetary value. Referring to the economic concept to explain social value is not a false approach but limits the understanding of the creation of social value and reduces exploration of opportunities and analysis of other facets of this value. In this article, we explore the dimensions of social entrepreneurship and try to better understand the concept of social value based on the different visions conveyed in the literature.

Keywords: social entrepreneurship, social impact, social change, measurement, social value, social problem, value creation

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7196 Competition for Talent: Retaining Graduates in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine

Authors: Julia Reinold, Inge Hooijen, Christoph Meng, Melissa Siegel

Abstract:

This paper investigates whether or not students intend to stay in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) after graduation taking into account the role of hard and soft locational factors, social factors as well as demographic aspects in shaping their mobility preferences. Since graduates are considered a convenient source of human capital in today’s knowledge based economy, it is crucial to understand what drives their mobility intentions in order to retain larger numbers of graduates. This is particularly true for peripheral regions, which need to compete with assumed more attractive economic centres. This paper adds a euregional perspective to the existing literature on graduate migration. Using survey data from 2015 from five higher education institutions in the EMR, this paper finds that mobility intentions are determined by students’ perceptions of the quality of life, openness and career opportunities in the euroregion. In addition, distance to the partner and other social ties such as family and friends influence migration intentions.

Keywords: Euroregion, graduate migration, highly skilled migration, human capital

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7195 Culture as an Intervening Variable While Assessing Japanese Influence on Vietnam: 1991-2018

Authors: Teresa Mili

Abstract:

The significance of political and economic factors have barely been neglected while assessing bilateral relations, but the significance of culture as a soft power in Japan-Vietnam relations has largely been understated. While the close ties had their birth ever since the 14th century, this paper sets out with an inductive lens to analyze the role of culture as a variable in bilateral relations. Vietnam, which then had a history of war devastation had taken refuge in Japan and later sought inspiration from Japan’s economy with the simultaneous influence of culture since Japan was a developed nation, and Vietnam a third world country. Evidencing facts with illustrations, the paper shows how the twenty-first century has brought a growing bond as well as the onset of stronger ties between the two states based, primarily, on an emerging convergence of interests and culture. The cultural influence of Japan may be seen much in the Vietnamese cities, through evidences like the growing numbers of Japanese items on sale. The variety in cultural influence may be seen through the acceptance of Japanese fashion trends, mange comic, pop music, cuisine, tourism, Japanese studies and language, the translations of Japanese literature which are very much popular at Vietnam. Using secondary sources as well as assessing travel accounts and official websites, this research work will try to find out how much Japanese culture has influenced Vietnam and whether such influences will be strong enough to qualify culture as an intervening variable in the bilateral relations.

Keywords: influence, culture, language, cold war

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